Forensic psychiatry
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Forensic psychiatry

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A POWER POINT PRESENTATION BY DR.SANGEETA CHOWDHRY & DR.SUNIL SHARMA, DEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC MEDICINE & TOXICOLOGY, GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE, JAMMU (JAMMU AND KASHMIR)

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  • 1. A POWER POINT PRESENTATIONBYDR.SANGEETA CHOWDHRY&DR.SUNIL SHARMAUNDER THE GUIDANCEOFDR. BHUPESH KHAJURIAPROFESSOR AND HEADDEPARTMENT OF FORENSIC MEDICINE&TOXICOLOGYGOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGEJAMMU (JAMMU AND KASHMIR)5/22/2013 1A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 2. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY5/22/2013 2A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 3. When you live in the shadow of insanity, the appearance ofanother mind that thinks and talks as yours does is sometimesclose to a blessed event.5/22/2013 3A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 4. When you speak to God its called praying; but whenGod speaks to you its called schizophrenia.5/22/2013 4A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 5. A man might say that he picked a pocket from someuncontrollable impulse, and in that case the law wouldhave an uncontrollable impulse to punish him for it5/22/2013 5A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 6. PSYCHIATRY5/22/2013 6A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 7. PSYCHIATRY:-It is the branchof medical science whichdeals with study, diagnosis,treatment, prevention ofmental illness and behavioraldisorders.5/22/2013 7A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 8. 5/22/2013 8A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 9. FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY:-deals with the application ofpsychiatry in theadministration of justice.5/22/2013 9A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 10. INSANITY OR UNSOUNDNESS OFMIND5/22/2013 10A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 11. INSANITY OR UNSOUNDNESSOF MIND:- can be defined as adisease of the mind whicheffects the personality,mental status, criticalfaculties, emotionalprocesses and interactionwith social environment.5/22/2013 11A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 12. MENTALLY ILL PERSON5/22/2013 12A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 13. MENTALLY ILL PERSON:- anyperson who is in need oftreatment by reason of anymental disorder other thanmental retardation.5/22/2013 13A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 14. SOME COMMON PSYCHIATRYTERMSAbreaction:-This is arelease phenomenonwhere old, forgottenthings or events arebrought into consciousstate again.5/22/2013 14A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 15. ABREACTION5/22/2013 15A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 16. AFFECTIt is commonly calledmood or feeling.5/22/2013 16A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 17. AFFECT5/22/2013 17A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 18. AMNESIALoss of memory about aperson or event is called„amnesia‟.5/22/2013 18A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 19. AMNESIA5/22/2013 19A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 20. APHASIALoss of sensory or motorability to express by useof speech or writing iscalled „aphasia‟.5/22/2013 20A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 21. 5/22/2013 21A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 22. BINET-SIMON TESTIt is done to determinethe intelligent quotientof an individual.5/22/2013 22A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 23. 5/22/2013 23A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 24. CONFABULATIONUnconscious filling of gaps inmemory by imagining experiencesor events that have no basis infact, commonly seen in amnesticsyndrome. Confabulation isconsidered “honest lying,” but isdistinct from lying because there istypically no intent to deceive andthe individual is unaware that theirinformation is false.5/22/2013 24A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 25. 5/22/2013 25A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 26. CIRCUMSTANTIALITYWhen a person is not able toanswer properly, in a straightmanner, and keeps on givingirrelevant details or wandersoff the subject many times ina conversation, the conditionis called circumstantiality.5/22/2013 26A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 27. CIRCUMSTANTIALITY5/22/2013 27A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 28. COMPULSIONIt is a repetitive behaviourdone by an individual inspite of knowing that it isnot correct. Examplesbeing, repeatedly washinghands, checking lockedpremises again and again.5/22/2013 28A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 29. COMPULSION5/22/2013 29A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 30. DELIRIUMIt is an acute reversible mental disordercharacterised by confusion and impairment ofconsciousness, disorientation(mostcommonly time), emotional lability,hallucination, or illusion and inappropriate,impulsive, irrational or violent behavior.The mental faculty of an individual does notwork properly. It may be seen in high gradefevers or due to overwork, mental stress,acute poisoning(dhatura), chronic alcoholicsor drug intoxication.5/22/2013 30A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 31. DELIRIUM5/22/2013 31A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 32. FUGUE STATEThe person becomes awanderer who keeps onmoving from place to place inan altered state of mind. Hehas episodes of amnesia.This stage is seen indepression, schizophreniaand other mental disorders.5/22/2013 32A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 33. FUGUE STATE5/22/2013 33A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 34. ECHOPRAXIARepeating the act ofanother5/22/2013 34A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 35. ECHOPRAXIA5/22/2013 35A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 36. EMPATHYThe degree to which theobserver is able to enterinto the thoughts andfeelings of the patientand establish goodcontact.5/22/2013 36A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 37. EMPATHY5/22/2013 37A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 38. NEGATIVISMDoing just the opposite ofwhat he is asked to do.5/22/2013 38A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 39. 