Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis


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Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis

  1. 1. Sigmund Freud: Neurologist and Psychiatrist Accessing the Unconscious: Censorship Within the Mind11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 1
  2. 2. A: Life and Times  Austrian physician, neurologist, and founder of psychoanalysis.  born in Freiberg (Czech Republic) of a middle class merchant family, moved to Vienna (Austria) because of Anti-Semitism  studied at the University of Vienna, initially Law, later Neurology, received medical degree in 1881  worked at the General Hospital of Vienna in the areas of psychiatry, dermatology, and started specializing on nervous diseases  became lecturer at the University of Vienna in 1885  was awarded a government grant to study nervous disorders and hysteria in Paris under Prof. Charcot, focusing on hypnosis11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 2
  3. 3. He developed a strong interest in psychological roots of physiological problems (psychosomatic, hysterical) and subconscious reactions. •started to do research on repressive processes, especially sexual instincts and repression •established private practice in Vienna in 1886 specializing in nervous diseases and neurological disorders paying particular attention to patient’s own accounts •published his breakthrough article on ―Psychoanalysis‖ in 1896, in which he outlines principles of psychoanalytical practice •published ―The Interpretation of Dreams‖ in 1900, featuring a three year self-experiment •was appointed Full Professor in 1902 and worked in ―splendid isolation‖ •founded International Psychoanalytic Association in 1910,11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 3
  4. 4.  became a renowned expert on psychiatry and psychoanalysis  wrote diligently, started applying his theories to the interpretation of religion, mythology, art, and literature. Among his other works are Totem and Taboo (1913), Ego and the Id (1923), Future of an Illusion (1927), Civilization and its Discontents (1930), New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (1933), and Moses and Monotheism (1939).  Developed cancer of the jaw in 1923, yet continued writing and studying  was forced to leave Vienna in 1938 because of the German Nazi invasion and emigrated to England. Predicted a blood bath in Europe  died in London in 193911/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 4
  5. 5.  Why did Freud abandon the method of hypnosis and replace it with "free association"? Freud discovered that only 60% of his patients responded to hypnosis, so he experimented with talk therapy, encouraging his patients to speak their thoughts randomly while he took notes. This tool was the foundation of psychoanalysis.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 5
  6. 6.  Freud believed that all neuroses (from the word neurosis) was a result of unresolved conflict in the unconscious. He first chose hypnosis as a seemingly foolproof method to locate the source of the conflict. The patient would both experience the trauma consciously along with resolving it with the help of the doctor. This would create  CATHARSIS:  A release of emotional tension, as after an overwhelming experience, that restores or refreshes the mind:  A technique used to relieve tension and anxiety by bringing repressed feelings and fears to consciousness.  The therapeutic result of this process– ABREACTION: The release of repressed emotions by acting out, as in words, behavior, or the imagination, the situation causing the conflict.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 6
  7. 7.  Free association-a spontaneous, logically unconstrained and undirected association of ideas, emotions, and feelings.  Freud developed this technique when he discovered that through the therapist’s persistence the patient could in his waking state recall all of the things which had before only been made accessible to him under hypnosis.  Similar to brainstorming, the patient spews out any random thought and the analyst records it.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 7
  8. 8.  Totally inaccessible except through hypnosis, dreams, free association and parapraxis (the first section of the book).  Parapraxis: A minor error, such as a slip of the tongue, thought to reveal a repressed motive. In modern parlance, we call them Freudian slips. (We will not be reading from that short section in the book.)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 8
  9. 9. AN IMAGE OF OUR INITIAL TERMS:MINDS  Conscious: the part of us that is aware  Preconscious: a part of the conscious-- includes our memories which are not conscious, but attainable via triggers.  Unconscious: the "part― (process) of the mind that stores repressed memories.  Repression defends the mind: some experiences are too painful so they are submerged. However, too much repression can cause mental disorders.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 9
  10. 10. What is "Resistance," how does it relate to unconscious processes, and how is it both beneficial and harmful?  Resistance: defined as the unconscious defense against awareness of repressed experiences in order to avoid the resulting anxiety  Repression (related concept): a device operating unconsciously to make the memory of painful or threatening events inaccessible to the conscious mind  This is discussed in ―The Censorship of Dreams‖, (Lecture IX)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 10
