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A POWER POINT PRESENTATION BY DR.SANGEETA CHOWDHRY & DR.SUNIL SHARMA, DEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY, GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE, JAMMU (JAMMU AND KASHMIR)

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  • 1. A POWER POINT PRESENTATION BY DR.SANGEETA CHOWDHRY & DR.SUNIL SHARMADEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE, JAMMU
  • 2. PROSTITUTION
  • 3. There are many definitionof Prostitution. The simplest PROSTITUTIONdefinition says that it is anexchange of money forsexual purpose that isoffering sexual intercoursefor pay or in other words itis an act of sexualintercourse in exchange formoney.
  • 4. Section 373. Buying minor forpurposes of prostitution, etc. PROSTITUTIONWhoever buys, hires or otherwiseobtains possession of any personunder the age of eighteen years withintent that such person shall at anyage be employed or used for thepurpose of prostitution or illicitintercourse with any person or forany unlawful and immoral purpose,of knowing it to be likely that suchperson will at any age be employed orused for any purpose, shall bepunished with imprisonment of eitherdescription for a term which mayextend to ten years, and shall also beliable to fine.
  • 5. Indian Penal Code (IPC)Section 372. Selling minor for purposesof prostitution, etc. PROSTITUTIONWhoever sells, lets to hire, or otherwisedisposes of any person under the age ofeighteen years with intent that suchperson shall at any age be employed orused for the purpose of prostitution orillicit intercourse with any person or forany unlawful and immoral purpose, orknowing it to be likely that such personwill at any age be employed or used forany such purpose, shall be punishedwith imprisonment of either descriptionfor a term which may extend to tenyears, and shall be liable to fine.
  • 6. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION•Street prostitutes•Bar dancers• Call girls• Religious prostitutes• Escort girls• Road side brothel• Child prostitutes• Fricatrice prostitutes• Gimmick prostitutes• Beat prostitutes
  • 7. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION STREET PROSTITUTES
  • 8. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION BAR DANCERS
  • 9. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION CALL GIRLS
  • 10. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION RELIGIOUS PROSTITUTES
  • 11. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION ESCORT GIRLS
  • 12. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION ROAD SIDE PROSTITUTES
  • 13. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION CHILD PROSTITUTES
  • 14. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION FRICATRICE PROSTITUTES
  • 15. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION GIMMICK PROSTITUTES
  • 16. DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROSTITUTION BEAT PROSTITUTES
  • 17. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTIONIll treatment by parentBad companyFamily prostitutesSocial customsInability to arrange marriage Lack of sex education, mediaPrior incest and rapeEarly marriage and desertionLack of recreational facilities, Ignorance and acceptance of prostitutionEconomic causes include poverty and economic distressPsychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection
  • 18. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION ILL TREATMENT BY PARENT
  • 19. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION BAD COMPANY
  • 20. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION FAMILY PROSTITUTES
  • 21. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION SOCIAL CUSTOMS
  • 22. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION INABILITY TO ARRANGE MARRIAGE
  • 23. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION LACK OF SEX EDUCATION, MEDIA
  • 24. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION PRIOR INCEST AND RAPE PRIOR INCEST
  • 25. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION EARLY MARRIAGE AND DESERTION EARLY MARRIAGE DESERTION
  • 26. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION LACK OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES
  • 27. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION IGNORANCE AND ACCEPTANCE OF PROSTITUTION
  • 28. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION ECONOMIC CAUSES INCLUDE POVERTY AND ECONOMIC DISTRESS
  • 29. CAUSES OF PROSTITUTION PSYCHOLOGICAL CAUSES INCLUDE DESIRE FOR PHYSICAL PLEASURE, GREED, AND DEJECTION GREED DEJECTION
  • 30. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTION It is the worlds oldest profession.
  • 31. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONIt existed across cultures and times.