5/22/2013 39A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 40. NEURASTHENIAA condition arising out ofphysical or mentalexhaustion.5/22/2013 40A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 41. NEURASTHENIA5/22/2013 41A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 42. PHOBIAIS AN EXCESSIVEIRRATIONAL FEAR OF APARTICULAR OBJECTOR SITUATION.5/22/2013 42A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 43. 5/22/2013 43A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 44. PARANOIARare psychiatric syndrome markedby the gradual development of ahighly elaborate and complexdelusional system, generallyinvolving persecutory orgrandiose delusions, with fewother signs of personalitydisorientation or thought disorder.5/22/2013 44A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 45. 5/22/2013 45A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 46. PARASUICIDEIt is a conscious oftenimpulsive, manipulative act,undertaken to get rid of anintolerable situation.(attempted suicide orpseudicide)5/22/2013 46A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 47. 5/22/2013 47A SUZY PRESENTATIONPARASUICIDE
  • 48. STUPORUsed synonymously with mutismand does not necessarily imply adisturbance of consciousness; incatatonic stupor, patients areordinarily aware of theirsurroundings.5/22/2013 48A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 49. STUPOR5/22/2013 49A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 50. TWILIGHT STATEDisturbed consciousness of shortduration with hallucination duringwhich the patient may carry outactions of which he has little orno subsequent memory.5/22/2013 50A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 51. 5/22/2013 51A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 52. VEGETATIVE SIGNSIn depression, denotingcharacteristic symptoms,such as sleepdisturbance(especially earlymorning awakening),decreased appetite,constipation, weight loss andloss of sexual response.5/22/2013 52A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 53. VEGETATIVE SIGNS5/22/2013 53A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 54. PSYCHOPATHpsychopath is a person who is neitherinsane nor mentally ill, but fails toconform to the normal standards ofbehavior. It refers to individuals whohave psychopathic personality. Theyare usually antisocial and have longcriminal records. They have noremorse feeling and are not amenableto counseling. Some of them haveextra Y chromosome in theirchromatin.5/22/2013 54A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 55. PSYCHOPATH5/22/2013 55A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 56. ONEIROID STATESIt is a dream like state whichmay last for days or weeks.the patient suffers fromconfusion, amnesia, illusions,hallucination, disorientationagitation and anxiety.5/22/2013 56A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 57. ONEIROID STATES5/22/2013 57A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 58. NEUROSIS AND PSYCHOSISNeurosis is when a patient suffers fromemotional or intellectual disorderswhich causes subjective distress, butdoes not lose touch with reality.Psychosis is characterised by grossimpairment in reality-testing(withdrawl from reality), as if living in aworld of fantasy.5/22/2013 58A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 59. NEUROSIS PSYCHOSIS5/22/2013 59A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 60. PSYCHOSISPsychoses are usually of the following twotypes:1. Manic-depressive Psychosis: It isexpressed in following two phases:(a) Mania phase: In this, the person is veryactive, full of life, talking too much,mostly irreverent, the mood is elated andhe does some action continuously. But hedoes not have touch with reality. He cancommit any crime during this phase.Sleep is very less. Appetite is also less.5/22/2013 60A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 61. PSYCHOSIS(b) Depressive phase: It is just the reverseof mania. The person is very sad, mood isdepressed. The person sits alone and mayspeak very little. Touch with reality is notthere. He may commit suicide. The motorfunctions are also quite depressed. Aperson suffering from manic depressivepsychosis may fluctuate between the twophases of mania and depression. It maybe possible that the person may benormal between the two phases of mania.This may be lucid interval and the personis completely responsible for his actions.5/22/2013 61A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 62. NEUROSISNeurosis is a minor mental illness. It is offollowing types:1. Anxiety Neurosis: It is a very commonvariety. The person remains anxious aboutfuture events, relationships andindividuals. His pulse rate may be high,blood pressure raised, respiratory ratehigh and he may be sweating. He may berestless, confused and apprehensive.Treatment usually involves counseling anduse of anti-anxiety drugs• like diazepam. Meditation also helps a lot.5/22/2013 62A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 63. NEUROSISDepression: It is the reverse of anxiety.Here, a person would be aloof, sad andwithdrawn. His motor activities wouldbe quite less. He may have a lowappetite and may not eat well.However, in