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Your (urban) or not (rural) but our poverty in india
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Your (urban) or not (rural) but our poverty in india

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  • 1. S.Suresh Ramanan TECH54141 Forest College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Mettupalayam
  • 2. Definition Planning Commission Poverty Line- based on Nutritional Requirement Urban Poverty- 2100 cal/person/ day Rural Poverty- 2400 cal/ person/ day  Poverty is multidimensional: it includes inadequate food, shelter, health, education; vulnerability to disease, dislocation, disaster; and often mistreatment by state and society  Poverty has various dimensions Education poor Income poverty Security poverty Education poverty Health Poor Health Poverty Core Poor Multiple deprivation Security Poor Income Poor
  • 3. Comparison of Urban and Rural Poverty Urban Poverty • 25% of Urban Population are below poverty Line • This is prevalent during all the time • Major reason for other social Problem Rural Poverty  Here poverty is not due to external reasons but to the failure of the Agriculture  It is raise it head only during particular season  This only contribute for the Urban Poverty by Migration of Rural population to cities with poor facility.
  • 4. Glimpse  People in poorest class category of India? – Tribal people, Dalits and labour class including farm workers in villages and casual workers in cities  Where do the majority of poor live in India? – 60% of the poor still reside in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. A 2013 UN report stated that a third of the worlds poorest people live in India
  • 5. Causes for Poverty • • • • • • • • • • Increasing middle class population Low Productivity in Agriculture National Capital Depletion Poor Schemes to stop migration of Rural population to urban Alcoholism Poor Sanitation conditions Land lockedness of particular area Money lenders – Termite of the rural economy Need for women Empowerment Unequal Distribution Corruption of Income Rich are getting richer and poor are still poor
  • 6. Population, total (2010) 1,170,938,000.0 Population growth (annual %) (2010) 1.3 Population density (people per sq. km) (2010) 393.8 Rural population (2010) 818,485,662.0 Rural population (% of total population) (2010) 69.9 Number of rural poor (million, approximate) (2010) Poverty headcount ratio at rural poverty line (% of rural population) (2005) Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty line (% of population) (2005) Income share held by lowest 20% (2005) 231,631,442.3 28.3 27.5 8.1
  • 7. Stop Migration A large part of migration and urbanization in the less developed countries have historically been linked to stagnation and volatility of agriculture and lack of sectoral diversification within agrarian economy, India being no exception to this • Out of about 98 million, total intra-state and inter-state migrants in the country during last decade, 61 million have moved to rural areas and 36 million to urban areas. • Migration stream out of rural areas(73 million) to another rural areas was quite high (53million) in comparison to from rural to urban areas (20 million). • The difference between in – migration and out – migration, in each state, Maharashtra -2.3 million net migrants, • Delhi (1.7 million), Gujarat (0.68 million) and Haryana (0.67 million) as per census‟. Education is Important to not only mitigate poverty But Also MIGRATION
  • 8. At 833.1 million, India's rural population today is 90.6 million higher than it was a decade ago. But the urban population is 91 million higher than it was in 2001. Above said Solution : Agriculture is not a single man‟s effect but a group So when main categories migration of Labour • There are threethere is increased of urban poverty: the this will lead to reduction in Agriculture and its alliedmigrants; and, the chronic poor • unemployed and laid-off workers; activities. including the three Mainly deals about the Food Security of India, there by reducing the • „No‟s‟ (no ability to work, no savings and no relatives to depend on) Food Poverty of India. (DFID,Security act does the same thing but this will be effective only Food 2004). when the Total Migrants -1991 Total Migrants -2001 Comparison Table Persons Males Females Persons Males Females 232.11 167.8 314.54 93.36 221.18 “Farmers grow crops, 64.31 For which 129.66 Labour should 166.53 Farm 210.38 be Rural Million 162.47 32.81 43.85 sccv Million there49.52 Help” to Urban 69.65 31.5 38.14 104.16 54.65 Total Million
  • 9. Motivate Agriculture • Agricultural growth reduces poverty directly, by raising farm incomes, and indirectly, through generating employment and reducing food prices. Ligon, Ethan, and Elisabeth Sadoulet. 2007. Agricultural growth is especially effective in reducing poverty. Cross-country econometric estimates show that overall GDP growth originating in agriculture is, on average, at least twice as effective in benefiting the poorest half of a country‟s population as growth generated in non-agricultural sectors Source: State Agricultural Report
  • 10. • In Today‟s Climate change Era – Agricultural is the gamble of Above said Solution : monsoon. - It was the statement decade ago Mainly deals about the Food cultivation is donethere by reducing the • Now, Commercial Tree Security of India, along with agricultural Foodcrop to make agriculture as profitable business. Poverty of India. • Food Security act does the same thing but this willroleeffective only TOF – Benefit both Productive and Protective be when the “Farmers grow crops, For which Farmers should be there” TOFThis is widely practiced in southern India Trees Outside Forest
  • 11. Involvement of Youth • Above said are only answers for the problem But real solution lies in the hand of youth • The are about 53 Agricultural University in the Country- The where are the agriculturist from these university. • The Youth of the rural areas must not get distracted by the false notion of the Urban Live Apart from this Citizens of INDIA should effectively utilize the Following governmental program and help the country to get out of Poverty
  • 12. Steps to Solve from GOVT side Urban Areas • PMRY- Prime Minister Rojgar Yojana • SJSRY- Swarnajaya Shahri Rozgar Yojana • NSAP- National Social Assistance Programme • IAY- Indira Awaas Yojana • SSY- Shiksha Sahayog Yojana Rural Area • GSY- Gram Swarozgar Yojana • EAS- Employment Assurance Schemes • MNREGS • FWP- Food for Work Programme • KSSY- Krishi Shramik Suraksha yojana • JGSY- Jawahar Gram Samriddhi Yojana
  • 13. Steps to Solve from GOVT side • These include various employment guarantee programmes such as National Rural Employment Programme, Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme etc. Recently, Government has initiated National Rural Employment Guarantee Program (NREGP). As per NREGP, the government will provide 100 days of employment per year to whosoever is willing to work. NREGP is considered as a landmark program in poverty alleviation measures. Even Government Schemes also aims at providing minimum employment to lift Food Poverty.
  • 14. References: • Urban Poverty Alleviation, (2002) “Preparation for Istanbul+5 for Asia and the Pacific”, 19 – 23 October, Paper, Hangzhou, People‟s Republic of China, • CARE, MSDF and ICICI bank, “A promise to Pay the Bearer – an exploration of the potential for Urban Micro finance in India”, Microfinance India Publicaiton. • http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/country/home/tags/india • http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/migrations.aspx • http://urbanruralfabric.blogspot.in/ • http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/reports/map.aspx