The need for food
All living beings need food which provide the necessary nutrients
to survive, thrive and grow.
Components of food
Before we get into details of food and nutrition, we need
to learn that water, fiber and nutrients are the
three important Components of food.
Each of them have their special functions
Carbs are the body's most important source of energy.
They help your body use fat and protein for building and
repairing tissue. You should consume maximum of this food
group. But there are good carbs and bad carbs.
PROTEINS are like your Lego bricks. They are essential
nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building
blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source.
Vitamins & Minerals
Vitamins are are like the soldiers of your body.
They protect you from diseases and infections and
help the organs grow and function properly.
Used to form hemoglobin which is
an important component of your
blood. Lack of hemoglobin will
cause you to feel tired. Vitamin
A is also needed for kids to
grow strong and healthy.
Get your daily dose of Vitamin A
from Green lafy veggies,
carrots, dark orange citrus
fruits like oranges, pumkin,
tomatoes, beans and dark
Vitamins & Minerals
B vitamins are actually a group of Vitamins and are
individually named from B1 to 9 and then B12. They
are some of the most important vitamins in our
body and the lack of them can cause serious
problems like fatigue, memory loss, irregular
growth and so on and so forth. So kids, this one
Vitamin is very essential for you.
Vitamins & Minerals
Vitamin C is important for strong bones and
teeth. It helps in keeping infections
away as with healing of the body. It
contains anti-oxidants which keep our
gums and muscles healthy.
Vitamins & Minerals
Without this important vitamin, our body
will not be able to absorb calcium which
is so important for our bones. Sunlight
is the most important source of
Vitamin D. therefore you kids have to
spend at least some time playing in
Vitamin E is like a tonic for the skin. Get a
lovely, lustrous and glowing skin by
eating foods rich in Vitamin E like
Fortified cereals, sunflower seeds,
almonds, peanut butter, vegetable oils
Iron helps red blood cells carry
oxygen to all parts of the body. Symptoms
of iron-deficiency anemia include weakness and
lightheadedness, and shortness of breath.
Calcium is vital for building strong bones
and teeth. The time to build strong
bones is during childhood and the teen
years, so it's very important to get
enough calcium now to fight against
bone loss later in life.
Zinc is important for normal growth,
strong immunity, and wound healing.
Magnesium helps muscles and nerves
function, steadies the heart
rhythm, and keeps bones
strong. It also helps the body
create energy and make
Phosphorus helps form healthy bones and
teeth. It also helps the body make
energy. It is part of every cell
membrane, and every cell in the body
needs phosphorus to function normally.
Potassium helps with heart, muscle,
and nervous system function. It
also helps the body maintain the
balance of water in the blood and
Fats, like carbs, provide ENERGY to the body. In fact, fats
provide twice as much as energy and calories in comparison
with carbs. But is a very tricky food group. You should
consume least of this food group or else you will
Eating too much of it can cause more harm than good.
So better beware,
A Balanced diet
Eatright,thinkrightNow that you have learnt about food groups in the Nutrients chapter,
Lets learn about the Food Pyramid. This diagram will simply tell you
The amount of food to be consumed in each food group. As you go
higher up the pyramid, the lesser quantities of that
food group should be consumed. This is the recommended daily intake for
children aged 8 – 13.
Grain group (5 – 6 servings)
Bring colour to your food
Remember the rainbow while choosing what to eat.
Tell your mom to include plenty of colourful fruits and
vegetables while making her grocery list.
Avoid white foods
Avoid foods which contain refined flours, too much sugar, salt. Eat unrefined
varieties of the same. For e.g. have brown bread instead
of white, have multigrain roti instead of plain roti,
sweet potatoes and yams instead of potatoes etc.
Proper food habits
•Eat at least five portions of a variety of fruit and veg
•Choose fruit and veg of different colours and have a
mixture of cooked and fresh foods.
•Make sure you get some amount of exercise everyday
like cycling, running, walking and more.
•Tell your mom to grill, bake, poach, boil, steam, dry-
fry or microwave instead of frying or roasting in oil.
•Eat a variety of protein foods such as pulses, soya,
tofu, dairy products, and nuts.
•Avoid too much sugars in the forms of candies, cakes
•Try not to add extra salt to your food at the table.
•Drink about 1.2 liters (6 to 8 glasses) of water a day;
more if you run around a lot and are an active child.
