Influence or urge by gentle urging, caressing, or flatteringStimulating evacuation of feces
Motivation and Emotion
Meaning of Motivation• Motivation is a term referring to the driving and pulling forces which result in persistent behavior directed towards certain goals.
Motives?• Are inferences from behavior (the things that are said and done). e.g. a student work hard at almost every task from this we might infer a motive to achieve or master challenges.• If these inferences are true, motives are powerful tools for explaining behavior. e.g. everyday explanation of behavior are given in terms of motives. What are your motives to come to college?
• To learn , to make friends, its better to come to college than to go for work, abiding by the social pressure, you need to have a degree..• Motives also helps to make predictions about behavior. Because if a person will have high need to achieve will work hard in school, in business, in play etc.• Motives do not tell us exactly what will happen but gives us good idea about the range of things a person will do.
• Drive reduction – these might be described as ‘push theory of motivation’ behavior is “pushed” towards goals by driving states within the person or animal. Theory says that when an internal driving state is aroused, the individual is pushed to engage in behavior which will lead to a goal that reduces the intensity of driving state. Reaching the appropriate goal reduces the drive state leading to a pleasurable and satisfying feeling.• Thus the motivation consist of• Driving state• The goal directed behavior initiated by the driving state• The attainment of an appropriated goal• The reduction of the driving state and subjective satisfaction and relief when goal is reached• This sequence of events just described is sometimes called motivational cycle
MOTIVATIONAL CYCLE Driving state (set in motion by bodily needs or environmental stimuli) Goal – directed Goal behavior
INCENTIVE• The goal objects which motivate behavior are known as incentives.• Incentive theories are “pull theories” of motivation they have certain characteristic because of which the goal objects pull behavior towards them.• Individual attain pleasure from positive incentive and avoid what are known as negative incentives.• E. g. wages, salaries, bonuses, vacations etc.
Arousal Theories• This theory states that there is a certain optimal, or best, level of arousal that is pleasurable.• These theories may also be called as “just right theories”.• According to this theory the individual is motivated to behave in such a way as to maintain the optimal level of arousal.
Humanistic• According to this theory the satisfaction of human need follows a certain path starting from the bottom or basic needs that is Physiological needs it goes up till self actualization.
Maslow need hierarchy Self actualization Esteem needs Belongingness and love need Safety needs Physiological need
• Physiological needs: such as hunger, thirst and sex.• Safety needs: such as needs for security, stability and order.• Belongingness and love need: such as need for affection, affiliation and identification• Esteem needs: such as need for prestige, success and self respect• Self actualization need: if all your needs are met and you achieve the ultimate goal then you become self actualized.
Instinct• Instinct: Born to be motivated• Instincts are inborn pattern of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned.• This approach this approach to motivation people and animal are born with preprogrammed sets of behaviors essential to their survival.
• These instincts provide the energy that channels behavior in appropriate directions.• William McDougall (1908) suggests that there are 18 instincts.• Bernard (1924) says that there are total of 5,759 distinct instincts.
Criticism• Much of the human behavior is learned which cannot be explained by instinctual behavior.• Thus newer explanation have replaced conceptions of motivation based on instincts.• However, instinct approaches still play a role in certain theories, particularly those based on the evolutionary approach.
Cognitive• Cognitive: The thoughts behind motivation• Cognitive approach suggest that motivation is a product of people’s thoughts, expectation, and goal-their cognition.• E.g. people are motivated to study for a test is based on their expectation of how well studying will pay off in terms of a good grade (wigfied & Eccles, 2000)
Draws a key distinction between• Intrinsic motivation: causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any concrete tangible reward that it will bring us.• If motivation is intrinsic we work harder, and produce work of higher quality.• Extrinsic motivation: causes us to do something for money, a grade, or some other concrete, tangible reward.
• In a study on effect of rewards on motivation researchers promised a group of nursery students a reward for drawing with magic markers (an activity for which they had previously shown high motivation). Result shows that the reward reduced their enthusiasm for the task (Lepper & Greene, 1978).
• Instinct –people and animal are born with preprogrammed sets of behavior essential to their survival.• Drive reduction- when some basic biological requirement is lacking a drive is produced.• Arousal – people seek an optimal level of stimulation. If the level of stimulation is too high, they act to reduce it; if it is too low, they act to increase it.
• Incentive- external stimuli direct and energize behavior.• Cognitive – Thoughts, expectations and understanding of the world direct motivation.• Hierarchy of needs – needs form a hierarchy; before higher – order needs are met, lower – order needs must be fulfilled.
Types of motivation• Physiological Motivation: Hunger, thirst, sex and maternal drive• Psychological: Achievement, Affiliation, Power and Parenting.
