Heartbleed

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  • 1. Please Listen Carefully
  • 2. Heartbleed: Over 66% of websites are believed to be affected
  • 3. Web users, beware. There's a new security bug that has been discovered and is described to be "one of the greatest threats to ever surface the World Wide Web," according to The Clock Online.
  • 4. The bug, nicknamed Heart Bleed, was discovered on April 8, 2014 by Google and Codenomicon engineers, but has allegedly been around the Internet for about two years now.
  • 5. Heart Bleed poses a huge threat to consumers as it compromises sensitive personal consumer information and its attackers are untraceable.
  • 6. If you're buying something online and enter something as significant as your credit card number…
  • 7. Or if you are applying for a job online and enter personal information such as your address and social security number…
  • 8. Heart Bleed can gain access to all of that information.
  • 9. How does Heartbleed Work? It begins with the popular encryption software OpenSSL. OpenSSL is used all over the Internet to ensure user information is secured and encrypted. Heartbleed means that that information is now vulnerable.
  • 10. At the time of the discovery, Yahoo.com was the only major Internet Company to be affected by Heartbleed.
  • 11. FAQ
  • 12. What makes the Heartbleed Bug unique? This bug has left large amount of private keys and other secrets exposed to the Internet. Considering the long exposure, ease of exploitation, and attacks leaving no trace this exposure should be taken seriously.
  • 13. What does Heartbleed allow to leak? Encryption is used to protect secrets that may harm your privacy or security if they leak. In order to coordinate recovery, compromised secrets have been classified to four categories: 1) primary key material 2) secondary key material 3) protected content 4) collateral
  • 14. What is leaked primary key material? These are the crown jewels: the encryption keys themselves. Leaked secret keys allow the attacker to decrypt any past and future traffic to the protected services and to impersonate the service at will. Any protection given by the encryption and the signatures in the X.509 certificates can be bypassed.
  • 15. Primary key material Recovery Recovery from this leak requires patching the vulnerability, revocation of the compromised keys and reissuing and redistributing new keys. Even doing all this will still leave any traffic intercepted by the attacker in the past still vulnerable to decryption.
  • 16. What is leaked secondary key material? These are for example the user credentials (user names and passwords) used in the vulnerable services.
  • 17. Secondary key material Recovery Recovery from this leak requires owners of the service first to restore trust to the service. After this users can start changing their passwords and possible encryption keys. All session keys and session cookies should be invalidated and considered compromised.
  • 18. What is leaked protected content? This is the actual content handled by the vulnerable services. It may be personal or financial details, private communication such as emails or instant messages, documents or anything seen worth protecting by encryption.
  • 19. Protected content Recovery Only owners of the services will be able to estimate the likelihood what has been leaked and they should notify their users accordingly. Most important thing is to restore trust to the primary and secondary key material as described above. Only this enables safe use of the compromised services in the future
  • 20. What is leaked collateral? Leaked collateral are other details that have been exposed to the attacker in leaked memory content. These may contain technical details such as memory addresses and security measures such as canaries used to protect against overflow attacks.
  • 21. Collateral Recovery Collateral has only contemporary value and will lose their value to the attacker when OpenSSL has been upgraded to a fixed version.