Nep  Final Extreme
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Nep  Final Extreme Nep Final Extreme Presentation Transcript

  • Despite growth, India cannot provide service to its poor
    • Team Extreme
  • Economic Growth
    • Economic growth means an increase in the output of goods and services produced in a country over a period of time, thereby increasing the national income and per capita income
  • Poor
    • A person is called poor if he has no
      • money
      • goods
      • other means of support
  • Parameters
    • Education
    • Safe water
    • Agriculture and drought prone areas
  • Contd..
    • Poverty
    • Inequality in income
    • Child labor
    • Sanitation and health
  • Literate
      • In the census enumeration, ‘a person, who can read and write with understanding in any language, is treated as literate. The person may or may not have received any formal education’.
      • So if we see as per census the literacy rate is 62%
  • Functional literacy
    • A person is functionally literate who can engage in all those activities in which literacy is required for and also for enabling him or her to continue to use reading, writing and do calculation.
    • As per Functional literacy rate is 40%
  • Illiterate
    • Illiterate is a person who is not capable of reading and writing. Poverty happens to be the single most important factor contributing to the high illiteracy rate in India
    • Family background also leads to illiteracy
  • Annual Status of Education Report (ASER 2005 & ASER 2006)
    • ½ of I std cannot recognize alphabets or numbers
        • After 5 months, other ½ can recognize but not able to read
    • ½ of III std can read a std I level text
        • Can solve a subtraction with borrowing
      • ½ of V std can read a std II text fluently
      • ½ of V std can solve a division sum of 3 digit by 1 digit
  • Problems in rural school
    • Lack of blackboards
    • Inadequate classrooms
    • No drinking water facilities
    • Lack of teaching staff
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  • Safe Water
  • Safe Drinking Water
    • 55,067 villages face the problem of access to safe water
    • Women and children are more affected
    • According to the data received from State Governments based on a survey undertaken in 2000
    • 2,16,968 habitations are affected due to a variety of water quality problems with the following break-up
    Source: Department of Drinking Water Supply, M/o Rural Development
  • Contd..
    • Rural development and Engineering department has tested the water samples in rural areas on a massive scale and it was found that more than 40% of samples are unfit for drinking purposes. Important pollutants are excess fluoride, excess iron, excess Nitrate and higher dissolved solids (Brackish water) etc.,
  • Contd..
      • excess fluoride - > 10.5%
      • excess iron - > 12.0%
      • excess Nitrate - > 08.0%
      • higher dissolved solids - > 08.0%
    • In India more than 66 Million people consuming ground water, which more than un-safe level of fluorides
  • Contd..
    • More than 30 Million people are consuming ground water having higher level of Arsenic
    • 20% to 30% infectious diseases are from Microbial contamination of water
    Source: indiawaterportal.org
  • Diseases caused due to contaminated water
    • Diarrhea diseases
    • Malaria
    • Protein-energy malnutrition
  • Crippling Fluorosis – In Dhar District Source: indiawaterportal.org
  • Source: indiawaterportal.org
  • Agriculture
  • Farmer Suicides
  • Facts
    • 14000 in 1999 increased to 18000 in 2006
    • Rate of 14.2% to 15%
    • Suicide 43.9% out of which 64% were farmers
    • Maharastra,TN, AP, UP, KA
    Source: thehinduonline.com
  • Loans
    • Corruption
    • Illegal proof
    • Debt trap
    • Delay in sanction
  • Contd..
    • High interest
    • Submission of form
    • Less number of financial institution
  • Cultivation cost
    • Subsidies
      • fertilizer
      • Loan
    • Pesticides
      • Black market
    • Seeds
    Source: A.Sugumaran, Customs & Central Excise,Chennai
  • contd..
