Angiosperms, the Flowering PlantsIntroduction to AngiospermsThe flowering plants or angiosperms are included in the phylum...
Angiosperms, the Flowering Plantsleaves, but they are usually finer textured and are colorful. The third seriesconsists of...
Angiosperms, the Flowering Plants        Ovary is usually found at the bottom of the flower. It produces seeds        insi...
Angiosperms, the Flowering Plantssource for the much of the planet, whether we eat them or feed them to theother animals. ...
Angiosperms, the Flowering Plants    2. Grapes       Grapes are the source of many essential metals       like cobalt and ...
Angiosperms, the Flowering Plants         Cherry is a remedy for insomnia, arthritis, nausea, depression, headache        ...
Angiosperms, the Flowering Plantsplants clean our atmosphere by absorbing greenhouse gases like carbondioxide and adding o...
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What are angiosperms

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Angiosperms, the flowering plants. Read about angiosperms, their evolution, classification and their types

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What are angiosperms

  1. 1. Angiosperms, the Flowering PlantsIntroduction to AngiospermsThe flowering plants or angiosperms are included in the phylum Anthophyta.They are vascular plants which produce seeds contained in fruits that developfrom parts of reproductive structures called flowers. This group of plants isthe dominant form of plant life on the planet. Members of the phylum are thesource of most of the food on which humans and other mammals rely and ofmany raw materials and natural products.The plants, which are included in the phylum, are most shrubs and herbs,most familiar trees except pines and other conifers, and specialized plantssuch as succulents, parasites and aquatic types. Although about 260,000species are known, many remain obscure.Flowering plants occupy almost every ecological situation and dominate mostnatural landscapes. About two-third occur in the tropics, where they arerapidly being exterminated by the human activities. Only about 1000 speciesare of major economic importance, and the bulk of the world’s food supply isderived from only 15. Many hundreds more could be useful if properlyinvestigated and developed.DescriptionThe characteristic feature of angiosperms isthe flower, the function of which is thereproduction of the plant through thedevelopment of seeds. Flowers are highlymodified shoots made up of four fundamentalparts arranged in separate series, or whorls,on specialized stem tips. The outer seriesconsists of the sepals, which are modifiedleaves or bracts that are usually green. Thenext inner series, the petals, are also modifiedComposed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 1
  2. 2. Angiosperms, the Flowering Plantsleaves, but they are usually finer textured and are colorful. The third seriesconsists of the stamens, the pollen-producing male part of the flower. Theinner most series is the carpels, the female structures that produce the seeds.Carpels are often fused into a structure called the pistil.The seeds of angiosperms develop in an ovary, a part of the carpel thatsurrounds and protects egg-containing ovules. Seeds develop from the ovulesafter pollination and fertilization of the eggs.Parts of the flowerMale Parts 1. Stamen Stamen is made up of filaments and anther. It produces and stores pollen grain, the male germ cells. Number of stamens is usually same as the number of petals. 2. Anther Part of the anther that produces and stores pollen. It is a sac like structure and stays on the top of a stalk like structure, the filament. 3. Filament This is the stalk that the anther sits on top of.Female Parts 1. Stigma It is the top, flattened part of the female reproductive part that receives pollen from anther. 2. Style It is a long stalk like structure between ovary and stigma. 3. OvaryComposed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 2
  3. 3. Angiosperms, the Flowering Plants Ovary is usually found at the bottom of the flower. It produces seeds inside and turns into fruit upon ripening. 4. Ovule Ovule is the part of the ovary that contains female germ cells and becomes seed after fertilization.EvolutionThe closest relatives of gymnosperms remain a mystery, but the uniqueangiosperm flower probably evolved from an extinct gymnosperm group thathad insect pollinated cones combining male and female reproductive parts.Living gymnosperms are wind-pollinated, but among certain fossil and extantgroups provide evidence of insect pollination in the group. Although insectsfacilitate pollination, they also eat ovules, and it is believed that thedevelopment of ovule-enclosing carpel of angiosperms was an adaptation toprotect the ovules. The carpel also provided protection from other harmfulenvironmental influences, such as dryness, and it allowed reduction in the sizeof the ovule, refinement of the process of the pollination, and the developmentof the other parts of the flower, all of which improved the chance of successfulreproduction.Scientific ClassificationAngiosperm is the common name for the division Magnoliophyta.Angiosperms are divided into two classes, the Mangliopsida and Lilopsida,popularly termed as monocots and dicots, representing separate evolutionarylines that must have diverged early in the history of the group. The directpredecessor of angiosperms are thought to have been woody gymnosperms.Monocots are more advanced than dicots, and they evolved from a primitivedicot group.MonocotsMonocots are the plants, which contain only one leafor cotyledon in their seed. They are the primary foodComposed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 3
