Psy492 Bossenmaier S Power PointPresentation Transcript
Literature Review Adolescent Suicide and Alienation By Sunny Bossenmaier
The objective of this review is to explore the current complications ofadolescent suicide, and to introduce the importance of alienation and parental relationships in intervention and prevention strategies.
Suicide in adolescence is not just defined by its finality of life; it is characterized by years of mental anguish and suffering that is prolonged, intense, and unmanageable.
The death leaves the family members, friends, and loved ones trying to make sense of what appears to them to be a senseless act, and to deal with their own feelings of loss, guilt, and shame without answers.
Nationally, suicide is the third leading cause of death in fifteen to twenty-four year olds, tripled
Ninety percent of those that die by suicide have been diagnosed with some form of mental
disorder including depression (CDC, 2011)
Risks Personal characteristicsinclude: mental disorders . a history of a prior suicide attempt . substance abuse personality factors . cognitive factors
Personal Characteristics Risks Continued biological factors . demographic factors . race issues
Family related factors include: Family Related Risks
History of suicidal behavior in the family
History of depression and substance abuse within the family
Family disruption or separation
Damaged parent-child relationships
(Joiner & Ribeiro, 2005).
Adverse life situations include:
Stressful life events
Legal or behavior problems
(Joiner & Ribeiro, 2005)
Socio-environmental factors include Peer relationships . Dropping out of school . Unemployment . Media Impact Socio-economic status . Availability of lethal means . Social isolation Barriers with mental health treatment (Joiner & Ribeiro, 2005)
Protective Factors family unity . community and social support . problem solving and conflict resolution skills cultural or religious beliefs . self-esteem . self-awareness . availability of a caring adult effective clinical interventions (Joiner & Ribeiro, 2005)
Methodology and Findings
Sample variation limits the ability to generalize to other situations
Research is needed to compare individual coping styles andthe relationship to
amending risk factors.
Methodology and Findings Continued
Strengths impact different individuals at different times in different ways
Further empirical data is necessary in more universal situations, to make specific claims
with the data collected (De Man, 1999; Kakhnovets, Young,Purnell, Huebner, & Bishop, 2010; Taylor et al., 2011). (Jiang, Perry, Hesser, 2010; Kaminski, Paddy, Hall, Cashman, Crosby, Ortega, 2009)
Interventions School programs .Problem solving / coping skills . Trainings and screening programs. Emotional problems / family disruption support . Fire arm restriction . Media influence training (Kakhnovets, Young,Purnell, Huebner, & Bishop, 2010 )
Barriers to Effective Interventions Stigma of mental illness and suicide . Financial barriers .Mental health system barriers Fragmented services in rural areas . School-based programs lack communication with support agencies. Lack of attention to the importance of family to the suicide prevention process (Jiang, Perry, Hesser, 2010; Kaminski, Puddy, Hall, Cashman, Crosby, Ortega, 2009)
Strengths and Limitations of the Studies
Literature and research missing in certain demographic groups in regards to alienation
Lack of demographic variation does not allow generalizing over populations
(De Man, 1999; Kakhnovets, Young,Purnell, Huebner, & Bishop, 2010; Taylor et al., 2011)
Strengths and Limitations Continued Researchfrom retrospect information Datacan not be generalized over both populations Not enough research to what degree of effectrisk factors have on the event Questions to how effective prevention interventions are due to risk factor influence (Joiner & Ribeiro, 2005)
Ongoing investigation as to how suicideis influenced by the aspect of alienation
Morein-depth qualitative research in how geographic, demographic, and cultural aspects affectcoping skills
Which precise facet of school environment might bemost likely or most unlikely to prevent
the development of suicidal behavior or impact the issue (Jiang, Perry, Hesser, 2010; Kaminski, Puddy, Hall, Cashman, Crosby, Ortega, 2009)
Further Research Continued
Canboth the connectedness factor and suicidal thoughts and behaviors be influence by anothershared variable
Whether thoughts and behaviors related to suicide cause adolescents to become less socially connected
Need to see what biological differences there are between people who commit lethal suicide and those who are unsuccessful, and the relationship to alienation
Additional research is needed to find interventionand prevention tactics as children are committing suicide at the alarming rate of about 5,000 each year, with hundreds of thousands making the attempt.
The rate of deaths in children and young adults due to suicide will continue to grow as more lethal means for attempts are more accessible and the factor of alienation within families continues to skyrocket in our country.
Summary and Conclusion Continued
School is where mostinterventions for adolescents are made.
Most school prevention strategies have focused on the aspects of connectedness to fellow students, teachers, or the academic environment and ignored the important factor of family relationship.
Summary and Conclusion Continued With additional research the importance of supporting positive family connections, in order to increase the effectiveness of suicide prevention programs (Kaminski, Puddy, Hall, Cashman, Crosby, Ortega, 2009)
References Blake, J. J., Kim, E. S., McCormick, A.L., & Hayes, D., (2011). The dimensionality of social victimization: A preliminary investigation. School Psychology Quarterly, 26 (1), 56-69.
Bureau, J.F., Martin, J., Freynet, N., Poirier, A.A., Lafontaine, M.F., & Cloutier, P., (2010). Perceived dimensions of parenting and non-suicidal self-injury in young adults. Adolescense, 39 (5), 484-494.
Center for Disease Control (2011). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/
De Man, A.F., (1999). Correlates of suicide ideation in high school students: the importance of depression. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 160 (1), 105-14.
Everall, R.D., Bostik, K.E., & Paulson, B.L., (2010). I'm sick of being me: developmental themes in a suicidal adolescent. Adolescence, 40 (160), 693-708.
Jiang, Y., Perry, D.K., Hesser, J.E., (2010). Suicide patterns and association with predictors among Rhode Island public high school students: a latent class analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 100 (9), 170-7.
Joiner, T.E., Ribeiro, J.D., (2011). Assessment and management of suicidal behavior in teens. Psychiatric Annals, 41 (4), 220-225.
Kakhnovets, R., Young, H.L., Purnell, A.L., Huebner, E., & Bishop, C., (2010). Self-reported experience of self-injurious behavior in college students. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32 (4), 309-323.
Kaminski, J.W., Puddy, R.W., Hall, D.M., Cashman, S.Y., Crosby, A.E., Ortega, L.A., (2010). The relative influence of different domains of social connectedness on self-directed violence in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39 (5), 460-73.
Mazza, J.J., Fleming, C.B., Abbott, R.D., Haggerty K.P., & Catalano, R.F., (2010). Identifying trajectories of adolescents’ depressive phenomena: an examination of early risk factors, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39 (6), 579-593.
Taylor, P. J., Gooding, P., Wood, A., & Tarrier, N., (2011). The role of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety, and suicide. Psychological Bulletin, 137 (3), 391-420.