Intelligence• The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when forced with challenges.
Theories of intelligence• Early psychologists assumed that there was a single, general factor for mental ability which they called g or g-factor (Charles Spearman 1972).• This general intelligence factor was thought to underlie performance on every aspect of intelligence.• G – factor was being measured on test of intelligence.
• Raymond Cattell 1967, 1987 suggested two kinds of intelligence : fluid and crystallized.• Fluid intelligence: reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory, e.g., group a series of letters or remember a set of numbers.• Crystallized intelligence: reflects accumulation of information, skills and strategies learned through experience and that can be applied in problem solving situations, e.g., participate in a discussion about solution to the causes of poverty.
• As we grow old our fluid intelligence declines but not the crystallized intelligence.
• Louis L. Thurstone (1938): suggested 7 factors termed as primary mental abilities.• Verbal comprehension• Reasoning• Perceptual speed• Numerical ability• Word fluency• Associative memory• Spatial visualization
• Howard Gardner (1997): suggested that we have eight different form of intelligence and each of them is relatively different from others and linked to a different system in the brain.• Visual-spatial Intelligence• Verbal-linguistic Intelligence• Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence• Logical-mathematical Intelligence• Interpersonal Intelligence• Musical Intelligence• Intra personal Intelligence• Naturalistic Intelligence
Visual-spatial Intelligence• Skills involving spatial configurations such as those used by artists and architects.
Verbal-linguistic Intelligence• Skills involved in the production and usage of language.
Linguistic Intelligence Reading & Writing Verbal Communication
Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence• Skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons.
Logical-mathematical Intelligence• Skills in problem-solving and scientific thinking.
Interpersonal Intelligence• Skills in interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others.
Musical Intelligence• Skills in tasks involving music.
Intra personal Intelligence• Knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself; access to one’s own feelings and emotions.
Naturalistic Intelligence• Ability to identify and classify patterns in nature.•
• Each of us has the same eight kinds of intelligence they do not operate in isolation, normally an activity encompasses several kinds of intelligence working together in different degree.•
Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:• Sternberg proposed what he refers to as successful intelligence, which is comprised of three different factors:• Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities.• Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills.• Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment.
Measuring Intelligence• Sir Francis Galton: pioneered the researches on intelligence.• Proposed that the size and shape of the person’s head could be used as an objective measure of intelligence.• His idea came from his prejudice. He sought to demonstrate that natural superiority of people of high class.
• Galton’s theory proved wrong on virtually every count head size and shape were not related to intellectual performance.• Galton’s work has one desirable result: he was first person to suggest that intelligence can be quantified and measured in objective manner.
• Alfred Binet was the first person to develop intelligence test.• If performance on certain task or test items improved with chronological age the performance could be used to distinguish more intelligent from less intelligent.• Using this he came up with a test that distinguishes between bright and dull students
• He use to assign Mental Age to the students based on the score they got on this intelligence test.• Eg if 9 years old answered 40 question correct his mental age is 7 years.
• Intelligent Quotient IQ: this takes into account both the mental age as well as chronological age.• IQ = MA/CA * 100• IQ= 8/20 * 100 = 90• IQ= 8/5 *100= 60
• David Wechsler intelligence tests are mostly used in America.• Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)• Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC)• Both the tests have two version• i) Verbal• ii) Performance
• Verbal: include vocabulary, definition, and comprehension• Performance: include timed assembly of objects, arranging picture in order
Verbal scales• Information : taps general range of knowledge, e.g., what is steam made of?• Comprehension: tests understanding of social conventions and ability to evaluate past experience, e.g., what is the advantage of keeping money in bank.• Arithmetic: tests arithmetic reasoning through verbal problems, e.g., three women divided eighteen golf balls equally among themselves. How many golf balls did each person receive?
• Similarities: asks in what way certain objects or concepts are similar, measures abstract thinking, e.g., in what way are an hour and a week alike?• Letter-Number sequencing: tests attention and ability to retain and manipulate information in memory, e.g., the alternating no. and letters are presented orally and the subject must repeat first the numbers and then the letters in order of magnitude and alphabetical order, respectively. items- 5-j-4-A-I- S response- I-4-5-A-J-S
• Vocabulary: tests ability to define increasingly difficult words, e.g., what does ‘formidable’ mean?
Achievement and aptitude test• Achievement tests: designed to find out how much they have learned so far in their lives.• Aptitude tests: novel puzzle like problems that presumably go beyond prior learning and are thought to measure the applicant’s potential for future learning and performance
Adaptive Testing• GRE, GMAT etc.• This is a new kind of computerized version, in this students do not necessarily receive identical set of questions. Instead computer first presents a randomly selected question of moderate difficulty. If the test taker answer it correctly the computer will then present a randomly chosen items of slightly greater difficulty. If the answer is wrong then computer will present easier question.