chronic cases ofdepression, the person may keep oneating the whole day, while withdrawnat home and hence may gain weight.The following are the types ofdepression commonly seen:5/22/2013 63A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 64. NEUROSISReactive depression: It may be due tosome event or situation like the deathof spouse or a near one, failure inexam, love, etc. It usually remainsthere for sometime. Some form ofreactive depression is seen in allindividuals. Usually, with counselingand use of anti-depressive drugs, mostcome out of it.5/22/2013 64A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 65. NEUROSISEndogenous depression: It is moreserious as its etiology is not knownand develops slowly. Early morningawakening, loss of appetite and mooddepression are quite common. Thisdepression may be associated withpsychosis too, where it carries a badprognosis. Usually with anti-depressivedrugs, most of the individuals recover.5/22/2013 65A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 66. NEUROSISPuerperal depression: A woman who hasrecently delivered may have depressioncommonly called „puerperal depression‟.She may even kill her infant during thistime.(d) Involution depression: During the agegroup of 50–60 years, depression may setin. Delusion of hopelessness andunworthiness may be present. Due todevelopment of hypertension, diabetes orsomatic illness, person may get intodepression. Counseling, along with drugsis very useful.5/22/2013 66A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 67. NEUROSISHypochondriacal depression: In this type ofneurosis, the person usually complains ofvague aches and pains and may keep onvisiting many physicians but of no avail.Usually no treatment is effective.3. Obsessive-compulsive Neurosis: As describedearlier, obsession is a foolish thought which aperson knows but cannot avoid. But once thisthought turns into action, it is calledcompulsion and may lead to obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Common examples arerepeated washing of hands to remove dirt,continuous checking of already lockedpremises, etc.5/22/2013 67A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 68. NEUROSISHysterical Neurosis: It is usually seen infemales where there may be convulsionsor stoppage of breath. Tonic and clonicconvulsions are reported. It should alwaysbe differentiated from epilepsy, which itcan be confused with. In hystericalneurosis, the person will never get hurt orbite the tongue, as it is seen in epilepsy.Some cause or intention can be found outin hysterical neurosis while in epilepsyusually no cause is found. Hystericalneurosis can be treated with counselingor correction of the underlying cause5/22/2013 68A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 69. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEUROSIS ANDPSYCHOSISS.NO FEATURE PSYCHOSIS NEUROSIS1 Contact withrealitylost Preserved2 InterpersonalbehaviorMarked disturbance in realityand behaviorPreserved3 Empathy Absent Present4 Insight Absence of understandingcurrent symptomsSymptoms arerecognised asundesirable5 Organic causativefactorPresent absent6 Symptoms Delusions. Illusions andhallucinationsUsually physical orpsychic symptoms7 Dealing withrealityCapacity is grossly reduced Preserved8 Examples Dementia, Schizophrenia Anxiety, phobia,depression,conversiondisorder5/22/2013 69A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 70. SOMNAMBULISM• This is also called „sleep walking‟. Aperson may move around while asleepand may commit some crime or theft,and then come back normally. He maynot be aware that he has committed acrime.• He will not be held responsible if it isproved that he has done this act whileasleep.5/22/2013 70A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 71. 5/22/2013 A SUZY PRESENTATION 71SOMNAMBULISM
  • 72. COMMON SYMPTOMS OFPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERSDelusionHallucinationIllusionImpulseObsession5/22/2013 72A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 73. DELUSION-DELUSION IS A FALSE BELIEF INSOMETHING WHICH IS NOT A FACT,AND THE BELIEF PERSISTS EVENAFTER ITS FALSITY HAS BEENCLEARLY DEMONSTRATED.5/22/2013 73A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 74. 5/22/2013 74A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 75. TYPES OF DELUSIONSGRANDEUR OR EXALTATIONPERSECUTION(PARANOID)REFERENCEINFLUENCEINFEDILITYSELF-REPROACHNIHILISTICHYPOCHONDRIALOTHER TYPES5/22/2013 75A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 76. DELUSION OF GRANDEUR OREXALTATIONThe person imagines that he is veryrich, powerful, while in reality hemay be a pauper and may squanderaway his money or property. It isusually seen in mania, and may beassociated with delusion ofpersecution.This is a pleasant delusion.5/22/2013 76A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 77. DELUSION OF GRANDEUR OR EXALTATION5/22/2013 77A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 78. DELUSION OFPERSECUTION/PARANOIDThe person imagines that people areafter him and may kill him, poisonhim(wife, sons or parents) or harmhim, or someone is going to rob hisproperty. The person remainssuspicious and depressed and maycommit some crime. ( He may commitsuicide or kill his family members orinnocent person thinking him/her to behis enemy.)5/22/2013 78A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 79. DELUSION OF PERSECUTION/PARANOID5/22/2013 79A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 80. DELUSION OF REFERENCEThe person believes that everybodyis thinking about him only and isbeing referred by all agencies,media and persons around him in allmatters(usually of negative nature)and this may put him in conflict withthe world.5/22/2013 80A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 81. DELUSION OF REFERENCE5/22/2013 81A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 