  4. 4. Angiosperms, the Flowering Plantssource for the much of the planet, whether we eat them or feed them to theother animals. Maize and wheat are the common examples of monocots.The monocots have parallel veins in their leaves. The flower possesses thepetals and sepals in the number of multiple of three. The arrangement ofprimary vascular bundles in the stem is scattered.DicotsDicots are the plants with two cotyledons or seedleaves. Most of our fruits and vegetables are dicots.Most shrubs, some herbs and some trees areincluded in this group.Dicots have scattered or net like venation. The flowering parts exist in fours orfives and the arrangement of primary vascular bundles in these plants is in aring shape.Medicinal Uses of AngiospermsAngiosperms provide many useful medicinal ingredients which are used tomaintain a good health and to treat several disorders. Some important fruits and their medicinal uses are listed below. 1. Apple Apple is a nutrient-rich fruit which contains many useful ingredients and nutrients like Phosphorus and Iron etc. Apple juice is used as an inflammatory for the digestive tract. It also decreases the acidity of the stomach. Apple acts as both anti-diarrheal and laxative. Its juice helps to dissolve access fats, thus decreasing obesity. It is also used to treat cough and bronchitis. Apple decreases the risk of cancer, especially that of digestive tract. Apple juice is a good skin conditioner. It also reduces the fever and enhances the hearing ability.Composed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 4
  5. 5. Angiosperms, the Flowering Plants 2. Grapes Grapes are the source of many essential metals like cobalt and iron and vitamins like B1, B2, B6 and B12. Its juice has been used to treat metabolism disorders. Grapes are also beneficial in treating the disorders of liver, kidney, lungs as well as cardiovascular problems. This fruit is anti-inflammatory and laxative. Grape also helps with nervous disorders, hypertension and bronchitis. It helps to get rid of anemia and has been proved to treat tuberculosis. 3. Apricot Apricot contains vitamin B17 and many other useful nutrients. It decreases the risk of cancer, boosts the immune system and acts as a laxative. It has been proved useful in treating anemia. It is also useful in treating respiratory disorders including cough. Apricot oil is used to make medicines for the treatment of skin diseases. 4. Pomegranate Pomegranate juice is cardio-protective, as it maintains the level of cholesterol, thus protecting heart by maintaining the blood pressure in a normal range. It is a good tonic for heart and also enhances the function of liver and kidneys. It is a good laxative and also treats the stomach inflammation. Pomegranate has been proved as anticancer and inhibitor against TB. Its juice inhibits the replication of viral genomes including herpes simplex virus. Juice of pomegranate decreases the fever due to its antiseptic properties. It is also beneficial in diarrhea. 5. CherryComposed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 5
  6. 6. Angiosperms, the Flowering Plants Cherry is a remedy for insomnia, arthritis, nausea, depression, headache and abdominal cramps. It destroys the pathogens which cause diseases, thus help our immune system to protect us from attack of disease causing agents. Cherry is rich in antioxidants, so it prevents cancer and heart diseases. It is a very good source of fiber and Vitamin C. It improves our memory, reduces body and muscle pain and also reduces the risk of colon cancer. 6. Pear Pear enhances the function of kidney and is beneficial in obesity, hypertension, dropsy, nephritis, kidney stones and in inflammation of urine bladder. The juice of pear is externally applied on the body to reduce pain. It is the source of vitamins and helps in loss of excess weight. 7. Peach Peach has antioxidant properties and is helpful in preventing the cancer. Its ingredients (carotenes) keep our arteries healthy and also enhance our sight or vision. They help our skin to fight against sun radiation and prevent the dryness of the skin. Peach treats digestive ulcers. It contains an ingredient, the selenium, which provides protection to the heart. It strengthens our bones and also enhances the nervous system.Importance of AngiospermsAngiosperms are the source of 80% of world’s food. Apart from this, they provide oxygen to us, as all other plants do. They are source of many medicines. Angiosperms provide lumber for construction of buildings and for the manufacturing of furniture. They provide fuel. TheComposed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 6
  7. 7. Angiosperms, the Flowering Plantsplants clean our atmosphere by absorbing greenhouse gases like carbondioxide and adding oxygen to it. The large members of the group are theeffective wind breakers. They decrease soil erosion and also provide habitatfor many organisms. Read this article on HeavenGB.comFor more notes and quality study material related with Biological Sciences,visit HeavenGB.comCopyright 2012. HeavenGB.comhttp://heavengb.comComposed by: Rehmat Alam, Student of BS Hons, Plant Sciences at KIU Gilgit, Pakistan. http://HeavenGB.com Page 7

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