Reading and Student Achievement Research.. Campbell, J. R., Hombo, C. M., & Mazzeo, J. (2000)1999 Trends in Academic Progress: Three Decades of Student Performance Clark, C. & Rumbold, K. (2006). Reading for Pleasure: A Research Overview Cullinan, B. E. (2000) Independent Reading and School Achievement Haycock, K. (2003) The Crisis of Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Re-investment Krashen, S. D. (2004) The Power of Reading: Insights from the Research Lonsdale, M. (2003) Impact of School Libraries on Student Achievement: a Review of the Research (Australian report) OECD (2000) Reading for Change: Performance and Engagement Across Countries.
Reading andStudent Achievementreading for fun had a positiverelationship to average scores. At allthree ages (9, 13, 17 years), studentswho said they read for fun scoredhigher than peers who said they neverread for fun. Campbell, J. R., Hombo, C. M., & Mazzeo, J. (2000) 1999 Trends in Academic Progress: Three Decades of Student Performance
Reading andStudent AchievementStudents who read independentlybecome better readers, score higheron achievement tests in all subjectareas, and have greater contentknowledge than those who do not. Cullinan, B. E. (2000) Independent Reading and School Achievement
OE Reading for Change CDOne crucial factor that educationsystems can work on is the degree towhich students are active and wellmotivated readers. This report showsthat the degree to which students areengaged in reading is a crucial factorassociated with reading proficiency. OECD (2000) Reading for Change: Performance and Engagement Across Countries. Results form PISA 2000 (Executive summary)
OE Reading for Change CD-Read widely for a variety of purposes-Read regularly-And the extent to which they perceivedreading to be intrinsically valuable OECD (2000) Reading for Change: Performance and Engagement Across Countries. Results form PISA 2000 (Executive summary)
EngagementEngaged reading is a merger ofmotivation and thoughtfulness.Engaged readers seek to understand;they enjoy learning and they believe intheir reading abilities. They aremastery orientated, intrinsicallymotivated…’ Guthrie, J. T. (2000) ‘Contexts for Engagement and Motivation on Reading’
Definition of Engagement(OE CD) •How much time is spent in reading for enjoyment each day. •The frequency and variety of reading such as newspapers, emails and novels. •An attitude towards reading that it is enjoyable and an activity that readers would find hard to give up. OECD (2000) Reading for Change: Performance and Engagement Across Countries. Results form PISA 2000 (Executive summary): OECD - PISA (Program for International Student Assessment)
Csikszentmihalyi’s ‘Flow’ the mental manipulation of concepts; the positioning of thinking as pleasurable; the identification of the importance of patterns, likenesses, connectedness; the facilitation of concentration and involvement; the pursuit of an activity so pleasurable it is undertaken for its own sake. Csikentszentmihalyi, M. (1992) Flow: The Psychology of Happiness.
Student centredCreating classroom communities, providingchallenging tasks, and allowing students tomake choices characterise effective practicesthat connect to students’ interests andmotivations. Connecting to students’ interestsand values ultimately can produce motivated,engaged readers. Guthrie, John T. & Donna E Alvermann (1999) (editors) Engaged Reading: Process, Practices and Policy Implications.
Theory into practiceTeachers create contexts forengagement when they provideprominent knowledge goals, real-worldconnections to reading, meaningfulchoices about what, when, and how toread, and interesting texts that arefamiliar, vivid, important and relevant. Guthrie, J. T. (2000) ‘Contexts for Engagement and Motivation on Reading’
T E he nabling AdultWe can’t teach what we don’t know, so anyonewho doesn’t know how to enjoy readingliterature, thinking about it, and entering intodialogues about it shouldn’t try to teach thesepleasures. On the other hand, those of us whodo have these abilities need do nothing morethan figure out what we ourselves do in theprocess of enjoying literature and then deviseways of teaching children to do the same thing. Nodelman, P. (1996) The Pleasures of Children’s Literature
T E he nabling AdultTeachers who are passionate aboutreading talk about the importance ofreading in their lives, share their love ofbooks and language, read aloud favoritepoems, excerpts, and stories, andchoose books to share that theythemselves enjoy. La Marca and Macintyre (2006) Knowing Readers
T E he nabling Adult…communicates their passion for, andbelief in the value of reading by providingregular time for silent and serial readingand reading aloud in their classrooms. La Marca and Macintyre (2006) Knowing Readers
T E he nabling AdultThey enjoy listening to and reading students’responses and designing meaningful andpurposeful ways of supporting thinking andtalking about text. They demonstrate in subtleways, by the way they position reading in theirclassroom, what it means to them and theirstudents. La Marca and Macintyre (2006) Knowing Readers
T E he nabling Adult…model the negotiations that experiencedreaders do: predicting on the basis of what theyknow about the way texts work, what they knowabout the world, the way people behave, and soon, and then adjusting and modifying thesepredictions as the text progress. La Marca and Macintyre (2006) Knowing Readers
Access and ChoicePeople do not become committed readers ona diet of prescribed texts only, however wellchosen they may be…We cheerfully becomewilling readers when following our owninstincts and tastes. Chambers, A. (1991) The Reading Environment
TalkIn isolation, intrinsic motivational goals cannotsustain engagement in reading…Students whoare socially inclined, talk with their friends,share books, and discuss their writing aremost likely to become avid readers. Thus,motivations for reading cannot be consideredin isolation from their social and culturalcontexts. Guthrie and Anderson in Guthrie and Alvermann (1999) (editors) Engaged Reading
Text Centred Thematic UnitsSecondaryIn a modern worldWhat do these texts tell us aboutourselves and societies values?
Advertising cataloguesThe Simpsons television showSupersize Me (documentary film)The art of Andy Warhol, Edward Hooper, Munch.Youth Society pages – The AgeWho Weekly MagazineSo Yesterday & Uglies seriesThe Short and Incredibly Happy Life of RileyThe Singing HatThe Gospel According to LarryAffluenza: When Too Much is Never EnoughDon’t Eat this BookChew on this!Oryx and Crake