Physiological Needs• These needs are deeply rooted in the physiological state of the body. There are many such motives including hunger, thirst, a desire for sex, temperature regulation, sleep, pain avoidance, and need for oxygen.
Hunger• Why people are subject to eating disorders:• To avoid weight gain at all costs?• In overeating leading to obesity?• To answer this question we will examine the most important human need HUNGER
Motivation behind hunger• Biological Factors: Human and nonhuman both the species are unlikely to become obese.• Internal mechanism regulate not only the quantity of food intake but also the kind of food they desire.• E.g. rats that has been deprived of particular food seek out alternatives that contain the specific nutrients their diet is lacking, and animals given choice of a whole variety of foods choose a well- balanced diet (Inglefinger, 1944; Rozin, 1977; Bouchard & Bray, 1996; Woods et al., 2000)
• Empty stomach causing hunger pangs. (even people whose stomachs have been removed still experience the sensation of hunger).• Change in chemical composition of the blood (in particular glucose level) regulate feeling of hunger.
• Glucose level are monitored by the brain’s hypothalamus. Thus it is said that hypothalamus is the organ primarily responsible for monitoring food intake. Also known as “feeding center”• Damage to hypothalamus affect eating behavior depending on the site of the injury.• E.g. lateral hypothalamus injury to lead to starvation till death in rates unless fed forcefully .• Ventromedial hypothalamus injury leads to overeating rats will increase there weights upto 400%.
• Similar phenomenon is seen in humans who have tumors of the hypothalamus (Rolls, 1994; Woods et al., 1998).• Although hypothalamus clearly plays role in regulation of food intake, exactly how it operates is still unclear.
• Weight set point – is the particular level of weight that the body strive to maintain. Acting as a kind of internal weight thermostat.• Hypothalamus looks into greater or less food intake (Nisbett, 1972; Capaldi, 1996; Woods et.al., 2000).• .
• According to this hypothesis injury to hypothalamus affect the weight set point by which the food is regulated, drastically leading to raises or lower the weight set point and the organism then strive to meet internal goal increasing or decreasing food consumption.
• This WSPoint is partly regulated by genetic factors.• Metabolism – rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by body- people with high metabolic rate are able to eat as much as they want without gaining weight, whereas people with low metabolic rate eat less yet gain weight readily (woods et al., 1998).
Social factors in eating• Internal biological factors do not provide full explanation for our eating behavior.• External social factors• Societal rules and conventions• Appropriate eating behavior• E.g. we eat breakfast, lunch and dinner at the approx the same time every day. Because we are accustomed to eat at the same time we feel hungry independently of our internal cues.
• We tend to put the same amount of food on our plates every day in spite of the fact that our energy requirement varies from day to day.• We also tend to prefer particular foods over others.• Thus cultural influences and our habits play an important role in determining when, what and how much we will eat.
• Other social factors relate to eating behavior:• Difficult day or stressed we usually eat a chocolate or ice cream why????• We have learned through operant or classical learning to associate food with a pleasurable feeling or eating helps us escape from unpleasant thoughts.• We eat when experience distress.
Eating Disorders• Anorexia nervosa: people refuse to eat, while denying that their appearance has become like a skeleton and behavior unusual.• 10% of anorexic starve themselves to death.• It affects mainly females between age 12-40 but men can also develop it.• The disorder starts from dieting and gets out of control• Their life revolve around food• They themselves eat little but cook for others, go shopping for food frequently and collect cook books.
• Bulimia: people involve in binge on large quantity of food.• They feel guilt and depression after eating as a result often induce vomiting or take laxatives to rid themselves of food- behavior known as purging.• Constant bingeing and purging cycles and use of drugs to induce vomiting leads to heart failure.
• 1-4% of high school and college women suffer from either of two eating disorders.
Causes• Chemical imbalance in hypothalamus and pituitary gland brought by genetic factors.• Societal preferences for slenderness• Consequences of over demanding parents and other family problems• Complete explanation is still elusive• Probably stem from both biological and social factors .
Treatment• Strategies including dietary changes and therapy .
Thirst Motivation• What drives us to drink??• Stimulus factors play a very large role in initiating drinking.• We drink to wet a dry mouth or to taste a good beverage.• Pulled by these stimuli and incentives, we tend to drink more than the body needs, but it is easy for kidney to get rid of the excess fluid.
• Since maintaining water level is essential for life the body has a set of complicated internal homeostatic processes to regulate its fluid level and drinking behavior.• Body’s water level is maintained by physiological events in which several hormones play a vital role.• One of these is the antidiuretic hormones (ADH), which regulates the loss of water through the kidneys.
• But the physiological mechanisms involved in maintaining the body’s water level are not directly involved in thirst motivation.
