Chess , game of skill and strategybetween two people , played usingspecially designed pieces on a squareboard comprised of...
How Is Chess PlayedIn chess each player controls anarmy comprised of eight pawns andeight pieces : one king , one queen ,t...
{A} Initial SetupThe board is always placed for play with a lightsquare in the corner to the right of each player.White’s ...
{B} Moves of the piecesWhite always moves first , and the players thenalternate turns. A move consists of transferring ama...
pieces. The king moves one squarein any direction, but not to a squarethat is attacked by an enemy pieceThe queen moves as...
CASTLINGA player may move more than one man during aturn only when castling, a special maneuverinvolving the king and one ...
Moves of the pawnsEach pawn, on its first move only, may movestraight ahead either one or two squares to avacant square. A...
Object Of The GameEach player’s goal is to attack theenemy king such that the king cannotdeflect or remove the attack andc...
DrawsA tie, called a draw, is neither a win nor a loss foreither side. If players do not want to continue a gamefor any re...
CHESS NOTATIONThere are two standard methods ofrecording chess moves: the algebraicsystem and the descriptive system. Inbo...
Each square is part of both a file and a rank,a n d i n t h e a l g e b rai c s y s t e m , t h a t u n i q u e“ a d d re ...
Origin And HistoryH i s tori ans d o n o t k n o w f o r s u r e h o w o l dt h e g a m e o f c h e s s i s o r w h o i n ...
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
Facts about chess
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Facts about chess