  • 32. MUMBAI ALONE BEING HOME TO OVER 100,000 PROSTITUTES India has the largest market for prostitution in South Asia, with Mumbai alone being home to over 100,000 prostitutes.According to the Human Rights Watch report, 15 million prostitutes of varied age groups, live and work in India.
  • 33. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONEvery hour, four women and girls in India enter prostitution, three of them against their will.
  • 34. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONA large number of prostitutes in India are minors.
  • 35. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONTrading in minor girls is rampant and has increased significantly in recent years.
  • 36. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONA significant portion of the sex workers in India are at the risk of being HIV positive.HIV/AIDS among prostitutes has emerged as a huge cause of concern. According to a WHOreport of 2001,it is estimated that 50% of prostitutes in Mumbai (the city being hub to the largest numberof prostitutes in the country) are HIV positive!
  • 37. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONApart from red light areas, the trade is also carried out in the form of fake massage and escort service centres.
  • 38. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONAll major cities in India have networks of call girls that are run like corporate companies.
  • 39. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONProstitution crosses class lines.
  • 40. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTION HOMOSEXUAL PROSTITUTION FEMALE HETEROSEXUALMale homosexual prostitution has also existed alongside female heterosexual prostitution.
  • 41. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONThe mythologies surrounding virginity and exploitation of young girls in prostitution and sex industry to supply virgin girls is a leading cause for child prostitution.
  • 42. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONExploitative relationship with a pimp or a madam is another dark face of prostitution.
  • 43. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONForced prostitution and human trafficking happens across the world especially in the developing countries.
  • 44. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONCases of repeated rape leading to prostitution is very common.
  • 45. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTION Criminalizing prostitution at the expense of the "female provider" but notenforcing the law to nab the "male customer" is a hard truth of selective law enforcement.
  • 46. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONMethods like raids, undercover police work, moral exhortation and prosecution are biased against the women.
  • 47. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONElimination efforts focused only on the prostitutes and not their customers is the norm of the day.
  • 48. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONElimination or legalization of prostitution and social issues attached to them are not addressed with an open and compassionate mind.
  • 49. SOME SHOCKING FACTS ABOUT PROSTITUTIONConsensus and resultant action to eradicate child prostitution and forced prostitution is stillnot there.
  • 50. IS PROSTITUTION LEGAL IN INDIA?Yes Prostitution is Legal in India!!......................................................... In India, prostitution itself (exchanging sex for money) is not illegal, but thesurrounding activities (operating brothels, pimping, soliciting sex etc) are illegal.
  • 51. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAThe Law governing prostitution in India is Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act which is a1986 amendment to the primary law passed in 1956 {known as the Immoral Traffic(Suppression) Act}. The law does not criminalize prostitution per se but only organizedform of prostitution is against the law. If a woman uses attributes of her body voluntarilyand individually she goes unpunished.
  • 52. IS PROSTITUTION LEGAL IN INDIA?The current laws of India allow prostitution to thrive, but attempt to hide it from the public. Theprimary law dealing with the status of sex workers is the 1956 law referred to as the Immoral Traffic(Suppression) Act (SITA). According to this law, prostitutes can practice their trade privately butcannot legally solicit customers in public. Organized prostitution (brothels, prostitution rings, pimpingetc) is illegal. As long as it is done individually and voluntarily, a woman (male prostitution is notrecognized in the Indian constitution) can use her bodys attributes in exchange for material benefit. Inparticular, the law forbids a sex worker to carry on her profession within 200 yards of a public place.
  • 53. IS PROSTITUTION LEGAL IN INDIA?Unlike as is the case with other professions, sex workers are not protected under normal labour laws,but they possess the right to rescue and rehabilitation if they desire and possess all the rights of othercitizens. In practice SITA is not commonly used. The Indian Penal Code (IPC) which predates the SITAis often used to charge sex workers with vague crimes such as "public indecency" or being a "publicnuisance" without explicitly defining what these consist of. Recently the old law has been amended asThe Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act or PITA. Attempts to amend this to criminalise clients have beenopposed by the Health Ministry, and have encountered considerable opposition.