• Thirst motivation are mainly triggered by two conditions of the body:• Loss of water from cells• Reduction of blood volume
• When water is lost from bodily fluids, water leaves the interior of the cell thus dehydrating them.• The anterior or front of the hypothalamus are nerve cells called Osmoreceptors – generate nerve impulse when they are dehydrated.• These nerve impulses act as a signal for thirst.• Thirst triggered by loss of water from the osmoreceptors is called cellular-dehydration thirst.
• Loss of water also lead to decrease in the volume of the blood known as hypovolemia.• When blood volume goes down so does blood pressure this drop in blood pressure stimulate kidney to release an enzyme called renin.• Through several steps process renin is involved in the formation of a substance known as angiotensin II that circulate in blood and may trigger drinking.
• The idea that the cellular dehydration and hypovolemia contribute to thirst and drinking is called double-depletion hypothesis.• E.g. both mechanism are at work after a tennis game the body lost water the osmoreceptors have been dehydrated and blood volume gone down. Thirst is triggered and you drink to rehydrate your cell and bring your blood volume back to its normal position.
• Why does drinking stop?• Some kind of monitoring mechanism in the mouth, stomach, or intestine which indicate that enough water has been consumed to meet the body’s needs.• In an experiment water deprived rats, dogs, monkeys and people stop drinking long before the water balance of their body has been restored.
Psychological Needs• Characteristic:• General:• N Achievement-concern to do better to improve performance• N Affiliation-concern for establishing, maintaining, repairing friendly relations• N Power-concern with having impact, reputation and influence
• Arousing situation:• N Achievement-A moderately challenging task• N Affiliation-opportunity to be with friends• N Power-Hierarchical or influence situation
• Related activities:• N Achievement-chooses and performs better at challenging tasks, prefers personal responsibility, seek and utilizes feedback on performance quality innovates to improve• N Affiliation-Makes more local phone calls, visits, seeks approval, dislike disagreeing with strangers, better grades from a warm teacher
• N Power-Accumulate “prestige supplies” often tries to convince others, more often an officer in voluntary organizations, plays more competitive sports, drinks more heavily
Need for achievement• Need for achievement (n ach): was the first psychological motives to be studied in detail.• Source of Achievement Motivation• Why are some people high in the need for achievement??
• Need for achievement motivation are largely learned• The expectation parents have for their children are also important in the development of achievement motivation
Achievement motivation and Behavior• High n ach people prefer to work on moderately challenging tasks which promises success.• They do not like to work on very easy task, where there is no challenge and so no satisfaction of their achievement needs• Nor they like very difficult tasks, where likelihood of their success is low.
• Thus people high in n-ach are likely to be realistic in the tasks, jobs, and vocation they select; i.e., they are likely to make a good between their abilities and what will be demanded of them.
• High n-ach people like tasks in which their performance can be compared with that of others; they like feedback on “how they are doing”• High n-ach people tend to be persistent in working on tasks they perceive as career- related or as reflecting those personal characteristic (such as intelligence) which are involved in “getting ahead”
• When high n-ach people are successful they tend to raise their level of aspiration in a realistic way so that they will move on to slightly more challenging and difficult tasks.• High n-ach people like to work in situation in which they have some control over the outcome; they are not gamblers
Need for affiliation: Striving for friendship• Need for affiliation: an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people.• People with higher affiliation need are particularly sensitive to relationships with others• They desire to be with their friends more of the time and alone less often.
Power Motivation• Social power as “the ability or capacity of a person to produce intended effect on the behavior or emotion of the another person.”• The goal of n power is to influence, control, cajole, persuade, lead, charm others and to enhance one’s own reputation in the eyes of other people.• They derive satisfaction from achieving their goals
• Power motivation varies in strength form person to person and can be measured from stories told in the picture-projection technique.
Power motivation and behavior• Power motivation can be expressed in many ways:• By impulsive and aggressive action, especially by men in lower socioeconomic bracket• By participation in competitive sports, such as hockey, football, basketball, tennis and basketball especially by men in lower socioeconomic brackets and by college men.
• By joining organizations and holding office in these organizations.• By obtaining and collecting possessions, such as fancy cars, guns, numerous credit cards etc.• By associating with people who are not particularly popular with others• By choosing occupations such as teaching, diplomacy, business, -high n power in which people think they have an impact on others• By building and disciplining their bodies.
EMOTION• What emotion is?• Not an easy question to answer some 92 definitions were listed in a review by (Kleinginna & Kleinginna).• EMOTIONS: are feelings that generally have both physiological (change in heart rate) and cognitive elements (understanding and evaluating the meaning of what is happening) and that influence behavior.