82. DELUSION OFINFLUENCE/CONTROLThe patient complains that histhoughts processes, feelings andactions are being influenced andcontrolled by some external power,like radio, hypnotism or telepathy.On the basis of this imaginary“command”, he may commit anunlawful act.5/22/2013 82A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 83. DELUSION OF INFLUENCE/CONTROL5/22/2013 83A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 84. DELUSION OF INFEDILITY/JEALOUSY-OTHELLO SYNDROMEIn this, the person thinks that his/herspouse is not loyal to him/ her.Usually, males suffer more from thisdelusion as compared to females.The person may commit crime inthis state.5/22/2013 84A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 85. DELUSION OFINFEDILITY/JEALOUSY-OTHELLOSYNDROME5/22/2013 85A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 86. DELUSION OF SELF-REPROCH ORSELF-CRITICISMThe person criticises himself forsome imaginary offence or misdeedcommitted by him in the past. Inserious cases, the person maypunish himself by committingsuicide.5/22/2013 86A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 87. DELUSION OF SELF-REPROCH OR SELF-CRITICISM5/22/2013 87A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 88. NIHILISTIC DELUSIONIn this, the person does not believein his existence or that the worldexists. They may commit suicide orkill others.It is commonly seen in depression.5/22/2013 88A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 89. 5/22/2013 89A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 90. HYPOCHONDRIAL DELUSIONThe person in this delusion thinksthat he is ill always, while medicallyhe may be completely fit. He keepson visiting doctors. Usually theperson gives vague abdominalcomplaints.5/22/2013 90A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 91. HYPOCHONDRIAL DELUSION5/22/2013 91A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 92. SOME OTHER - DELUSIONSSOME OTHER - DELUSIONS5/22/2013 92A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 93. DELUSION OF POVERTYThe patient is convinced that he is,or will be, bereft of all materialpossessions.5/22/2013 93A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 94. DELUSION OF POVERTY5/22/2013 94A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 95. DELUSION OF DOUBLES(DOPPELGANGER)Patient believes that another personhas been physically transformed intothemselves.5/22/2013 95A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 96. DELUSION OF DOUBLES(DOPPELGANGER)5/22/2013 96A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 97. EROTOMANIAIn this, a women thinks that a particularperson, especially superior, is in deeply lovewith her. The erotomanic develops anobsession for the person and starts believingthat the other person is reciprocatingThe object is usually of a higher status, famoussuperior at work but can also be a completestranger.The erotomanic tries to get in close to theperson through telephone calls, e-mails,letters, gifts and visits. More common inwomen than in men.5/22/2013 97A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 98. 5/22/2013 98A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 99. DELUSION OF REPLACEMENT OFSIGNIFICANT OTHERS(CAPRAS SYNDROME)Patient believes that someone closeto him has been replaced by a exactdouble.5/22/2013 99A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 100. DELUSION OF REPLACEMENT OF SIGNIFICANTOTHERS(CAPRAS SYNDROME)5/22/2013 100A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 101. DELUSION OF DISGUISE(FREGOLI‟SPHENOMENON)Strangers are identified as familiarpeople in the patient‟s life.5/22/2013 101A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 102. DELUSION OF DISGUISE(FREGOLI‟S PHENOMENON)5/22/2013 102A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 103. FOLIE A DEUXMental illness shared by twopersons, usually involving a commondelusional system.5/22/2013 103A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 104. FOLIE A DEUX5/22/2013 104A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 105. COTARD DELUSION/SYNDROMEPerson holds a delusional belief thathe/she is dead, does not exist. Isputrefying or has lost his blood orinternal organs.5/22/2013 105A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 106. COTARD DELUSION/SYNDROME5/22/2013 106A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 107. PSEUDOLOGIA FANTASTICAThis is a variation of Munchausen‟ssyndrome in which a person feelsconvinced that he is seriously ill andkeeps on visiting many doctors invain.5/22/2013 107A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 108. PSEUDOLOGIA FANTASTICA5/22/2013 108A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 109. MEDICO-LEGAL IMPORTANCEThe doctrine of diminishedresponsibility is applicable to aninsane person who does an unlawfulact due to delusion, which reduces hispower of reasoning and understandingcapacity, e.g. If he commits some actwhich is not directly related with theeffect of delusion, but has indirectbearing, such a person cannot beregarded as fully responsible for hisillegal acts. ( Section 84 IPC)5/22/2013 109A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 110. HALLUCINATIONIt is a false sensoryperception which manifests without any externalobject or stimulus.They may occur in :-SchizophreniaAffective disordersOrganic mental disordersThey are also seen in insanity and conditions,likeHigh feverDrug intoxicationWithdrawal from drug addiction5/22/2013 110A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 111. HALLUCINATION5/22/2013 111A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 112. TYPES OF HALLUCINATIONVISUALAUDITARYOLFACTORYGUSTATORYTACTILEPSYCHOMOTORLILLIPUTIANSYNESTHESIA5/22/2013 112A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 113. VISUALHALLUCINATIONThe person may see lights or images or scenes. Thepatient