  11. 11. What are the two components of dream elements and what do they imply?  Manifest Dream Content: What the dream is about—the narrative of the dream  Latent Dream Thought: the symbolism within the dream— the dream’ s representation, the meaning- this is very difficult to understand-people don’t comprehend their dreams because they don’t know what their unconscious is revealing to them.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 11
  12. 12. Dreams are instigated by unconscious wishes; the wish fulfillment is the content of the dream . (see pg.158)  Children’s dreams are undisguised wish fulfillments— little difference in intent for children versus adults, but the process is altered. (see slide on children’s amnesia)  Children do not intuitively distort or censor their dreams as adults do. (see Lecture IX, also in Lecture VIII on Childhood Dreams)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 12
  13. 13.  The dream work of adult dreams, however, disguises wishes through distortion because:  Adults waking judgment recognizes these wishes as ―repulsive from the ethical, aesthetic or social point of view‖ (174)  ―These wishes, which are censored and given a distorted expression in dreams , are first and foremost manifestations of an unbridled and ruthless egoism‖ (175)  ―The ego freed from all ethical bonds [in a dream} finds itself at one with the demands of sexual desire [and hatred and revenge] even those which have long been condemned by our aesthetic upbringing and those which contradict the requirements of moral restraint‖  (175)  ―These evil wishful impulses arise from the past‖ (250)  Bluntly, adults cannot handle the truth within their dreams so they forget them, ignore them or don’t take them seriously after they awaken (perhaps the first few minutes in the waking state, they feel unnerved, but it passes.)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 13
  14. 14. Freud said that there had been three great humiliations in human history: Galileos discovery that we were not the center of the universe, Darwins discovery that we were not the crown of creation, and his own discovery that we are not in control of our own minds.  Modern people trace their problems to childhood traumas or repressed emotions. Freud discovered that emotions buried themselves They resurface disguised in dreaming.  These remembered fragments of dreams can help uncover the buried feelings.  Many people have derived insights into themselves from studying their dreams.  Many now consider dreams emotionally significant, unlike our ancestors who saw them either as divine portents or as the side-effects of indigestion.  Freud argues that those wishes are the result of repressed or frustrated instinctual desires.  The anxiety surrounding these desires turns some dreams into nightmares.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 14
  15. 15.  We don’t remember much of our life before the age of five, six, or eight  However a few well-preserved recollections mostly perceived in plastic form‖ do stand out—screen memories  If what we remember is what is important why are screen memories usually memories of commonplace or insignificant events?  Screen memories function like manifest dream elements  They are distorted by condensation and ―more especially‖ by displacement. (These are defense mechanisms developed as the child grows into adulthood—see Defense Mechanisms Slide)  They can be analyzed like a dream to extract the latent infantile experience; more evident in children, but distorted through complex symbolism in adult dreams11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 15
  16. 16.  We use associative techniques: we unconsciously choose symbols that correspond to our unconscious conflict. (185)  Freud calls symbols ―stable translations-they realize…the ideal of the ancient as well as the popular interpretation of dreams‖.(186)  Freud: ―If we are acquainted with ordinary dream symbols and…the dreamer’s personality‖- life circumstances, impressions that proceed the dream, we can interpret the dream straightaway.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 16
  17. 17.  First—Freud calls symbols comparisons. However ―not every with which we compare…appears in dreams as a symbol for it.‖ (187)  Some are obvious; some underlie an obscure replacement for the dreamer—the interpreter must find what Freud calls ―the common element‖—the metaphor. The dreamer may not see the relationship between the symbol and the interpretation, but that doesn’t mean it ceases to exist.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 17
  18. 18.  1. Male Genitals: the number 3 is seen as a ―sacred number‖ in Freud’s view.  Shape: umbrellas, posts, trees.  Characteristics (penetration): dagger, knives, spears, firearms—pistols, rifles, revolvers (particularly suitable in shape as well)  Function: fountains, watering cans, water- taps, extensible pencils, hammers, hanging lamps  Erection: balloons, planes, (Freud includes Zeppelin airships, now obsolete).When the dreamer flies in his dream, he is experiencing the essence of the male organ. Women who dream this, either want to experience sex with men or want to feel the sexual power that men possess through their organ.  Freud also notes that reptiles (snakes), clocks, hats and overcoats represent male genitals, even though he admits the symbolism is less obvious to the interpreter. All of this can be found on pages 190 to 192 in the text.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 18