    • Seeds
      • Insects
      • Lack of advance technology
      • Improper research center
  • Irrigation
    • Monsoon
    • Ground water
    • Bore well
    • Setup cost
    • Improper distribution of water
    • Delay in distribution
  • Power supply
    • Installation cost
    • Low supply
  • Procurement
    • Lower than market value
    • Middleman
    • Private vendors
    • No proper storage facility
    • Labour insufficiency
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  • POVERTY As a situation where an individual is unable to earn sufficient income to purchase the bare minimum means of subsistence
  • POVERTY LINE
    • As per THE SIXTH FIVE YEAR PLAN:
    • The nutrition required is 2400 calories per person per day in rural area and 2100 calories in urban areas
  • VICIOUS CIRCLE OF POVERTY
  • MEASURING POVERTY IN INDIA
    • Consumer expenditure surveys conducted by NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY (NSS) organization
    • Population- weighted average of the poverty measures for urban and rural areas of major states
    • Urban and rural poverty lines developed by India’s Planning commission (1979)
  • ECONOMETRIC MODEL OF POVERTY IN INDIA
    • Real non-agricultural product per head
    • Average farm productivity
    • State development spending
    • Inflation rate
    • Dummy variable for states
  • INEQUALITY
    • Reducing inequalities income & wealth
    • The gap between rich & poor
    • Urban – Rural gap widened
  • Evolution of Inequality
  • Evolution of Poverty
  • Poverty Incidence
  • Gini
  • Gini Rural
  • RURAL SECTOR LAGGING
    • The importance of rural economic growth, and agriculture growth in particular, to poverty reduction in India has long been recognized
    • Agriculture as a whole has lagged the non-agriculture sector even today
    • While India aggregate GDP grew at the rate of 6.7 percent per annum over the period 1993-94 -2000-01, agriculture and allied services grew at only 3.2 percent per annum
  •  
  • Over 20% of the country’s GNP is contributed by
  • A child labour…
    • is under the age of 14
    • receives extremely little or no pay
    • is controlled by violence or other threats
    • has no option to leave the situation
    • has no access to education or health care
    Source: BBC
  • Sector Source:Indiatogether.org
  • Legal minimum ages for different types of work in selected countries Source: Combating child labor,ILO, Geneva Source: UNICEF
  • Many states have child populations similar to large countries Population: 1,027 million Children 0-18: 380 million (37%) India : The scale of things... Uttar Pradesh Bihar Maharastra Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Rajasthan Karnataka Gujarat Orissa Kerala Assam Pakistan Bangladesh Iran Vietnam Philippines Ethiopia Zaire Thailand Myanmar Tanzania Sudan Canada Iraq 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 Child population in millions
  • Child Labour
      • 5% of children aged 5 -14 years in India work as child labourers working for someone else
    Source: Census 2 2 2 2 3 4 5 8 15 18 0 5 10 15 20 Madhya Pradesh Punjab Kerala Uttar Pradesh Bihar Orissa India Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh % of children aged 5-14 years working for someone else
  • General Pattern of Child Labour
    • Bonded child labour
    • Agricultural sector
    • Street work
  • Bonded child labour
    • 10 million as house servant
    • Agriculture, Mining, Brick-kilns, Construction work, Bidi-making (cigarettes), Gem-cutting and Polishing work, Electroplating, Dyeing, Washing and Domestic work
    • 20 percent of these bonded child labourers were sold
    Source: Dr. G. Varandani, Child Labour and Women Workers Source: UNICEF
  • Agricultural sector
    • More than 50%
  • Street work Source: Child Labour Cell, Street Children of Madras - A situational Analysis , (Study conducted by Joe Arimpoor), National Labour Institute, Noida, Ghaziabad, U.P.
  • Street work
    • Rs.100 per month
    • Local police & Municipal cleaners
    • Staff members of the municipality(Bangalore)
    Source: Ibid, p. 52.
  • Some most hazardous form of child labour in the manufacturing sector of India
  • Glass Factory
    • Firozabad, Agra district of Uttar Pradesh
    • 50,000 children below the age of 14
    • Carrying molten glass on a seven-foot iron rod called labya
    • Children’s faces – furnaces were burning at 1500-1800 centigrade
    Source: Burra Neera, Born to work, Child Labour in India, p. 42-3.