  • 54. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAImmoral Traffic (Prevention) Act:The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act or PITA is a 1986 amendment of legislation passed in 1956 as a result of thesigning by India of the United Nations declaration in 1950 in New York on the suppression of trafficking.The act was then called the All India Suppression of Immoral Traffic Act (SITA), was amended to the current law. Thelaws were intended as a means of limiting and eventually abolishing prostitution in India by gradually criminalizingvarious aspects of sex work. The main points of the PITA are as follows:
  • 55. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAClients:A client is guilty of consorting with prostitutes and can be charged if he engages in sex actswith a sex worker within 200 yards of a public place or "notified area". (Imprisonment ofup to 3 months,) The client may also be punished if the sex worker is below 18 years of age.(From 7 to 10 years of imprisonment, whether with a child or a minor )
  • 56. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAPimps and Babus: Babus or pimps or live-in lovers who live off a prostitutes earnings areguilty of a crime. Any adult male living with a prostitute is assumed to be guilty unless hecan prove otherwise. (Imprisonment of up to 2 years with fine.)
  • 57. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIABrothel: Landlords and brothel-keepers can be prosecuted, maintaining a brothel is illegal. (From 1 to 3 yearsimprisonment with fine for first offence.) Detaining someone at a brothel for the purpose ofsexual exploitation can lead to prosecution. (Imprisonment of more than 7 years.)
  • 58. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAProcuring and trafficking: A person procures or attempts to procure anybody are liable tobe punished. Also a person who moves a person from one place to another, (humantrafficking), can be prosecuted similarly. (From 3 to 7 years imprisonment with fine.)
  • 59. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIA Rescued Women “Prostitution-free area"Rescued Women: The government is legally obligated to provide rescue and rehabilitation in a "protective home" forany sex worker requesting assistance.Public place in context of this law includes places of public religious worship, educational institutions, hostels,hospitals etc. A "notified area" is a place which is declared to be "prostitution-free" by the state government underthe PITA. Brothel in context of this law, is a place which has two or more sex workers. Prostitution itself is not anoffence under this law, but soliciting, brothels and pimps are illegal home.
  • 60. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAThe law prohibits/criminalize-under some conditions mentioned in the upcoming slides
  • 61. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIASeduction/solicitation of customer
  • 62. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAAnywhere near a public place. In particular, the law forbids a sex worker to carry on her profession within 200 yards of a public place. (IMPRISONMENT OF UP TO 3 MONTHS WITH FINE)
  • 63. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIA Publication of phone number of call girls (IMPRISONMENT UP TO 6 MONTHS WITH FINE)
  • 64. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAOrganized form of prostitution i.e. a brothel, pimps, Prostitution rings etc.
  • 65. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAA sex worker being below 18 years of age
  • 66. THE LAW GOVERNING PROSTITUTION IN INDIAProcurement and trafficking of women
  • 67. WHY PROSTITUTION?Most women who enter the prostitution industry don’t do so voluntarily. Indian culture looks down atthe idea of selling one’s body for money or other material gains. Most women are forced into theindustry for a variety of reasons – the most common being poverty. A woman from a poor family,usually illiterate and with no skills to find a job chooses to enter this profession. For such women, anaccidental encounter with a pimp is an opportunity to supplement the meagre family income or toeducate their children. At times, poverty stricken parents sell their daughters to brothels in exchangefor money. They think their girls would have a better life at a brothel – at least better than the life theylead at home.
  • 68. WHY PROSTITUTION?Some women are lured into the job by dishonest relatives, friends, boyfriends andhusbands. Since brothels buy women for money, acquaintances and lovers lure women onpromises of marriage or job sand sell them to brothels.Women, whose mothers, sisters or other close friends or relatives are in the profession, arequite likely to become prostitutes themselves.
  • 69. THE TRAFFICKING PROCESSEvery year, thousands of Nepalese girls and women are trafficked illegally across the Indo-Nepal border. Girls as young as nine year olds are bought for 1000 to 50,000 Rupees.Trafficking girls is rampant because the police fall for the money as well as offer to visit thebrothel free of cost.Similarly, poor girls begging on roadsides in various cities of India are rounded up andtaken to brothels.
