Sps.final

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Sps.final

  1. 1. Presented by Surya Pratap Singh M.Sc. Life Sciences Central University of Gujarat
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Lysosomes discovered by the cytologist Christian de Duve in the 1960. • Lysosomes are spherical organelles that contain enzymes . They break up food so it is easier to digest. They are found in animal cells, while in yeast and plants . • Lysosomes are common in animal cells but rare in plant cells contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion.
  3. 3. STRUCTURES OF LYSOSOME
  4. 4. • Lysosomes are spherical structures bounded by a single unit membrane. • The size of lysosomes varies from 0.2 to 0.8 nm. • lysosomal membranes are sensitive to many labilizers and stabilizers
  5. 5. ENZYMES OF LYSOSOMES • Lysosomes are membrane enclosed compartments filled with soluble hydrolytic enzymes. • Lysosomes contain about 40 types of hydrolytic enzymes, including proteases, nucleases, glycosidases, lipases, phospolipases, phosphatases, and sulfatases. • Lysosome provides by maintanining a pH about 4.5 to 5.0.
  6. 6. LYSOSOMES ARE HETROGENEOUS • The hetrogeneity of lysosomal morphology contrasts with realatively uniform structures of most other cell organelles. • The late endosomes contain material received from both the plasma membrane by endocytosis and newly synthesized lysosomal hydrolases. • Late endosomes fuse lysosomes to form endolysosomes. with preexisting structures that
  7. 7. • Endolysosomes fuse and form lysosomes. • This reason lysosomes are sometimes view as a hetrogeneous.
  8. 8. PLANT AND FUNGAL VACUOLES ARE SIMILAR TO LYSOSOMES • Plant and fungal cells contain one or several very large fluid-filled vesicles called vacuoles. • It is related to animal cell lysosomes and contain a variety of hydrolytic enzymes. • The plant vacuole can act as a storage organelle for both nutrients and waste products. • The vacuole is important as a homeostatic device.
  9. 9. • All these hydrolytic enzymes are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum, and to some extent in cytoplasm are transported and processed through the Golgi apparatus. • Lysosomal enzymes are synthesized in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum, where they receive a mannose-6-phosphate tag that targets them for the lysosome. • If the lysosomal enzymes do not reach the target it causes inclusion-cell disease, resulting in accumulation of waste within these organelles
  10. 10. THE FUNCTION OF LYSOSOMES • A lysosome is a membrane bag containing digestive enzymes. • For digest food, the lysosome membrane fuses with the membrane of a food vacuole and squirts the enzymes inside. • The digested food can then diffuse through the vacuole membrane and enter the cell to be used for energy or growth. • Lysosomes are sometimes called "suicide bags’’
  11. 11. • Lysosomes are the cells' garbage disposal system. They are used for the digestion of macromolecules from phagocytosis. • Lysosome's pick up foreign invaders such as bacteria, food and old organelles and break them into small pieces that can hopefully be used again. • Autophagy may also lead to autophagic cell death, a form of programmed selfdestruction, or autolysis of the cell, which means that the cell is digesting itself.
  12. 12. CONCLUSION • Lysosmes are specialized for the intracellular digestion of macromolecules. • These enzymes work only at low pH (highly acidic) levels. • Uncontrolled release of lysosome contents into the cytoplasm can also cause cell death (necrosis).

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