experiences non –existent sights. Heobserves something without any being present. Aperson sees a plane in the sky when there is none.Such hallucinations are quite common inschizophrenia, epilepsy and drug withdrawalsyndromes.Visual hallucination may be of following types:-Elementary type:-person sees only flashes of light.Partly organised:- person sees as patterns orunformed images.Completely organised:- person sees as images,figures or image of people, animal or object.5/22/2013 113A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 114. VISUALHALLUCINATION5/22/2013 114A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 115. AUDITORYHALLUCINATIONSFalse perception of sound, usually noises, butalso music. Here, the person hears voices ofknown or unknown persons without any source.They are quite common in schizophrenia. In somecases a person hears a command from God orSatan to do certain acts which may land up theperson in conflict with law. They are also referredas COMMAND HALLUCINATIONS.Elementary type:-person hears only noises.Partly organised:- person hears only music.Completely organised:- person hearshallucinatory voices.5/22/2013 115A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 116. AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS5/22/2013 116A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 117. OLFACTORYHALLUCINATIONSHallucination primarily involvingsmell or odors. There is falsesense of smelling (pleasant/unpleasant/sweet/sour/bitter)without any source. They are feltin schizophrenia and temporallobe epilepsy.5/22/2013 117A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 118. OLFACTORY HALLUCINATIONS5/22/2013 118A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 119. GUSTATORYHALLUCINATIONSHallucinations involving taste.Without any food or drink, thepatient experiences differenttaste.5/22/2013 119A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 120. GUSTATORY HALLUCINATIONS5/22/2013 120A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 121. TACTILE/HAPTICHALLUCINATIONSThey are hallucinations of abnormaltouch. They are commonly seen incocaine addiction where bugs or ratsseems to be creeping in layers ofskin.(Formication)Some patients experiences feeling ofcold winds blowing on them orsensation of heat present over skin;actually things are not present.5/22/2013 121A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 122. TACTILE/HAPTIC HALLUCINATIONS5/22/2013 122A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 123. LILLIPUTIAN (MICROPSIA)HALLUCINATIONSIn this a person perceives objectsto be of a much smaller size thanthey actually are.5/22/2013 123A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 124. LILLIPUTIAN (MICROPSIA) HALLUCINATIONS5/22/2013 124A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 125. PSYCHOMOTOR/KINESTHETICHALLUCINATIONThere is feeling of movement of apart of the body, say a limb, thoughin reality, there is no suchmovement.5/22/2013 125A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 126. PSYCHOMOTOR HALLUCINATION5/22/2013 126A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 127. SYNESTHESIA HALLUCINATIONA stimulus perceived by a sensoryorgan other than the one thatshould actually perceive it. e.g.visualising music, hearingdifferent colours, etc.5/22/2013 127A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 128. SYNESTHESIA HALLUCINATION5/22/2013 128A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 129. SOME COMMON FACTS ABOUTHALLUCINATIONSVisual hallucinations are the commonest in organicmental disorders (delirium tremens)Auditory hallucinations in functional (non-organic)disorders (schizophrenia)Gustatory hallucinations in temporal lobe epilepsyOlfactory hallucinations in medical disorders (especiallyin the temporal lobe)Tactile hallucinations in cocainismAuditory hallucinations are the commonest followed byvisualHallucinations are not under voluntary control and aperson suffering from unpleasant hallucinations may beincited to commit suicide or homicide5/22/2013 129A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 130. ILLUSIONIt is false interpretation by thesenses of an external object orstimulus which has real existence.Optical illusions are quite commonin deserts where water may beseen at places. A rope may be seenas a snake at night.5/22/2013 130A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 131. ILLUSION5/22/2013 131A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 132. TYPES OF ILLUSIONS(a) Completion illusion: Where anunfinished pattern is completed byillusion.(b) Affect illusion: In this, mood of theperson affects the nature of illusion.(c) Parabolic illusion: When humanfaces or images are seen in illusion.In illusion, the person may be correctedwhen confronted with facts. He realizesthat it was a misinterpretation ofstimulus.5/22/2013 132A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 133. Completion illusion5/22/2013 133A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 134. Affect illusion5/22/2013 134A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 135. Parabolic illusion5/22/2013 135A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 136. IMPULSEThis is defined as a sudden andirresistible force which compels aperson to do some action withoutmotive or forethought, a normalperson always tries to analyse hisactions whether they are consistentwith law or not. Once he realisesthat his action may be contrary tolaw he stops it. But in impulse, aperson is not able to control himself.5/22/2013 136A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 137. SOME COMMON TYPES OFIMPULSES• (a) Kleptomania: An irresistible desire to steal things usuallyof low value.• (b) Pyromania: An irresistible desire to set things on fire.• (c) Mutilomania: An irresistible impulse to maim animals.• (d) Dipsomania: An irresistible impulse to drink at periodicintervals.