  19. 19.  2. Female Genitals: objects that enclose a hollow space that can take something into itself. Examples: pits, cavities, hollows, bottles, receptacles, trunks, cases, poc kets, ships.  Uterus Symbols: stoves, cupboards, rooms, hou ses  Breast Symbols: apples, peaches, most fruit— some like figs, kiwis symbolize genitals.  Others (also symbolize love): jewel-case, treasure11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 19
  20. 20. Sweets represent sexual enjoyment.  Masturbation: playing sports, games, musical instruments—particularly piano playing, gliding, sliding, pulling off a branch,  Punishment for masturbation: losing a tooth or getting it pulled. This represents fear of castration.  Sexual dream images: dancing, riding, climbing—along with violent experiences: being run over, threatened with weapons, carpentry or any manual labor.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 20
  21. 21. Dream Distortion Mechanisms:1. Condensation2. Displacement3. Regression4. Symbolization (already explained) General Defense Mechanisms—in dream work and waking life (determined by the unconscious)1. Sublimation2. Projection3. Resistance/Repression (explained)4. Reaction Formation5. Intellectualization6. Denial(Definitions forthcoming)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 21
  22. 22. According to Freud, anxiety is an unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid. Freud identified three types of anxiety: Neurotic anxiety is the unconscious worry that we will lose control of the ids urges, resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior.  Reality anxiety is fear of real-world events. The cause of this anxiety is usually easily identified. For example, a person might fear receiving a dog bite when they are near a menacing dog. The most common way of reducing this anxiety is to avoid the threatening object.  Moral anxiety involves a fear of violating our own moral principles.  Symptoms of mental illness: These are ―acts detrimental…useless to the subject’s life, unwelcome and bringing suffering to him.‖ (445)  *In order to deal with these anxieties, Freud believed that defense mechanisms help shield the ego from the conflicts created by the id, superego, and reality. He also believed some patients chose to remain sick. 11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 22
  23. 23.  A facet of ―neurotic anxiety‖.(494-495)  Some are the irrational fear of certain objects: snakes, cats, mice, spiders, thun derstorms.  Some are more conceptual—fear of heights, fear of darkness, fear of closed spaces (claustrophobia), fear of open spaces (agoraphobia) fear of flying  Freud classifies all phobias as ―anxiety hysteria‖. (497) It is a problem with perception that can result in physical reactions (panic attacks, hives, rashes, sweating, hyperventilating.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 23
  24. 24.  Rationalization: the ego rationalizes what it cannot accept. It is similar to intellectualism; it argues for justification of actions—example: some people cannot apologize because their ego is too fragile to admit wrongdoing. Denial is characterized by having a conscious awareness at some level, but simply denies the reality of the experience by pretending it is not there.  An example: a child might intellectually know that his father has died but he may still wait for 5 o’clock, the usual time his father came home  As a defense mechanism, denial becomes more difficult to maintain as one matures. Its use requires much energy and the mind looks at other possibilities of defense11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 24
  25. 25.  Projection is attributing your own unacceptable impulses to someone else. The impulses are still judged unacceptable but they belong to someone else, not you.  The result is that you no longer feel threatened by ignoring an objectionable aspect of yourself.  Intellectualization is similar to rationalization, but instead of making an excuse for a problem, it turns the problem into a thought issue instead of an emotional one. The thoughts become prominent, but the emotions are buried under the research.  An example would describe a young woman who has been raped. Instead of dwelling on the emotional pain, she reviews all of the information, statistics and outcomes she can about rape. She learns how to deflect the possibility of rape, and may take self-defense classes. She may even teach this material to other women, to victims of abuse.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 25
  26. 26.  Regression involves a movement back in developmental time to when a person felt safe and secure. Often, that is childhood.  This explains why an older child will suddenly begin again to wet the bed or suck his thumb when the l new baby comes home.  A college student, away from home for the first time, may want to bring her teddy bear with her.  Conversely, that same college student would exhibit regression by throwing a tantrum.  A person who has suffered a difficult divorce or death of a spouse may want to revisit the home of his/her childhood – those tender years before pain overruled all other feelings.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 26
