Sanitary drainage fittings
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Sanitary drainage fittings






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    Sanitary drainage fittings Sanitary drainage fittings Presentation Transcript

    •  Introduction  Method of excreta disposal 1.Unsewered Areas: -Service type latrines -Non-service type latrines 2.Sewered disposal -Water carriage system & sewage treatment  Conclusion
    • INTRODUCTION  According to WHO: “Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a mojor cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant benefecial impact on health both in households and across communities.”
    • METHOD OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL I. UNSEWERED AREAS: 1. Service Type Latrines (Conservancy system): Night soil is collected from pail or bucket type of latrines by human agency, & later disposed of by burying or composting. 2. Non-service type (Sanitary latrines): a. Borehole latrine b. Dug well or pit latrine
    • c. Water-seal type of latrines i.P.R.A.I ii. R.C.A type iii. Sulabh Shauchalaya d. Septic tank e. Aqua privy 3. Latrines suitable for camps & temporary use: a.Shallow trench latrine b.Deep trench latrine
    • SEWERED AREAS: 1.Water-carriage System: a.Household sanitary fittings b.House drain c.Public sewer d.sewer appurtenances 2.Sewage Treatments: a.Primary Treatment -Screening -Removal of grit -Plain sedimentation
    • b.Secondary Treatment -Trickling filters -Activated sludge process c. Other Methods: -Sea Outfall -River Outfall -Sewage Outfall -Oxidation ponds
    • Excreta disposal in unsewered areas: 1. Service Type (Conservancy System):   Colletion & removal of night soil by human agency is called service type or conservancy system & the latrines are called as service latrines The night soil is carried by night ‘soil carts’ to the place of final disposal where it is disposed by: i. Composting ii. Burial in shallow trenches
    • 2. Non-service type of latrines (Sanitary Latrines):  Excreta sould not contaminate the ground or surface water  Excreta should not pollute the soil  Excreta should not be accesible to flies, rodents, animals & other vehicles of transmission  Excreta should create a nuisance due to odour or unsightly appearance
    • TYPES OF SANITARY LATRINES: 1. BORE HOLE LATRINE:    It is the forerunner of the nonservice type of latrines. First introduced by Rockefeller foundation during 1930’s. It consist of a circular 30 to 40 cm in diameter dug vertically into the ground to a depth of 4-8 cm most commonly 6m.
    •     Auger is required to dig a bore hole. In loose soils the hole is lined with bamboo matting or earthen ring. A suitable foot rests is placed over the hole When the contents reach within 50 cm the squatting plate is removed & the hole is closed. Auger
    • MERITS:  No need of services of a sweeper  The pit is dark & unsuitable for fly breeding  If the bore hole is located 15 m away from a source of water supply there should be no danger of water pollution. DEMERITS:  Bore hole fills up rapidly  Auger is required which may not be readily available  Difficult to dig a hole deeper than 3 m in loose soil
    • 2.DUG WELL OR PIT LATRINE:  First introduced in Singur, West Bengal in 1949-1950  A circular pit about 75 cm in diameter & 3-3.5 m deep is dug into the ground.  In sandy soil the pit deepness is reduced to 1.5- 2 m.  Pit is lined with pottery rings to prevent caving of the soil.  A concrete squatting plate is placed on top of the pit & the latrine is enclosed with a superstructure.
    • ADVANTAGES:  Easy to construct & no special equipment is required.  The pit has longer life because of greater cubic capacity.  A pit of 75 cm diameter & 3-3.5 m deep will last for about 5 yrs for a family.
    • 3.WATER SEAL LATRINE:  Improvement in the designing for rural families is the hand flushed “water seal” type latrine.  Squatting plate is fitted with a water seal.  2 important function: 1. Prevent access of flies by a small depth of water in a bent pipe called trap. 2. Prevents escape of odours & foul gases & thereby eliminate the nuisance from smell.
    • Sulabh shauchalaya:  Invention of a patna-based firm.  Low cost pour-flush, water seal type of latrine.  It consist of specially designed pan & a water-seal trap.  It is connected to a pit 3 feet square & as deep.  Excreta undergoes bacterial decomposition & is converted to manure.  Requires very little water.