Functions of Emotions• Preparing us for action• Shaping our future behavior• Helping us to interact more effectively with others
Physiology of Emotion• When we are excited, terrified, or engaged we perceive some of the things happening in our bodies, but certainly not aware of all that is happening.• Direct observation using recording instruments helps psycho - physiologists to measure the heart rate, blood pressure, blood flow, activity of the stomach and gastrointestinal system, level of substances like hormones, breathing rate and depth, and many other bodily conditions during emotion.
The Autonomic Nervous System• Many of bodily changes that occur in emotions are produced by the activity of a part of the nervous system called autonomic system a part of peripheral nervous system.• But its activity to a large extent is under the control of central nervous system.• Autonomic nervous system consist of nerve leading from brain and spinal cord out to the heart, to certain glands, to blood vessels both interior or exterior of the body.
Autonomic Nervous SystemSympathetic Parasympathetic System System
The sympathetic System• Is active during aroused states and prepare the body for extensive action by increasing the heart rate, raising the blood pressure, increasing blood sugar (glucose) level, and raising certain hormones.• This part of autonomic nervous system is active in many strong emotions esp. fear and anger.
• Hormones discharged by the sympathetic system are epinephrine (adrenalin) or norepinephrine (noradrenalin) Hormones by Sympathetic System Epinephrine Norepinephrine (adrenalin) (noradrenalin)
Nerve impulses in sympathetic system Reach inner part of adrenal glandLocated on the top of kidneyTriggers the secretion of these hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) Then they go into blood and circulated around the body
• Epinephrine affects many structures of the body:• In liver it helps mobilize glucose (blood sugar) into the blood and thus make energy available to brain and muscles.• Also causes heart to beat harder (surgeons use epinepherine to stimulate heart action when the heart has weakened or stopped)
• In skeletal muscles it helps mobilize sugar resources so that the muscle can use them more rapidly.• Whereas norepinephrine major effect is to constrict peripheral blood vessels and so raise blood pressure.
Parasympathetic system• Tends to be active when we are calm and relaxed.• Parasympathetic helps us to conserve and build up body store of energy.• It decreases the heart rate• Reduces the blood pressure• Divert blood to digestive tract• Thus effects of parasympathetic are opposite of sympathetic system.
• In aroused state sympathetic activity predominates in calmer state parasympathetic activity dominates.• In many activities both systems can be active.• E.g. in anger for instance the heart rate increases (a sympathetic effect) as does stomach activity (a parasympathetic effect)
• In aroused emotional states – sympathetic activity predominates• In calmer states – parasympathetic activity is dominant• In many emotional states both the systems can be active• In anger the heart rate increases (a sympathetic effects) as does stomach activity ( a parasympathetic effect)
Somatic Nervous System• Part of peripheral nervous system activates the striped muscles of the body – arms, legs, and breathing muscles. During emotinal responses.
Brain and Emotion• Hypothalamus and Limbic system regulate and coordinate the emotional responses
Theories of Emotion• General principles to guide the thinking of emotion are:• James Lange Theory: felt emotion is the perception of bodily changes• Cannon-Bard Theory: felt emotion and bodily responses are independent events• Schachter-Singer Theory (Cognitive): the interpretation of bodily arousal
A stranger follows youJames Lange Schachter Singer TheoryTheory Cannon Bard (Cognitive) Theory
James Lange Theory Activation of visceral bodily changes Brain interprets visceral changes as emotional experiences
Cannon Bard Theory Activation of thalamusActivation of bodily Messages to cortexchanges in response regarding emotional to brain experience
Schachter Singer TheoryActivation of general Observation ofphysiological arousal environmental cues Determination of label to place on arousal identifying emotional experiences
Nonverbal Communication• We now know that nonverbal behavior communicate messages simultaneously across several channels, paths along which communication flows.• Facial expression• Eye contact• Body movement• Tone of voice• Positioning of eyebrows
• Facial expression are primary means of communicating emotional states.
• Consider the picture above and will come to know about six basic emotions• Happiness• Anger• Sadness• Surprise• Disgust and fear
• These basic emotions are expressed universally.• Ekman 1972: found that a remote tribe from Guinea were able to identify the basic emotions like fear, happiness etc.
Facial Affect Program• Why there is similarity in the expression of basic emotion across cultures?• FAP assumed to be universally present at birth• When set in motion activates a set of nerve impulses that make the face display an appropriate expression.
• Each primary emotions produces a unique set of muscular movements• Eg. Emotion of happiness is universally displayed by movement of the zygomatic major – a muscle that raises the corner of the mouth forming a smile
Display Rules• Are the guidelines that governs appropriateness of showing emotion nonverbally.• These are learned during childhood• Eg. If you get an unwanted gift you know that you have to paste a smile on your face at least in the presence of the gift giver.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis• If you want to feel happy try smiling