Also carry a water bottle with you always.
Just as there are many types of cuisines and foods,
there are various methods of cooking depending on
where you stay and what you eat. Primarily, you can
cook with wet heat and dry heat. Here are some of
the most common methods you will see your mother
using while cooking.
With roasting, direct heat is applied
to the food. The heat seals the
outside part of the food and the juice
inside the food cooks the food. When
heat is applied to the outer covering
of the food, it seals it up thereby
trapping all the juices inside the food.
The action of direct heating, heats up
the juices inside the food, which then
cooks the food. Again there is very
little nutrient lost and the flavour is
not spoilt. Examples of roasted
foods are rotis, bhutta (corn) and
In baking method of
cooking, the food is
cooked using convection
heating. The food is put
into an enclosed area
where heat is then
applied and the
movement of heat
within the confined
space, acts on the food
that make it get cooked.
Your birthday cake,
your favourite pizza,
croissants are all
COOKING WITH DRY HEAT
To steam food, water is added to a
pot and then a stand is placed inside
the pot. The water level should be
under the stand and not above it.
There is no contact between the food
and the water that is added to the
pot. Food is then placed on the stand
and heat is applied. The hot steam
rising from the boiling water acts on
the food and the food gets cooked.
This method of cooking for
vegetables is very good as the food
does not lose its flavour and much of
the nutrients are not lost during the
Examples of steamed foods are
idlis, modaks, momos, vegetables
etc.Grilling is a form of cooking that
involves dry heat applied to the
surface of food, commonly from
above or below. Grilling usually
involves quite a lot of direct,
radiant heat, and tends to be
used for cooking quickly
vegetables, paneer etc. that
have already been cut into slices
(or other pieces).
Examples of grilled food are
your yummy grilled sandwich,
paneer shashlik etc.
COOKING WITH DRY HEAT
This is the most common method of
cooking and is also the simplest. With
this method of cooking, enough water
is added to food and it is then cooked
over the fire. The action of the
heated water makes the food to get
cooked. The liquid is usually thrown
away case of cooking rice, all the
water is absorbed by the rice grains
to make it get cooked. During the
heating process, the nutrients can get
lost or destroyed and the flavour can
be reduced with this method of
Your mother boils milk, rice and
potatoes on a daily basis in her
Food cooked in vegetable oils or
ghee is called the process of
frying. In shallow frying, food is
cooked in a frying pan with a
little amount of oil or fat. The
oil or fat is heated to the
correct amount and the food is
put into the heated oil.
Poories, french fries, pakodas, aaloo
vadas are examples of fried foods.
COOKING WITH WET HEAT
Food has been preserved for centuries. Methods of
preservation have evolved over time with more and
more machines being brought into the process.
Food is preserved simple to save for a rainy
day…i.e. in case of shortage or famine. Today, food
is preserved to make cooking easier for the busy
home maker. Let us see the various methods of
Canning involves cooking food, sealing
it in sterile cans or jars, and boiling
the containers to kill or weaken any
remaining bacteria as a form of
sterilization. Sweet corn, baked
beans, olives, fruits, juices etc are
Some foods are preserved by freezing them.
Vegetables, paneer and in some countries,
peoplealso half-roast rotis and freeze
Also called Pasteurization after the famous
scientist Louis Pasteur, milk is a common
example of preservation by boiling.
Dehydration involves removing all the
moisture out of the food product
since water and humidity can spoil
the food. Peas, vegetables, spices,
papads, dry fruits are examples.
The most common examples are something
you see on your breakfast table every
day. Jams, marmalades, murabba are all
examples of presevation by adding sugar
Food is stored in salt to preserve it from
spoiling. Pickles are a common example of
And finally…Fun food facts
Honey is the only food that does not spoil.
Honey found in the tombs of Egyptian
pharaohs has been tasted by
archaeologists and found edible.
Half of the world’s population live on a staple
diet of rice.
Vitamin A is known to prevent “night
blindness,” and carrots are loaded with
Vitamin A. One carrot provides more than
200% of recommended daily intake of
Peanuts are used in manufacture of
Spotted bananas are sweeter, with a sugar
content of more than 20%, compared
with 3% in a green banana.
Project made by:
Kiara A. S. Karir
Std; IV A
Roll no. 16