• (e) Sexual impulses: All sexual perversions.• (f) Homicidal impulses: To kill some persons.• (g) Suicidal impulses: To commit suicide. Impulses are quitecommonly seen in various mental disorders like depression,• schizophrenia, mania, etc.• (h) Trichotillomania: It is an irresistible desire to pull outone‟s own hair• (i) Oniomania: compulsive desire to shop (shoppingaddiction)5/22/2013 137A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 138. KLEPTOMANIA5/22/2013 138A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 139. PYROMANIA5/22/2013 139A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 140. MUTILOMANIA5/22/2013 140A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 141. DIPSOMANIA5/22/2013 141A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 142. SEXUAL IMPULSES/SEXUAL PERVERSIONS5/22/2013 142A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 143. 5/22/2013 143A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 144. SUICIDAL IMPULSES5/22/2013 144A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 145. TRICHOTILLOMANIA5/22/2013 145A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 146. ONIOMANIA5/22/2013 146A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 147. OBSESSIONAn obsession is defined as a persistent andirresistible thought, image, affect orimpulse that cannot be removed by thesufferer although he knows that this isfoolish. He continues to suffer. When thisconverts into action, it is called„compulsions‟. The person keeps onrepeating foolish behaviour though realisingthat it is untrue. Normal persons alsosometimes have obsessions but theyovercome them over a period of time. Butonce it becomes pathological, it may turninto obsessive compulsive neurosis5/22/2013 147A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 148. COMMON EXAMPLES OFOBSESSION1. The person may keep onchecking the locks even thoughhe knows that he has boltedthem well.2. The person may keep onwashing hands for hours.5/22/2013 148A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 149. 5/22/2013 149A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 150. SCHIZOPHRENIAEugen Bleuler introduced this term.Literally it means disintegration ofmind. Commonly also called „splitpersonality‟. There is a complete lossof reality.The exact reason of schizophrenia is notknown but it runs in families.Schizophrenia is a major illness. It isquite common in the lower strata ofsociety.5/22/2013 150A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 151. SCHIZOPHRENIA5/22/2013 151A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 152. SYMPTOMSDiagnostic symptoms as proposed byBleuler are summorised as :-(They are also called as 4 „A‟ of Bleuler1. Ambivalence-inability to decide for oragainst2. Autism-withdrawal into self3. Affect disturbances-disturbance offeeling4. Association disturbance-loosening ofassociation, thought disorder5/22/2013 152A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 153. AMBIVALENCE5/22/2013 153A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 154. AUTISM5/22/2013 154A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 155. AFFECT DISTURBANCES5/22/2013 155A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 156. ASSOCIATION DISTURBANCE5/22/2013 156A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 157. TYPES OF SCHIZOPRENIASimple schizophrenia: It is thecommonest type. It mainly affectsthe mood of the person. Heremains depressed, talks verylittle and is withdrawn. The motoractivities are quite less.5/22/2013 157A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 158. SIMPLE5/22/2013 158A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 159. TYPES OF SCHIZOPRENIAHebephrenia: In this type, thethought process is primarilyderanged. Incoherence ofthoughts, delusions andhallucinations are reported. Themotor activities are also quiteless.5/22/2013 159A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 160. HEBEPHRENIA SCHIZOPRENIA5/22/2013 160A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 161. TYPES OF SCHIZOPRENIACatatonic: In this type, the behaviourof the person is primarily abnormal.There is a wild excitement andviolent and abusive behaviour.Homicidal and suicidal tendenciesare very high. The person mayassault someone on minorprovocations. Sometimes, theperson may be so violent that heneeds to be restrained by force.5/22/2013 161A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 162. CATATONIC SCHIZOPRENIA5/22/2013 162A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 163. TYPES OF SCHIZOPRENIAParanoid schizophrenia: Suspicion is theprimary thought process in this type. Theperson may be thinking that some personsare behind him and can kill him. He mayhave suspicion about his wife, parents,kids, friends and colleagues. It occurs morein males than in females. Delusions are verycommon. Usually, personality is wellpreserved and these people are detected assuffering from mental illness after a longtime. Auditory hallucinations are quitecommon. He may commit crime as hethinks people are after him.5/22/2013 163A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 164. PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA5/22/2013 164A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 165. INSANITYThe word “insane” has no technical meaning and iscommonly used to refer to individuals who cannot takecare of themselves or adhere to the social fabric, dueto some mental disorder. It refers to individuals who byvirtue of being mentally ill, are not competent todischarge their legal duties and are not aware of thelegal implications of their behaviour. In the IndianPenal Code, the phrase „unsoundness of mind‟ is usedas synonymous to terms such as insanity, lunacy,madness or any mental disorder where a person is notcapable of regulating his behaviour according to thesocio-legal