EF2:Social polarisation, the labour market and economic restructuring: an urban perspective  PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN IDEAS
KEY THEMES LABOUR MARKETS ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING  SOCIAL POLARISATION MIGRATION POLICIES
Social polarisation <ul><li>Not an unitary phenomenon  it encompasses </li></ul><ul><li>different processes:   </li></ul><...
1. Economic transformation and effects on occupation structure <ul><li>From the ’70s: trends towards dualisation of workfo...
2. Spatial and contextual effects of social polarisation <ul><li>Spatially demarcated ‘ghettos’ of the rich and the poor i...
3. Employment restructuring <ul><li>Labour markets:   </li></ul><ul><li>Important determinants  </li></ul><ul><li>of socia...
3. Employment restructuring (II) Labour  market Changing occupational structure Supply skilled and unskilled workers Chang...
3. Employment restructuring (III) CONSEQUENCES of employment restructuring: 1.  Changes connections between workers and  l...
3. Employment restructuring (VI) <ul><li>4.  Casualisation:  </li></ul>Work precariousness becomes structural feature of E...
3. Employment restructuring (VI) <ul><li>Accelerated by an economic crisis    reduction in well-paid jobs </li></ul><ul><...
4.  Emergence of dualistic migration policies <ul><li>Increase of migration  flows  </li></ul><ul><li>to European cities d...
4.  Emergence of dualistic migration policies (II) <ul><li>Increase of undocumented migrants due to:  </li></ul><ul><li>Ti...
4.  Emergence of dualistic migration policies (II) Rich  global  cities <ul><li>Polarised </li></ul><ul><li>labour markets...
Conclusions Economic restructuring Polarised labour market Dualistic migration policies THREAT SOCIAL COHESION
Research recommendations <ul><li>1.   Need for comparative research on polarisation and </li></ul><ul><li>segregation in E...
Research recommendations (II) <ul><li>2.   Need of better understanding how social polarisation processes are structured i...
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Social polarisation

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Social polarisation

  1. 1. EF2:Social polarisation, the labour market and economic restructuring: an urban perspective PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN IDEAS
  2. 2. KEY THEMES LABOUR MARKETS ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING SOCIAL POLARISATION MIGRATION POLICIES
  3. 3. Social polarisation <ul><li>Not an unitary phenomenon it encompasses </li></ul><ul><li>different processes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Economic transformation and its effects on the occupational structure </li></ul><ul><li>2. Spatial and contextual effect of social </li></ul><ul><li> polarisation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Employment restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>4. Emerge of dualistic migration policies </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Economic transformation and effects on occupation structure <ul><li>From the ’70s: trends towards dualisation of workforce due to transition from Fordism to Post-Fordism </li></ul><ul><li>Clear empirical evidence comes form countries with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Weaker and less universalistic welfare state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Those who have experimented economic crisis </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Spatial and contextual effects of social polarisation <ul><li>Spatially demarcated ‘ghettos’ of the rich and the poor increases visibility of social disparities Consequences: </li></ul><ul><li>Labelling effects </li></ul><ul><li>Impoverishment of social ties </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on education and sill acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce labour market inequalities </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3. Employment restructuring <ul><li>Labour markets: </li></ul><ul><li>Important determinants </li></ul><ul><li>of social polarisation </li></ul>Key mechanism behind opportunities available to different social groups & <ul><li>BECAUSE they mediate between different elements: </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Employment restructuring (II) Labour market Changing occupational structure Supply skilled and unskilled workers Changing bargaining strategies Immigrant & local individuals Formal & informal economies
  8. 8. 3. Employment restructuring (III) CONSEQUENCES of employment restructuring: 1. Changes connections between workers and labour markets 2. Labour market deregulation changes in the relationship between formal and informal economies 3. Severe inequalities in access to employment
  9. 9. 3. Employment restructuring (VI) <ul><li>4. Casualisation: </li></ul>Work precariousness becomes structural feature of European labour markets Employment shifts from full time and permanent to higher levels of causal positions
  10. 10. 3. Employment restructuring (VI) <ul><li>Accelerated by an economic crisis  reduction in well-paid jobs </li></ul><ul><li>provokes a cascading process of reducing social mobility: </li></ul><ul><li>It can push entire segments of the population out of the labour market </li></ul><ul><li>It restricts the growth of the advanced producer service </li></ul><ul><li>It pushes temporary workers out of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>It reduces the capacity of the state to intervene </li></ul>Casualisation
  11. 11. 4. Emergence of dualistic migration policies <ul><li>Increase of migration flows </li></ul><ul><li>to European cities due </li></ul><ul><li>to: </li></ul><ul><li>economy growth last </li></ul><ul><li>decade </li></ul><ul><li>demand for low-paid labour </li></ul><ul><li>economic situation in </li></ul><ul><li>migrant’s countries </li></ul><ul><li>lower costs of international </li></ul><ul><li>transport </li></ul><ul><li>- War refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Asylum seekers </li></ul><ul><li>Family reunification </li></ul><ul><li>Labour migrants </li></ul><ul><li>Undocumented migrants </li></ul>
  12. 12. 4. Emergence of dualistic migration policies (II) <ul><li>Increase of undocumented migrants due to: </li></ul><ul><li>Tightening of legal and administrative requirements and legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by a dual approach orientated to reinforce labour market segregation </li></ul>
  13. 13. 4. Emergence of dualistic migration policies (II) Rich global cities <ul><li>Polarised </li></ul><ul><li>labour markets </li></ul><ul><li>that need: </li></ul><ul><li>highly skilled </li></ul><ul><li>migrants </li></ul><ul><li>low skilled </li></ul><ul><li>migrants </li></ul><ul><li>European governments: </li></ul><ul><li>give preference to high skilled migrants </li></ul><ul><li>refuse to recognise need for low skilled migrants </li></ul>Dualistic nature of migration policies
  14. 14. Conclusions Economic restructuring Polarised labour market Dualistic migration policies THREAT SOCIAL COHESION
  15. 15. Research recommendations <ul><li>1. Need for comparative research on polarisation and </li></ul><ul><li>segregation in European cities focusing on: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and employment restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial differentiation and its effects on social polarisation and cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Dualistic nature migration policies </li></ul>
  16. 16. Research recommendations (II) <ul><li>2. Need of better understanding how social polarisation processes are structured in different cities, putting special emphasis on Eastern and Southern areas </li></ul><ul><li>3. There are 2 issues that deserve special attention: </li></ul><ul><li>- Economic role, situation and integration of migrants </li></ul><ul><li>- Impact of economic recession on urban labour markets and on social cohesion </li></ul>
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