  • 70. THE TRAFFICKING PROCESSAt the brothel, they are subjected to a tutorial where they are taught how to keep theirclients happy, and are also exposed to various kinds of pornographic content. They arerepeatedly raped by the pimps if they do not agree to get in the trade consensually. Girlswho don’t cooperate and refuse to have sex are subjected to brutal, inhumane treatment.They are manhandled, tied up and hit, tortured, locked up in dark windowless chambersfor days without food and water, and raped repeatedly until they give in.
  • 71. LIFE IN A BROTHELBrothels normally consist of several rooms or chambers, with grilled windows, wherewomen are locked up. It is a distressing sight, with women caged behind bars, with menlooking into each chamber to find the woman they like best. The brothels look like shacks –dark, melancholy, dirty and airless.Five to six years is the average work life of a sex worker, after this period she is tooexhausted or diseased to work, or she has had children of her own.
  • 72. THE GOVERNMENT’S ATTITUDEIf there is any community that requires the government’s assistance and rehabilitation, it is theprostitute’s community. It is a sad fact but women are forced into the profession and imprisoned atbrothels. It is incorrect to prosecute and punish a woman for working in a brothel, though it is illegal,because most women aren’t there out of their own free will. However, pimps and people involved in thetrafficking process should be heavily penalized and punished.
  • 73. Justice Dalveer Bhandari JUSTICE AK PatnaikNEW DELHI: The Supreme Court on 10th December, 2009 asked the Centre whether it could legalize prostitution ifit wasnt possible to curb it."When you say it is the worlds oldest profession and when you are not able to curb it by laws, why dont you legalizeit? You can then monitor the trade, rehabilitate and provide medical aid to those involved," Justices Dalveer Bhandariand AK Patnaik told Solicitor-General Gopal Subramaniam."They (sex workers) have been operating in one way or the other and nowhere in the world have they been able tocurb it by legislation. In some cases, they (the trade) is carried out in a sophisticated manner. So, why dont youlegalize it?" the judges asked.
  • 74. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF LEGALIZING THE SEX TRADE IN INDIAThe first and foremost argument put forth by the proponents of legalization of prostitutionis that it is inevitable. The benefit is that we will have a track record of sex workers andthus can design a comprehensive strategy to combat the medical and other problems facedby them.Here are some of the advantages of legalizing the prostitution industry in India:-
  • 75. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF LEGALIZING THE SEX TRADE IN INDIAIt will help in ensuring proper rehabilitation of people engaged in the trade.Legalization of prostitution will also help in avoiding exploitation of the sexworkers and their children by the middlemen.It will also help the workers to have access to adequate medical facilities for thetreatment of their ailments.It will end the exploitation of minors.
  • 76. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR OF LEGALIZING THE SEX TRADE IN INDIAIt will reduce the criminal and human trafficking activities associated with prostitution.Legalization will also reduce clandestine, hidden, illegal and street prostitution that ishazardous to life and good health.However, till the industry is actually legalized, it is essential that Indian laws be framednot only to curb the exploitation of the sex workers but also change the mentality of thepeople who indulge in such activities.
  • 77. CONCLUSION...................Legalization of prostitution is a debatable and ongoing controversy in India. However, it helps toremember that prostitution has flourished as an industry for so many years despite being illegal.Legalizing it, on the one hand, could push more women as well as pimps to enter the business. On theother hand, legalization gives the government and police authorities more control over the brothel’sactivities; it may be possible to ensure that only women who want to work voluntarily are employedthere, and that they receive payment, without being exploited or beaten. Also, women who have beenforced into the business need to be rescued and rehabilitated.The need of the hour is to stop trafficking, because trafficking is a major cause of prostitution. 80 percent prostitutes are trafficked or forced into the business. So let us all join hands to get rid of this socialevil.
  • 78. ANY SUGGESTIONS PLEASE...........