EF9: Super Diversity, Multiple
Identities and Place
PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN
IDEAS
Index
• Key themes
• Diversity, multiple identities and social cohesion
• Main sociopolitical changes in Europe
• Public a...
KEY THEMES
INCREASED
DIVERSITY
HOW TO FOSTER
SOCIAL
COHESION?
MIGRATION
FLOWS
MULTIPLE
IDENTITITES
Diversity, multiple identities and
social cohesion
+
diversity of
people
Increasing flows of:
People
Information
Goods
Sup...
Diversity, multiple identities and
social cohesion (II)
Superdiversity the city of diversity is
characterised by fragmenta...
Diversity, multiple identities and
social cohesion (III)
Theory says:
Improvement
of social cohesion
Integration of divers...
Diversity, multiple identities and
social cohesion (IV)
But in reality, it is not so easy because
several elements interac...
Main sociopolitical changes in Europe
Diversity, identity and social cohesion need to be examined
with relation to changes...
Public and academic debates
Political & social changes changes in the attitudes
towards newcomers.
1945- 80’s Early 90’s L...
Public and academic debates (II)
BUT many elements are not considered in these
debates:
• Socioeconomic background, gender...
Policy approaches towards diversity
Common framework:
International and European Conventions
+
EU directives
BUT
No unifor...
Policy approaches towards diversity
(II)
A) Approaches to diversity having cultural
diversity as the focus:
Vs.Multicultur...
Policy approaches towards diversity
(III)
B) Approaches to diversity (Glastra, 1999):
•Deficit approach: it reduces differ...
Policy approaches towards diversity
(IV)
C) Approaches according to the target group:
•General social policy: general meas...
Policy approaches towards diversity
(V)
D) Territorial approaches:
•Area based approach: development of
measures in urban ...
Policy approaches towards diversity
(VI)
In conclusion:
There are many approaches and policy answers
to different dilemmas...
Previous research, gaps and
recommendations
Many research has been conducted. Some
addressed topics are:
•Social exclusion...
Previous research, gaps and
recommendations (II)
Some gaps being found:
•How is “the other” constructed? Identity
building...
Previous research, gaps and
recommendations (III)
Recommendations for the future:
•Diversity and identity should be approa...
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Diversity power point

  1. 1. EF9: Super Diversity, Multiple Identities and Place PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN IDEAS
  2. 2. Index • Key themes • Diversity, multiple identities and social cohesion • Main sociopolitical changes in Europe • Public and academic debates on diversity and integration • Policy approaches towards diversity • Previous research, gaps and recommendations
  3. 3. KEY THEMES INCREASED DIVERSITY HOW TO FOSTER SOCIAL COHESION? MIGRATION FLOWS MULTIPLE IDENTITITES
  4. 4. Diversity, multiple identities and social cohesion + diversity of people Increasing flows of: People Information Goods Super diversity Visible in cities, with more diversity and multiple identities
  5. 5. Diversity, multiple identities and social cohesion (II) Superdiversity the city of diversity is characterised by fragmentation and division. So: How can social cohesion in cities be fostered within this framework?
  6. 6. Diversity, multiple identities and social cohesion (III) Theory says: Improvement of social cohesion Integration of diverse groups, sharing common norms, values, aims, principles and codes of behaviour
  7. 7. Diversity, multiple identities and social cohesion (IV) But in reality, it is not so easy because several elements interact: Diversity Identity Place
  8. 8. Main sociopolitical changes in Europe Diversity, identity and social cohesion need to be examined with relation to changes occurred in Europe in the past decades: 1. Demographic changes: migration, ageing… 2. Technological changes: internet, globalisation. 3. Political changes: EU enlargement. 4. Political climate: change of relations between local people-migrants; fear of migration, incidents of violence, issues of diversity and identity internal security issue.
  9. 9. Public and academic debates Political & social changes changes in the attitudes towards newcomers. 1945- 80’s Early 90’s Late 90’s - Political commitment to democracy - Impulse to think inclusively - Concentration on cultural diversity for the integration of migrants BUT - Cultural difference is not equally understood across Europe - The leading principle on integration is citizenship - Focus on the active citizenship of ethnic minorities - ‘New realism’: ethnic minorities are expected to learn the language and adopt norms and values of the society. - Integration understood as a question of identity.
  10. 10. Public and academic debates (II) BUT many elements are not considered in these debates: • Socioeconomic background, gender, age, language, etc. are not considered when approaching identity and diversity. • Cultural diversity is approached negatively, not as an opportunity • The danger of using cultural dichotomies in the approach of integration, which may impede social cohesion. • The construction of difference may stigmatise and exclude a group for decades.
  11. 11. Policy approaches towards diversity Common framework: International and European Conventions + EU directives BUT No uniform implementation into national legislation or policies; several approaches.
  12. 12. Policy approaches towards diversity (II) A) Approaches to diversity having cultural diversity as the focus: Vs.Multiculturalism Monoculturalism
  13. 13. Policy approaches towards diversity (III) B) Approaches to diversity (Glastra, 1999): •Deficit approach: it reduces differences between the dominant group and the other groups •Discrimination approach: it focuses on prejudices, ethnic discrimination and exclusion. •Differentiation approach: it takes difference as the point of departure.
  14. 14. Policy approaches towards diversity (IV) C) Approaches according to the target group: •General social policy: general measures and programs without taking ninto account specific group characteristics. •Target group policy: programs and measures focusing particular groups. Positive measures.
  15. 15. Policy approaches towards diversity (V) D) Territorial approaches: •Area based approach: development of measures in urban areas with an important concentration of migrants/ethnic minorities. But then, migrants living in areas not known as concentration areas may not benefit, despite being the majority in many cases.
  16. 16. Policy approaches towards diversity (VI) In conclusion: There are many approaches and policy answers to different dilemmas BUT THE IDEAL ONE YET HAS TO BE FOUND!
  17. 17. Previous research, gaps and recommendations Many research has been conducted. Some addressed topics are: •Social exclusion and integration •Strategies on Intercultural dialogue •Pathways to social exclusion for immigrants in different types of cities •Role of housing systems concerning social cohesion
  18. 18. Previous research, gaps and recommendations (II) Some gaps being found: •How is “the other” constructed? Identity building. •The impact of space and place on identity. •The multidimensional and multiscalar nature of diversity. •Relation of individual life courses of diversity with social inclusion.
  19. 19. Previous research, gaps and recommendations (III) Recommendations for the future: •Diversity and identity should be approached as multidimensional concepts. Need for clarifying its meanings. •Rethinking the concept of full citizenship to include equality and diversity. •Exchange of best practices of policy approaches towards cultural diversity.
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