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Facts about chess

  1. 1. Chess , game of skill and strategybetween two people , played usingspecially designed pieces on a squareboard comprised of 64 alternating lightand dark squares in eight rows of eightsquares each. Chess , with a historythat extends back thousands of years , isa popular game played around the world.
  2. 2. How Is Chess PlayedIn chess each player controls anarmy comprised of eight pawns andeight pieces : one king , one queen ,two rooks , two bishops, and twoknights. Although the term pieces issometimes used to refer to all 16chess figures, it technically doesnot refer to pawns. The two armiesare of contrasting colors, one lightand the other dark, and are alwayscalled White and Black regardlessof their actual colors. The verticalcolumns on the board that extend
  3. 3. {A} Initial SetupThe board is always placed for play with a lightsquare in the corner to the right of each player.White’s pieces are set up on White’s first rank fromleft to right in the following order : rook , knight, bishop , queen , king , bishop , knight , rook.Black’s pieces are set up on Black’s first rank fromleft to right in the order ofrook, knight, bishop, king, queen, bishop, knight, rook. The pieces face their exact counterparts atopposite ends of the board, and each queen standson a square of its own color. The pawns are placedon the second rank of each player, directly in frontof the pieces.
  4. 4. {B} Moves of the piecesWhite always moves first , and the players thenalternate turns. A move consists of transferring aman to another square that is either vacant oroccupied by an opponent’s man. If it is occupiedthan removed from the board and replaced by thecapturing man. The only exception is theking, which is never captured A move to capture isnot required unless it is the only possible move. Allpieces except the knight move alongstraight, unobstructed paths; only the knight maymove over or around other
  5. 5. pieces. The king moves one squarein any direction, but not to a squarethat is attacked by an enemy pieceThe queen moves as far as desiredin any uninterrupted direction. Therook moves as far as desired in anyhorizontal or vertical direction. Thebishop moves as far as desired inany diagonal direction, but isconfined to squares of the color onwhich it began the game. The knight
  6. 6. CASTLINGA player may move more than one man during aturn only when castling, a special maneuverinvolving the king and one rook. In castling, theking moves two squares to the left or right, andthe rook on that side moves to the square next tothe king on the opposite side. Castling is allowedonly if (1) the king has not yet moved during thegame and is not threatened; (2) the rook on thecastling side has not yet moved during the game;(3) the squares between the king and that rookare vacant; (4) the king does not pass through orend its move on a square that is attacked by anenemy piece.
  7. 7. Moves of the pawnsEach pawn, on its first move only, may movestraight ahead either one or two squares to avacant square. After that it may advance onlyone square at a time. When a pawn advancestwo squares on its first move and lands next toan opponent’s pawn that is on an adjacent fileand the same horizontal row, the opponent’spawn may capture it as if it had advanced onlyone square. This capture is known by itsFrench name, en passant (“in passing”). When apawn reaches the last rank on the opposingside of the board, it is promoted—thatis, converted to any other piece of the samecolor (except another pawn or the king). Thepowers of the new piece take effectimmediately.
  8. 8. Object Of The GameEach player’s goal is to attack theenemy king such that the king cannotdeflect or remove the attack andcannot escape. When a king isattacked, it is “in check.” Check doesnot have to be announced, but theplayer whose king is in check mustattempt to escape on the next move.There are three possibilities: (1)moving the king to a safe square, (2)capturing the attacking piece, or (3)cutting off the attack by interposing apiece or pawn between the attackingpiece and the king. If none of thesemoves is available, the king ischeckmated. Checkmate ends the
  9. 9. DrawsA tie, called a draw, is neither a win nor a loss foreither side. If players do not want to continue a gamefor any reason they may agree to call it a draw, butin certain situations a draw is mandated by the rules.When a player cannot make any move but is not incheck, the game is a draw by stalemate. In formalplay, the game is a draw if 50 consecutive moves aremade by each side without a capture or a pawn move,or if the same position is about to be repeated for thethird time with the same player having the move. Thisoften occurs when one player checks the enemy kingrepeatedly without being able to give mate, known asperpetual check. If the game has left neither sidewith enough material to force checkmate, it is adraw.
  10. 10. CHESS NOTATIONThere are two standard methods ofrecording chess moves: the algebraicsystem and the descriptive system. Inboth systems, the pieces aredesignated by capital initials: K forking, Q for queen, R for rook, B forbishop, and N for knight. The initial Pfor pawn is used in the descriptivesystem only. Castling is noted as either0-0(for short side) or 0-0-0 (for longside)
  11. 11. Each square is part of both a file and a rank,a n d i n t h e a l g e b rai c s y s t e m , t h a t u n i q u e“ a d d re ss” g i v e s t h e s q u a r e i t s n a m e . I n t h i ss y s t em, t h e b o a r d i s v i e w e d f r o m t h e W h i t eside only. The files, beginning on the left, arel e t t e red f r o m a t o h a n d t h e r a n k s a r en u m b e red f r o m 1 t o 8 b e g i n n i n g w i t h W h i t e ’ sf i r s t r a n k . A m o v e b y a p i e c e i s i n d i c a te d b yits initial and the square it moves to; fore x a m pl e, N f 3 i s a k n i g h t m o v e t o t h e s q u a r ef3. A pawn move names only the square. Thel e t t e r x t r a d i t ion all y i n d i c a t es a c a p t u r e( N x f3) b u t i s o f t e n o m i t t ed.
  12. 12. Origin And HistoryH i s tori ans d o n o t k n o w f o r s u r e h o w o l dt h e g a m e o f c h e s s i s o r w h o i n v e n te d i t .Chess is one of a group of gamesd e s c e nde d f r o m C h a tura nga , a g a m eb e l i e v e d t o h a v e o r i g i nate d i n I n d i a i nt h e 6 t h c e n t ury o r p e r h a ps e a r l i er, w h i c hi t s e l f m a y b e r e l a t ed t o a m u c h o l d e rC h i nes e g a m e . C h a turang a i s a S a n s kritw o r d r e f e rring t o t h e f o u r a r m s o f a nI n d ian a r m y —e l e p h ants, c a v a l r y , c h a r i ot s, a n d i n f a ntryw h i c h i n s p i red t h e f o u r t y p e s o f p i e c e sin that game.

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