Marriage in hindu society
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Marriage in hindu society

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Marriage in hindu society Marriage in hindu society Presentation Transcript

  • MARRIAGES IN HINDU SOCIETY
  • CONTENT o Introduction o Types of hindu marriages in Indian context o Marriage customs in different Hindu societies o Purpose & significance of hindu marriage o Marriage partners preferred in different region of india
  • o The Hindu marriage act o Polygamy in Hinduism o Problems related to hindu marriage -dowry -sati/bride burning -child marriage o Average age at marriage in india o Conclusion View slide
  • introduction • Rig Veda:mentions marriage of Soman with Suryai, basis of marriage rituals those are followed in Hindu marriage ceremonies. View slide
  • Types of hindu marriage  8 Types of ancient hindu marriage -4 types of approved marriages( Brahma, Daiva,Arsha, Prajapatya) -4 types of unapproved marriages(Ashura, Gandharva, Rakshasha, Paisacha)
  • APPROVED MARRIAGES 1. Brahma marriage (ceremonial form) 2.Daiva marriage (divine form) 3.Arsha marriage (priestly form) 4.Prajapatya marriage
  • UNAPPROVED MARRIAGE 5. Ashura marriage (mercenary form)-bridal purchase 6.Gandharva marriage (clandestine form) 7.Rakshasa marriage (diabolic form)-force & might 8. Paisacha marriage (ghastly form)
  • MARRIAGE CUSTOMS IN DIFFERENT HINDU SOCIETY • Members of any Hindu society can have an Arya Samaj wedding performed as per vedic rites. • Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded Arya Samaj in 19th century & propagated the teachings of Vedas
  • ARYA SAMAJ WEDDING
  • MATCH MAKING • Marriage within the same gotra is prohibited • Some points noted: varna, Vashya, Tara, Yoni, Gana as Rakshasa, Manav and Deva,etc. • All such points are summed up, maximum to 36, if the total is less than18, then the marriage is not permissible
  • MADHUPERK: • First step after bride & groom have entered the ‘mandap’
  • KANYADAAN- HAVAN-
  • • PANI GRAHAN SANSKAR- • SHILAROHAN –
  • • LAJAHOM-
  • PARIKRAMA
  • SAPTAPADI • Most important in hindu marriage
  • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The meaning of the mantras chanted during Sapthapadi: invokes god for plenty of pure & nourishing food Healthy life Wealth & prosperity Happiness & harmony Virtuous & heroic children Long life togetherness 7. Loyality,unity & all goodness forever.
  • • SPRINKLING WATER ON THE COUPLE- • HRIDAY SPARSHMANTRA-
  • • SINDOOR & MANGALSUTRA-
  • • DHRUVNAKSHATRA- • ARUNDHATI NAKSHATRA-
  • ASHIRWAAD
  • AIM/ SIGNIFICANCE OF HINDU MARRIAGE • The main aim of Hindu marriage can be summarized as: -DHARMA: performing religious rites -PRAJA: progeny/ procreation -RATI: pleasure
  • MARRIAGE PARTNERS PREFFERED IN DIFFERENT REGION OF INDIA • South India: cross-cousin preferred (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh), North india: marry a stranger (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab), Central india: northern type but brother-sister exchange marriage is also frequent.
  • HINDU MARRIAGE ACT,1955 1. Extension of the Act 2. Application of the Act -Hindu in any form -Buddhist, Sikh or Jain 3.Conditions for Hindu marriage: -marriageable age -no spouse of any partner -unfit for marriage -not within degrees of prohibited relationship 4.Ceremonies for a Hindu marriage
  • 5.Registration of Hindu marriage: -compulsory -punishable with fine extending Rs.2,500 to 25,000. 6.Divoce on Hindu marriages: • Cruelty • Deserted petitioner • Converted religion • Voluntary sexual intercourse • Incurably of unsound mind • Incurable-fatal-communicable disease • Religious world • Lost for 7yrs or more • Spouse remarried • Partner committed crime
  • 7.Divorce by mutual consent: -District court 8. No petition within one year of marriage -Hear exceptional hardship by high court 9. Divorced persons when may marry again 10.Legitimation of children: 11. Punishment for contravention of Hindu marriage Act: -15days-1month imprisonment/Rs.1000 fine/both
  • POLYGAMY IN HINDUISM • Polygamy for Hindus is banned by the lawHindu Marriage Act • Supreme Court(May 5, 2000) plugged legal loophole for all potential Hindu bigamists • Offence punishable under the Hindu Marriage Act and the Indian Penal Code.
  • PROBLEMS RELATED TO MARRIAGE HINDU DOWRY • Vardakshina in kanyadaan • Dowry Prohibition Act,1961 -Penalty for demanding:6month-2yr, fine Rs.10,000 -Penalty for giving/taking (1984): 5yr, fine Rs.15000 or amount dealed.
  • SATI/ BRIDE BURNING • An ancient (formally abolished in 1829) custom of Sati. • Bride-burning is a form of domestic violence practiced in India till today by Hindus. • Crminal law ammendment act, 1986: minimum 7yr – life imprisonment.
  • CHILD MARRIAGE • Bal vivaha originated in the medieaval age • The legal age for marriage in India is 18 years for women and 21 for men • Child Marriage Prohibition Act of 1929: penalty: 2yr imprisonment, Rs.1 lakh fine
  • AVERAGE AGE AT MARRIAGE IN INDIA • Average age at marriage in India is 19.6yrs (2001 census) State Female Male Andaman & nicobar island 19.6 25.4 Andhra pradesh 17.5 22.5 Arunachal pradesh 19.6 23.8 Assam 19.7 25.7 Bihar 17.2 20.6 Chandigarh 20 23.5 Chhattisgarh 17.6 20.9
  • State Female Male Dadra & nagar haveli 18.8 21.5 Daman & diu 19.4 22.9 Delhi 19.2 23.1 Goa 22.2 27.4 Gujarat 19.2 22.1 Haryana 18 21.6 Himachal pradesh 19.1 23.8 J &K 20.1 23.7 Jharkhand 17.6 21.8 Karnataka 18.9 24.9 Kerela 20.8 27.1 Lakshadweep 19.1 25 Madhya pradesh 17 20.4 Marashtra 18.8 23.5 Manipur 21.5 25.5
  • State Female male Meghalaya 20.5 24.8 Mizoram 21.8 25.3 Nagaland 21.6 25.7 Orissa 18.9 23.9 Pondicherry 20 26.4 Punjab 20.5 23.4 Rajasthan 16.6 19.9 Sikkim 20.2 24.2 Tamil nadu 19.9 25.5 Tripura 19.3 25.6 Uttar pradesh 17.5 20.1 Uttaranchal 18.5 23 West bengal 18.4 24.5 Source: census 2001
  • • Average age at marriage for female in India is 18.3yrs • Average age at marriage for male in India is 22.6yrs • Average age at marriage below legal age: state Years below/above legal age Female Male Andhra pradesh -0.5 1.5 Bihar -0.8 -0.4 Chattisgarh -0.4 -0.1 Jharkhand -0.4 0.8 Madhya pradesh -1 -0.6 Rajasthan -1.4 -1.1 Uttar pradesh -0.5 -0.9