system.A medical officer is often called upon to opine whether aperson is insane or not. He should not opine in ahurried manner, instead he should examine the personin detail and then express his opinion.5/22/2013 165A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 166. CAUSES OF INSANITYHeredity: Insanity often runs infamilies. The exact reason is notknown. Usually, most of themental diseases are nottransmitted genetically but it hasbeen observed that mental illnessruns in families.5/22/2013 166A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 167. CAUSES OF INSANITYEnvironmental Factors: If during the early years ofchildhood, the upbringing of a child is not taken wellcare of, there are chances of developing mentalillness. Attitude of both parents is very important inshaping good personality. Over protection, rejection,unnecessary peer comparison, or sibling rivalry cancause maladjustment in a child. Emotionalmaladjustment is quite common in adolescentperiod. A good sex education is very essential foradolescents to fashion their personality accordingto the social fabric. In adults, domestic quarrels,financial and business losses, failure in love, deathof near ones, unemployment and job pressures canprecipitate mental illness.5/22/2013 167A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 168. CAUSES OF INSANITYOrganic Causes: Head injuries like cerebralhaemorrhages, high fever and epilepsy mayinduce mental disorder. Addiction toalcohol, opium and dhatura may induceviolent behaviour. Addiction to severenarcotics like heroin, cocaine and LSD maycause anti-social behaviour, and the personmay commit crime. In severe, systemicdiseases like uncontrolled hypertension,diabetes or other debilitating diseases, theperson may land up in depression.5/22/2013 168A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 169. ONSET OF INSANITYThe onset of insanity is gradual.The person may be brought to themedical officer for treatment. Insome cases the person maymalinger to avoid punishment. So,the medical officer has to decidewhether insanity is true or false5/22/2013 169A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 170. Differentiate between and a true insane personand a person who is pretending to be an insaneS.NO. FEATURES TRUE INSANE FEIGNED INSANE1. Onset & Motive Usually gradual or rarely sudden butalmost always without any motive.Always sudden and there issome motive.2. Predisposing/excitingcauseMay be present, like h/o insanity inparentsNot present.3. Facial expression There are usually a peculiarcharacteristic facial expressions likeworried look, agitatedNormal or easilydistinguishable.4. Signs & Symptoms The true insane individual shows signsand symptoms of insanity irrespectiveof his conduct being observed or not.A false insane will show signsof insanity only when he isobserved and there is totalabsence of symptoms when hethinks that he is alone or notbeing watched.5. CharacteristicfeatureSign and symptoms usually point to aparticular type of insanity. ( e.g.schizophrenia, mania, Bipolar disorderetc)A non insane person will dowhatever comes in to his mindand his signs and symptomsdont indicate a particular typeof insanity.6. Effect of violentexertionCan stand violent exertion forseveral hours or days withoutexhaustion, perspiration or sleep.Violent exertion leads himto relaxation, exhaustionand sleep.5/22/2013 170A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 171. Differentiate between and a true insane personand a person who is pretending to be an insaneS.NO. FEATURES TRUE INSANE FEIGNED INSANE7. Mood Excited, depressed or fluctuating May over react toshow abnormalityin mood8. Habits Habits are invariably dirty or filthy.He may smear his body with stool orurine.Habits are notusually dirty orfilthy.9. PhysicalmanifestationDry harsh skin, furred tongue,constipation, anorexia (loss ofappetite)Not present10. RepeatedexaminationNot worried about being repeatedlyexaminedShows dislike forrepeatedexaminations.11. Insomnia Present Cannot persist,patient usuallysleeps after a dayor two12. Dressing up Carelessly dressed Dressedreasonablyproperly5/22/2013 171A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 172. CLASSIFICATION OF MENTALDISEASESThe classification of mental diseases is done accordingto two well-accepted methods which are as follows:1. DSM IV: This is an American system. It stands forDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,IVth edition 1994.2. ICD-10: It means international classification ofdiseases, injuries and cause of death, 10th edition,1992. ICD-10 classification is more popular and isfollowed worldwide.The following is the classification of mental diseasesaccording to the World Health Organisation:5/22/2013 172A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 173. CLASSIFICATION OF MENTALDISEASES1.Psychosis (Major Illness): It may be of followingtypes:(a) Organic psychosis: When there is an organic causeassociated with psychosis, it is called „organicpsychosis‟. Common examples are alcoholic psychosis,psychosis following head injury, endocrinedisturbances, old age, epilepsy, drug dependence, etc.(b) Functional psychosis: In this, there is no apparentcause of psychosis. It is of following types:(i) Schizophrenia.(ii) Manic-depressive illness.(iii) Paranoid state.5/22/2013 173A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 174. CLASSIFICATION OF MENTALDISEASES2. Neurosis (Minor Illness): The following are thecommon types of neurosis:(i) Anxiety neurosis.(ii) Depression.(iii) Hypochondriacal.(iv) Obsessive compulsive neurosis.