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Fact and opinion


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  • 1. Fact and Opinion Paper 1 Section A
  • 2. Assessment Objective…
    • AO2 Reading EN2:
    • (ii) distinguish between fact and opinion and evaluate how information is presented.
    • ( key words here are ‘distinguish’ and ‘evaluate’)
  • 3. The examination questions…
    • The questions for section A of Paper 1 will focus on:
    • Facts
    • Opinions
    • Arguments
    • Reasons
    • Interpretation skills
    • Presentational and structural features
    • Language analysis…
    • in Media and Non –fiction texts
  • 4. From 2009 paper…
    • How do the writers of Item 2 use facts and opinions to try to persuade the reader to support friends of the Earth?
    • 7 marks
  • 5. Key word : ‘Use’
    • In order to decide the use(s) being made by the writer of the text, you need to take into account audience, purpose and effect
  • 6. The mark scheme states…
    • Facts: * any details from the list of bullet points
    • * the direct debit details
    • * numbers at the bottom
    • Uses: * to shock reader
    • * to give scientific support to the argument
    • * to stress the importance of the situation
    • * to encourage the reader to join
  • 7. The mark scheme states…
    • Opinions : * the rest of the leaflet
    • * the typed views on the outside of leaflet
    • Uses : * to shock
    • * to frighten us into action
    • * to make you think you can save the earth
    • * to galvanise… etc
  • 8. Definitions…
    • A fact is what can be proved to be true;
    • things we know for certain; there is evidence to back it up
    • e.g. The Isle of Anglesey is situated off the north-west coast of Wales, near the Snowdonia mountain range.
  • 9. Definitions
    • Opinions are personal views; some people will agree with them, some will not; they are likely to be someone’s interpretations of events or details
    • E.g. Anglesey is the best resort in Britain. It has lovely beaches, superb restaurants and excellent facilities.
  • 10. Many texts are a mixture of fact and opinion
    • The soldiers have been accused of terrible atrocities. They have tortured and degraded the prisoners who now hold them in nothing but contempt.
  • 11. How to differentiate between fact and opinion…
    • One way to locate facts is to scan the text for dates/facts/statistics/other numbers and use of capital letters for proper nouns.
    • You can find opinions by scanning for certain words too:
    • - adjectives/adverbs/verbs/superlatives/hyperbole/
    • emotive language
  • 12. Differentiating…
    • Adjectives : flamboyant superstar
    • chronic poverty
    • Adverbs : apparently, allegedly, supposedly
    • Verbs: seem ,appear, suggest, might, may, should, could, would
    • Superlatives : greatest, most intelligent
    • Hyperbole : the most amazing
    • Emotive language : terrible, worrying
    • TASK…
  • 13. Task…
    • Quickly read the text Inches from tragedy and make a list of facts and opinions.
    • Are there more facts than opinions in the article?
    • Why do you think this is the case?
  • 14. Answer
    • Facts : -names ages and relationships of men
    • -place and time of event
    • -statistics of measurement
    • - order of events e.g. airlifted to hospital
    • Opinions: - seemed an eternity
    • -quite a small avalanche
    • -pretty cheerful
    • -relieved to be alive
  • 15. However…
    • You have to be able to evaluate (explain/comment on) the way facts and opinions are used by writers.
    • The mark scheme shown earlier highlighted the uses. Can you remember what they were? Don’t peep!
    • Now complete the TASK in your pack.
    • By the end of the session you should know how to locate facts and opinions and be able to comment on the use being made of them in the texts.
    • You should also have a list of the possible uses. Does it look like this?
  • 16. Uses…
    • To persuade (e.g. a reader to do something, like join a group or give money)
    • To shock
    • To entertain (with humour)
    • To reinforce a point
    • To support an argument
    • To emphasise (e.g. a risk)
    • To illustrate (e.g. a trend)
    • To dramatise
    • To make an opinion credible
    • To encourage action
    • To provide interest ( for a specific audience)
    • To change opinion
    • To gain sympathy
    • To show a range of views/thoughts/feelings…
  • 17. Continued…
    • To move the reader
    • To target a particular audience
    • To instruct
    • To advise
    • To question
    • To analyse
  • 18. TASK…
    • 1. How does Bill Bryson convey his feelings about the guest house to you?
    • Comment on his use of fact and opinion.
    • 2. How does Bryson use fact and opinion to show his attitude to the resort as a whole?
  • 19.
    • Good Luck!