  • Match Factory
    • More than seven decades
    • Total labour force 200,000 of which 35% are children
    • 14 hours a day including National Holiday
    Source: Child Labour Cell, Child Labour in the Match Industry of Sivakasi, p. 12.
  • Carpet Industry
    • Increased from 100,000 in 1975 to 300,000 in 1990
    • 420,000 child labourers
    • Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh & villages in Bihar-kidnapped from their poverty
    • Labour-intensive(Age of five, made to work for 20 hours a day )
    Source: UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children 1997, p. 68. Source: Janet Hilowitz, Labelling Child Labour Products, A Preliminary Study, p. 15. Source: Nazir Ahmad Shah, Child Labour in India , p. 105.
  • Brass Industry
    • 40,000-45,000 children are employed
    • Moulding-15000 children are employed
    • Temperature in the furnace is about 1100 centigrade
    • 600 box furnace workshops
    • No child under 14 was paid more than 200 rupees per month, irrespective of the type and duration of the work
    Source: Burra Neera, Born to work, Child Labour in India , p. 168.
  • Lock Industry
    • Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh
    • 60 percent of the workers
    • Children do polishing, electroplating, spray painting and working on hand presses
    • 12-14 hours a day
    • Exhaustion causes accidents
    Source: Child Labour Cell, Child Labour in the Lock Industry of Aligargh, p. 10.
  • Electroplating & Polishing
    • More than 70 percent of workers are children below the age of 14 years
    • Work with naked hands in dangerous chemicals
    • Power cut
    Source: Ibid, p. 8.
  • Spraying
    • 50 per cent of the workforce
    • Inhale large quantities of paint and paint thinners
    • leading to severe chest disorders. They suffer from breathlessness fever, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, and pneumoconiosis
  • Number 1
    • There is no product that has not been scented by the sweat of a child labourer. India today has earned the dubious distinction of having the highest child labour force in the world.
    Source: Joe Arimpoor, "Profile of the Child Worker", Social Action
  • Why does it exists ?
    • Poverty : Children who live in extreme poverty are most susceptible to enslavement
    • Tradition: Some parents view their children as property over which they have the right to control
    • Control: Children are attractive labour because they are easier than adults to manipulate and control
  • Contd..
    • Cheap and Replaceable: Overpopulation in some regions mean there is an abundant supply of children who are available as labour
    • Physical Size: Because they are smaller than adults, child slaves are more desirable for certain tasks such as weaving rugs
  • Child Labour Poll
  • What can we do?
    • 1.Educate yourself about Child Labour
    • 2.Contact local, state, and national
    • politicians for support against Child Labour
      • -Write letters asking for their opinion on
      • Child Labour
    • 3.Talk to your parents about Child Labour
      • -Educate the adults in your life!
    • 4.Advocate for Child Labour awareness!
      • -Begin a social awareness/ human rights club.
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  • Health Sector
    • Birth Rate : 22.69/1,000 population
    • Death Rate : 6.58/1,000 population
    • IMR : 34.61/1,000 population
    • HIV Infected : 5.1 Million
    • Major Infectious diseases : degree of risk: high food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria animal contact disease: rabies note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country.
    • Source : CIA.GOV
  • Amenities
  •  
  • Sanitation
  • VECTOR BORNE DISEASES DUE TO POOR SANITATION
    • MALARIA
    • 1.64 MILLION CASES (2003), DEATHS 943
    • DENGUE FEVER
    • CASES 12750 , DEATHS 217
    • FILARIASIS
    • CASES 19 MILLIONS
  • Cholera Cases : 2873 Death :2 Diarrheas
  • TYPHOID PATIENT Cases - 329499 Deaths - 672 (1995)
  • Conclusion
    • ?