..Nausean vomiting


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..Nausean vomiting

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  2. 2. Nausea and vomiting are symptoms of an underlying disease and not a specific illness. <br />Nausea is the sensation that the stomach wants to empty itself, while vomiting (emesis) or throwing up, is the act of forcible emptying of the stomach.<br />Vomiting is a violent act in which the stomach has to overcome the pressures that are normally in place to keep food and secretions within the stomach. The stomach almost turns itself inside out - forcing itself into the lower portion of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) during a vomiting episode. <br />
  3. 3. Vomiting is a forceful action accomplished by a fierce, downward contraction of the diaphragm muscle. At the same time, the abdominal muscles tighten against a relaxed stomach with an open gastroesophageal sphincter. The contents of the stomach are propelled up and out.<br />As part of a bodily reflex, you may produce more saliva just before vomiting.<br />Vomiting is a complex, coordinated reflex orchestrated by the vomiting center of the brain. <br />
  4. 4. It responds to signals coming from:<br />The mouth, stomach, and intestines<br />The bloodstream, which may contain medicines or infections<br />The balancing systems in the ear (motion sickness)<br />The brain itself, including unsettling sights, smells, or thoughts<br />
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  6. 6. There are numerous causes of nausea and vomiting. These symptoms may be due to the following:<br />Viral infections<br />Medications<br />Seasickness or motion sickness<br />Migraine headaches<br />Morning sickness during pregnancy<br />Food poisoning<br />Food allergies<br />
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  8. 8. Intravenous fluids may be provided to correct this issue. <br />There are a variety of anti-nausea medications (antiemetics) that may be prescribed. <br />Antihistamines appear to dull the inner ear’s ability to sense motion. They “block” messages to the part of the brain that controls nausea and vomiting.<br />
  9. 9. Common medications used to control nausea and vomiting include :<br />promethazine (Phenergan),<br />prochlorperazine (Compazine),<br />droperidol (Inapsine),<br />metoclopramide (Reglan), <br />ondansetron (Zofran).<br /> <br />
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  11. 11. The diagnostic test that doctor do are :<br />Blood Tests - to assess whether the electrolyte balance in the body has been disturbed due to dehydration from continued vomiting.<br />Urine Tests - associated with dehydration as the kidneys try to hold on to water in the body. Ketones in the urine are also a sign of dehydration.<br />
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  13. 13. To prevent nausea <br />Avoid substances or activities that are known to produce nausea, such as drinking alcohol. <br />If you have motion sickness in a boat or automobile, it is often helpful to focus on a stationary object on the horizon. Move to the top and middle of the boat and focus on the horizon or aisle seat in an airplane where there is less side to side movement. Sit in a car (front seat) or train facing forward to keep your eyes and ears sensing the same thing. Look into the distance. <br />Over-the-counter medications such as Dramamine may help prevent motion sickness.<br />
  14. 14. To prevent vomiting<br />Vomiting is a normal reflex in many situations but can become excessive as the result of severe nausea. Sip small amounts of clear fluid and rest in a calm environment. <br />
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  16. 16. It is important to rest the stomach and yet still avoid dehydration. <br />Clear fluids should be attempted for the first 24 hours of an illness, and then the diet should be advanced as tolerated.<br />Clear fluids are easy for the stomach to absorb and include:<br />water, <br />sports drinks, <br />clear broths, <br />popsicles, and <br />Jello. <br />
  17. 17. It is important not to take too much fluid at one time since stretching the stomach may cause the nausea to worsen. <br />One to two ounces of fluid at a time, taken every 10-15 minutes, may be all that the stomach will be able to tolerate.<br />Milk products should be avoided for the first 24-48 hours during an episode of nausea and vomiting. <br />The enzyme that helps digest milk is located in cells lining the stomach. <br />With vomiting, the body can become relatively lactose intolerant. <br />Abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea may occur.<br />