  27. 27.  Sublimation is the driving force behind human aggression.  A successful football linebacker may have a huge amount of anger that becomes useful when he is playing the game. That same person could direct his energies into a trade such as butcher in a meat market.  A person with a great need for order and security may become a business person or a scientist.  Freud perceived a great deal of sublimation operating in the literary and art worlds.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 27
  28. 28.  Displacement means the reassignment of some kind of aggression to a scapegoat to relieve the tension of the situation.  If a man has had a grueling day at work, he may go home and alleviate his tension by kicking the dog, or shouting at his wife. .Reaction formation goes a step further than projection to the point of not even acknowledging unwanted impulses or thoughts and convincing yourself you are not one of ―them‖ who do engage in those patterns. !  One example might describe a man who is secretly gay, but engages in many heterosexual affairs in deliberate attempts to disguise his homosexuality. He feels his secret is safe, cloaked in his outrageous promiscuous behavior.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 28
  29. 29.  Condensation, along with displacement, is an essential process in dream work and more generally in primary-process thinking. We tend to view it as a way of attributing, to a person or representative object, characteristics and properties that, from the point of view of latent thoughts, belong to other persons or objects.  Condensation, in, operates by bringing intensities together. When two chains of association intersect, it assigns to the common link the sum of the intensities of the two intersecting chains. This nevertheless indirectly alters the representation because, in the manifest content of the dream, a link will not figure if it does not retain an intensity. By displacing the intensities of several chains to their common link, condensation makes it possible to represent all of the chains by a single link. Hence, there is an economy of means that contributes to censorship. As a result, when one link takes the place of several chains, this makes it more difficult to read through to the wish corresponding to those chains.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 29
  30. 30.  Forms a part of Freud’s libido theory—the libido is energy attached to specific sexual instincts and objects.  Neurosis develops when the libido attaches itself to an unhealthy object that will end up causing a loss of psychic energy, fixation, possible perversion and disorders.  Narcissism was coined by Freud—based on the myth of Narcissus who fell in love with his own image in a pool of water. He died because he could never make any physical contact with his beloved.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 30
  31. 31.  Healthy narcissism: Self love, self- preservation, protecting the human being against threat to the ego and/ the body.. Eventually, the individual must learn to love others, find separate love objects in order to acquire mental stability.  Pathological Narcissism: The person becomes ill, as a result of a frustration, when he is unable to love any object beside himself/herself. This results in what Freud calls megalomania—the ego turns back on itself and ―this reflexive turning back is the source of the megalomania. (514) Such a person is incapable of loving others, and uses them for self-gain.  In modern parlance, we consider pathological narcissism to be a narcissistic disorder: a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and a lack of empathy _ DSM  The narcissist is described as turning inward for gratification rather than depending on others and as being excessively preoccupied with issues of personal adequacy, power, and prestige. Some call it "the God complex.―  Freud distinguishes egoism as the pursuit of self- advantage. Narcissism is libidinal; the person develops a love relationship with himself/herself as the love object. Thus the libido directs its energy, both sexual and mental onto the individual in question.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 31
  32. 32. Fixation: failure to progress adequately through the stages of libidinaldevelopment (the erogenous zones)—attachment to objects appropriate to earlystages. Fixated persons suffer frustrated wastes of energy because of their over-investmentin past objects. Susan E. Bertolino 32
  33. 33. 1. What are the three components of the psychic system, what are their functions, and how do they interact? EGO - perception, thinking, motor control to assess environment - defense mechanisms (repression, projection, reaction formation, patterns of behavior); directly opposed to the Id ID: instinctual impulses and unconscious needs, theses drives that must be controlled, at least postponed, otherwise chaos, violence SUPER EGO - command, voice of authority - built on parental authority, culture and socialization. If demands are not met, guilt and shame result (Develops after the Oedipal/Electra Complex is fulfilled in childhood.) Often the id is seen as evil because it contains our basest instincts and demands instant gratification. But the superego is just as lethal—both forces are unconscious and struggle to control the ego. When you hear people berating themselves or using the modal verb ―should‖, you can bet that they are highly superego driven.11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 33
