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This grant application (reapplied wit clarification) hypothesized that RNA interference (RNAi) is an operative mechanism against viral pathogens in humans and other mammals. Later proven right in back-to-back articles in Science magazine 11 October 2013: Vol. 342 no. 6155. This application further proposed to understand cross-regulation of multiple immune mechanisms against viral and bacterial infections using model organisms. Such experiments cannot be conducted with such ease and clarity in mammals/humans - but will uncover novel ways to regulate them to our advantage. The reapplication clarified many questions on hypothesis synthesized with limited data available.