Chapter 1
Introduction to Computers
Objectives
❏ To review basic computer systems concepts
❏ To be able to understand the ...
1-1 Computer Systems
Today computer systems are found everywhere.
Computers have become almost as common as
televisions. B...
FIGURE 1-1 A Computer System
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

3
FIGURE 1-2 Basic Hardware Components
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

4
FIGURE 1-3 Types of Software
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

5
FIGURE 1-4 Relationship between system and application software
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using ...
1-2

Computing Environments

In the early days of computers, there was only one
environment, the mainframe computer hidden...
FIGURE 1-5 Personal Computing Environment
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

8
FIGURE 1-6 Time-sharing Environment
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

9
FIGURE 1-7 The Client/Server Environment
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

10
FIGURE 1-8 Distributed Computing
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

11
1-3

Computer Languages

To write a program for a computer, we must use a computer
language. Over the years computer langu...
FIGURE 1-9 Computer Language Evolution
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

13
PROGRAM 1-1 The Multiplication Program in Machine Language

Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

1...
Note
The only language understood by computer
hardware is machine language.

Computer Science: A Structured Programming Ap...
PROGRAM 1-2 The Multiplication Program in Symbolic Language

Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

...
Note
Symbolic language uses symbols, or mnemonics, to
represent the various machine language instructions.

Computer Scien...
PROGRAM 1-3 The Multiplication Program in C

continued
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

18
PROGRAM 1-3 The Multiplication Program in C (continued)

Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

19
1-4

Creating and Running Programs

In this section, we explain the procedure for turning a program
written in C into mach...
FIGURE 1-10 Building a C Program
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

21
1-5

System Development

We’ve now seen the steps that are necessary to build a program.
In this section, we discuss how w...
FIGURE 1-11 Waterfall Model
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

23
Note
An old programming proverb:
Resist the temptation to code.

Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using...
FIGURE 1-12 Structure Chart for Calculating Square Footage
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

25
Note
Pseudocode
English-like statements that follow a loosely defined syntax
and are used to convey the design of an algor...
ALGORITHM 1-1 Pseudocode for Calculate Bathrooms

Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

27
FIGURE 1-13 Flowchart for Calculate Bathrooms
Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C

28
Note
Except for the most simple program, one set of
test data will not completely validate a program.

Computer Science: A...
1-6

Software Engineering

Software engineering is the establishment and use of sound
engineering methods and principles t...
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    1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Computers Objectives ❏ To review basic computer systems concepts ❏ To be able to understand the different computing environments and their components ❏ To review the history of computer languages ❏ To be able to list and describe the classifications of computer languages ❏ To understand the steps in the development of a computer program ❏ To review the system development life cycle Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 1
    2. 2. 1-1 Computer Systems Today computer systems are found everywhere. Computers have become almost as common as televisions. But what is a computer? A computer is a system made of two major components: hardware and software. Topics discussed in this section: Computer Hardware Computer Software Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 2
    3. 3. FIGURE 1-1 A Computer System Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 3
    4. 4. FIGURE 1-2 Basic Hardware Components Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 4
    5. 5. FIGURE 1-3 Types of Software Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 5
    6. 6. FIGURE 1-4 Relationship between system and application software Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 6
    7. 7. 1-2 Computing Environments In the early days of computers, there was only one environment, the mainframe computer hidden in a central computing department. With the advent of minicomputers and personal computers, the environment changed with computers on virtually every desktop. In this section we describe several different environments. Topics discussed in this section: Personal Computing Environment Time-Sharing Environment Client/Server Environment Distributed Computing Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 7
    8. 8. FIGURE 1-5 Personal Computing Environment Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 8
    9. 9. FIGURE 1-6 Time-sharing Environment Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 9
    10. 10. FIGURE 1-7 The Client/Server Environment Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 10
    11. 11. FIGURE 1-8 Distributed Computing Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 11
    12. 12. 1-3 Computer Languages To write a program for a computer, we must use a computer language. Over the years computer languages have evolved from machine language to natural languages. Topics discussed in this section: Machine Languages Symbolic Languages High-Level Languages Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 12
    13. 13. FIGURE 1-9 Computer Language Evolution Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 13
    14. 14. PROGRAM 1-1 The Multiplication Program in Machine Language Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 14
    15. 15. Note The only language understood by computer hardware is machine language. Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 15
    16. 16. PROGRAM 1-2 The Multiplication Program in Symbolic Language Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 16
    17. 17. Note Symbolic language uses symbols, or mnemonics, to represent the various machine language instructions. Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 17
    18. 18. PROGRAM 1-3 The Multiplication Program in C continued Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 18
    19. 19. PROGRAM 1-3 The Multiplication Program in C (continued) Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 19
    20. 20. 1-4 Creating and Running Programs In this section, we explain the procedure for turning a program written in C into machine language. The process is presented in a straightforward, linear fashion, but you should recognize that these steps are repeated many times during development to correct errors and make improvements to the code. Topics discussed in this section: Writing and Editing Programs Compiling Programs Linking Programs Executing Programs Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 20
    21. 21. FIGURE 1-10 Building a C Program Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 21
    22. 22. 1-5 System Development We’ve now seen the steps that are necessary to build a program. In this section, we discuss how we go about developing a program. This critical process determines the overall quality and success of our program. If we carefully design each program using good structured development techniques, our programs will be efficient, error-free, and easy to maintain. Topics discussed in this section: System Development Life Cycle Program Development Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 22
    23. 23. FIGURE 1-11 Waterfall Model Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 23
    24. 24. Note An old programming proverb: Resist the temptation to code. Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 24
    25. 25. FIGURE 1-12 Structure Chart for Calculating Square Footage Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 25
    26. 26. Note Pseudocode English-like statements that follow a loosely defined syntax and are used to convey the design of an algorithm. Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 26
    27. 27. ALGORITHM 1-1 Pseudocode for Calculate Bathrooms Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 27
    28. 28. FIGURE 1-13 Flowchart for Calculate Bathrooms Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 28
    29. 29. Note Except for the most simple program, one set of test data will not completely validate a program. Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 29
    30. 30. 1-6 Software Engineering Software engineering is the establishment and use of sound engineering methods and principles to obtain software that is reliable and that works on real machines. This definition, from the first international conference on software engineering in 1969, was proposed 30 years after the first computer was built. During that period, software was more of an art than a science. Computer Science: A Structured Programming Approach Using C 30

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