  34. 34. 1. Earliest phases-  Sensual sucking, thumb sucking (386)  Anal erotism (388)2. From the third year of life, a child’s sexual life shows much agreement with an adult’s  The child finds his way from sucking to masturbation (389)  Her sexuality is loosely organized around a pre-genital stage: the sadistic-anal organization(406) At this second phase the sexual life of children differs from adults in the following way:  It lacks a firm organization under the primacy of the genitals  It’s polymorphously perverse  It’s far less intense than adult’s sexual life (405)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 34
  35. 35.  Evidence of the Oedipus complex occurring before latency around the age of five- direct observation of children (412-413)  Fifth stage of sexual development—successfully negotiating the Oedipus complex during puberty (418- 419)11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 35
  36. 36. Auto-erotic– deriving pleasure from self- stimulation Thumb sucking Defecation Masturbation Sexual impulses that have an object: Oedipus complex—the mother as the first love object11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 36
  37. 37. Operates in the third to fourth phase ofsexual development—fourth is the latencystageManifests itself in the third phase of sexualdevelopment Between the ages of three and five Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex is based on direct observation of children. Sophocles’ play Oedipus Tyrannus is similar in meaning to a dream: Both are fulfillments of ―evil‖ wishes which come from the prehistory of our childhood 11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 37
  38. 38. The Oedipus complex continues into the fourthphase of sexual life, puberty.(Later Freud called thisstage, latency as full puberty did not take place.) People who grow into healthy adults with a ―normal‖ sexuality successfully negotiate the Oedipus complex Detach themselves from parents. The son has to, Detach his libidinal wishes from his mother to a real outside love object (girls and later women outside the family) Reconcile himself with his father or free himself from his father’s pressure Neurotic people are people who do not successfully negotiate the Oedipus complex or who do so in less than an ideal manner 11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 38
  39. 39. Electra Complex:•This occurs in the phallic stage• it pertains to girls.• Girls develop penis envy:• they realize they do not have male genitals.• The male organ represents power to bothgirls and boys.• the boy fears castration• she discovers that she is already castratedat birth• she blames the mother for bringing her intothis world without a penis.•Her father becomes her love-object and “hermother becomes the object of her jealousy”•She sees the inferiority of her genderShe chooses her father as the love objectbecause of his superiority. 11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 39
  40. 40.  Perverse sexuality  Normal sexuality  Culturally  Culturally defined— defined— normal sexuality stays within the perversions bounds of that transgress the definition definition of normal  The ―perversion‖ is a Entirely exclusive prelude to or  of the sexual act temporary substitute for the sexual act (400)  Can result from Results from the the ―damming  successful repression back‖ of the or sublimation of normal sexual childhood current (384 polymorphous perversity  Social education to tame and control the sexual Social education to instincts hasn’t  control and center ―taken‖ or has sexuality around the taken in socially genitals has taken unacceptable (259, 386) ways  Fetishes—  Sexuality is between attachment to love a woman and a man—it will likely objects that are not result in children. appropriate for ―genital sex‖11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 40
  41. 41.  What’s the purpose of life (at least as humans have shown by their behavior)? To strive after happiness by seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.  The pleasure principle-seeking pleasure. Three obstacles to the pleasure principle  Our own body  The external world  Our relations to other humans  The reality principle  because of the obstacles to pleasure humans moderate their claims to happiness  A person thinks himself happy merely to have escaped unhappiness or to have survived his suffering. We live by these two principles: What do you think will happen if one takes precedence over the other? What conflicts (externally and within ourselves) can take place? 11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 41
  42. 42. ―When a human being has himself grown up. . . he is inpossession of greater strength, but his insight into theperils of lifehas also grown greater. . . he still remains just as helplessandunprotected as he was in his childhood. . . . Evennow, therefore,he cannot do without the protection which he enjoyed as achild …. Freud on adult relationships with parentsLater Freud writes:‖ Obscure, unfeeling and unlovingpowers determine men’s fate‖.According to Freud, the father is the child’s firstintroduction to power and authority. An unresolvedOedipal Complex will lead to a confused relationshipbetween father and son. We see this in Kafka’s writings.Look at how the son and the father try to communicate in―The Judgment‖Freud is famous for saying that God is nothing more thanan exalted father. Later he adds that this is evidence thatyoung people lose their faith in their religious beliefs oncethe authority of the father is torn down. 11/15/2008 Susan E. Bertolino 42