    • 4. SEPTIC TANK  Key component of the septic system.  A small-scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewage pipes provided by local governments on private corporations.  It is a satisfacory means of disposing excreta & liquid wastes but do not have access to a public sewerage system.
    • DESIGN FEATURES:  There are various designs: single chambered & double chambered septic tanks.  Single chambered: for small installations.  Two compartments are expensive. The main design features:  Capacity: The minimum capacity should be 500 gallon.  Length: length is usually twice the breadth.  Depth: 1.5-2 m.
    •  Liquid depth: 1.2 m  Air space: Minimum of 30 cm between the level of liquid & undersurface of the cover.  Bottom:  Inlet & outlet:  Cover:  Retention period:
    • Working of Septic Tank:  The solids settle down to form sludge.  Lighter solids form scum.  The first stage of purification called anaerobic digestion.  A portion of solid is transferred into liquids & gases in the form of bubbles.  Effluent contains numerous bacterial, cysts, organic matters in solution or fine suspension.  The effluent is allowed to percolate into sub-soil by means of perforated or open-jointed pipes laid in trenches.
    •  Millions of aerobic bacteria in the upper layers of soil attack the organic matter present in the effluent.  Thus the organic matter is oxidised into stable end products.
    • Operation & Maintenance:  Use of soap water & disinfectants should be avoided as they are injurious to bacterial flora.  Desludging: Contents of the tank should be bailed out atleast once a year.  New built tank is first filled with water & then seeded with ripe sludge from another septic tank.
    • 5. AQUA PRIVY:  It functions like a septic tank.  It consist of a water-tight chamber.  A short drop pipe dips from latrine floor into the water.  The shape of the tank may be circular or rectangular.  A capacity for 1 cubic m is recommended for 6 yrs or more.
    •  Night soil undergoes purification by anaerobic digestion.  A vent should be provided for escape of gases.  It should be treated the same manner as the septic tank.  The digested sludge should be removed at intervals.
    • LATRINES SUITABLE FOR TEMPORARY USE: 1. SHALLOW TRENCH LATRINE:  Simple trench  30 cm wide & 90-150 cm deep.  Length depends on number of users: 3-3.5 m for 100 people.  Seperate trenches for men & women should be provided.
    •  Earth from trench should be piled up at the side.  Its an arrangement for a short period (1 week).  It must be covered when the trench is filled 30 cm below the ground level.
    • 2. DEEP TRENCH LATRINE:  Intended for longer duration( a few week- a few months)  Its 1.8-2.5 m deep and 75-90 cm wide.  A superstructure is built for privacy & protection.
    • II. SEWERED AREAS WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM:  Its collecting & transporting of human excreta & waste water by a network of sewers to the place of ultimate disposal.  There are 2 types of carriage system: i.The combined sewer system: (sewage & surface water) ii.The seperate sewer system: (sewage)
    • A Water Carriage System consists of the following elements: 1. HOUSEHOLD SANITARY FITTINGS: The usual household sanitary fittings: i.Water closet, ii.Urinal, & iii.Wash basin.
    • i. WATER CLOSETS:  2 types: Indian Squatting type & Western Commode type.  The water closets are provided with a ‘flushing rim’.  The closet is connected to a cistern by a pipe 2.53.75cm in diameter.  The flushing cistern normally holds 15 l of water
    •  For efficient performance of water closet: -Water seal area should not be more than 7.5 cm. -There should not be any sharp corners in the trap. -The volume of water should not exceed 1.75 l to maintain a minimum of 50 mm deep water seal. -The interior of the bowl should be vertical atleast 50-75 mm just above the surface of water seal.
    • 2.HOUSE DRAIN:  10 cm in diameter & is laid in the courtyard about 15 cm below the ground level.  The house drain empties the sewage into the main sewer. 3.PUBLIC SEWER:  Not less than 22.5 cm in diameter, bigger ones may be 2-3 m in diameter.  Laid 3 m below ground level with ‘self cleansing’ velocity of 2-3 feet per second.
    • 4. SEWER APPURTANCES:  These are manholes & traps.  Manholes are placed: i. whenever there is a change in direction of sewer.s ii. at the meeting point of 2 or more sewers. iii. at distance of 100 m in long straight runs.
    •  Traps are placed in 3 situation: i.under the basin of water closet ii.where the house drain joins the public drain iii.where surface wastes water enters the drain.