(v) Hysterical neurosis.3. Personality Disorders as in Psychopaths.4. Sexual Perversions.5. Drug Dependence.5/22/2013 174A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 175. MENTAL RETARDATION"Mental retardation refers tosignificantly sub average generalintellectual functioning existingconcurrently with deficits inadaptive behavior, and manifestedduring the developmental period".5/22/2013 175A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 176. MENTAL HANDICAPIt refers to mental sub normality inan individual, acquired at the timeof birth or early childhood.Intelligent quotient is low.It is usually of the following types:5/22/2013 176A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 177. IDIOCYHere, I.Q. level is around 20. The personis mentally retarded severely. He maybe associated with some other geneticproblems too. He may need physicaland mental rehabilitation to lead anormal life. Usually, idiots remaincheerful as their achievement goalsare almost absent and they can leadtheir life easily on a survival basis.5/22/2013 177A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 178. IMBECILETheir I.Q. level is between 20 and 50.They are incapable of managing theiraffairs themselves. They also requirephysical and mental rehabilitation by atherapist to lead a normal life.5/22/2013 178A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 179. FEEBLE MINDEDNESSTheir I.Q. level is between 50 and 75. Theyappear normal but their mental faculties,especially intelligence, is less as comparedto a normal person. They are usually schooldropouts. They do not fare well in academicand financial career. They may get easilyinvolved in criminal activities5/22/2013 179A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 180. CLASSIFICATION OF MRLevel of Retardation IQMild retardation50-69Moderate retardation35-59Severe retardation 20-34Profound retardation< 205/22/2013 180A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 181. PSYCHOSIS5/22/2013 181A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 182. 5/22/2013 A SUZY PRESENTATION 182
  • 183. THE MENTAL HEALTH ACT, 1987An Act to consolidate and amendthe law relating to the treatmentand care of mentally ill persons,to make better provision withrespect to their property andaffairs and for matters connectedtherewith or incidental thereto.5/22/2013 183A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 184. THE MENTAL HEALTH ACT, 1987It replaces the Indian Lunacy Act of 1912resulting in change of certain terminologiesas shown below Asylum to psychiatric hospital Lunatic to mentally ill person Criminal lunatuc to mentally ill prisonerThe mental health act came into affect only inApril 1993 in all the states and unionterritories of India.5/22/2013 184A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 185. OBJECTIVES OF THE ACT Regulate admission of the mentally ill patientto a psychiatric hospital or psychiatricnursing home and to protect his rights whileunder detection Prevent harm to himself and the society bythe mentally ill person Protect citizens being detained in psychiatrichospitals without sufficient cause.…………….cont…………..5/22/2013 185A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 186. OBJECTIVES OF THE ACT Fix liability for maintenance charges of mentally illpatient admitted to the hospital or nursing home. Provide facilities to establish guardianship orcustody of the mentally ill patient and management ofhis property. Establish central and state authority for mental healthservices Provide licensing and control of psychiatric hospitalsby the state government Ensure legal aid to the mentally ill person at stateexpense in certain cases5/22/2013 186A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 187. MENTAL DISORDER ANDRESPONSIBILITYResponsibility, in the legal sense,means the liability of a person forhis acts or omissions, and if theseare against the law, the liability tobe punished for them.The law presumes that everyperson is mentally sound, untilthe opposite is proved.5/22/2013 187A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 188. 5/22/2013 A SUZY PRESENTATION 188
  • 189. CIVIL RESPONSIBILITYThe question of civil responsibility arises infollowing conditions:- Management of property and affairs Insanity and contracts Insanity and marriage contract Competence of insane to be a witness Consent and insanity Insanity and testamentary capacity5/22/2013 189A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 190. MANAGEMENT OF PROPERTYAND AFFAIRS If a person who owns property becomes insane and isincapable of managing his affairs with sound judgment, arelative or friend can approach the court for judicialinquisition. The medical evidence is given in the form of acertificate which should state “that insanity is of such adegree as to make him incapable of managing his property.” On enquire if it‟s found that the person is incapable ofmanaging his property the court can appoint a guardian ormanager depending on the circumstances. The court may order the sale or disposal of the person‟sproperty, for the payment of his debts and expenses. The court may order a second inquisition, if it‟s reported thatunsoundness of mind had ceased.5/22/2013 190A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 191. BUSINESS CONTRACT If it is proved that at the time of signing a contract oneof the two parties was insane, then the contractbecomes legally invalid. Insanity developing subsequently to a legal agreementwill not necessarily invalidate the contract. If at the time of signing, the fact that one of thesignatories to the contract was insane was not knownto the other party, the contract may not be declaredinvalid. For the purpose of a contract, a person is said to be ofsound mind if at the time of making the contract, he iscapable of understanding it and forming a rationaljudgment.5/22/2013 191A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 192. MARRIAGEA marriage is considered invalid if at the timeof marriage, either party is1) Incapable of giving valid consent due toinsanity.2) Though capable of giving valid consent,has been suffering from such kind or degreeof mental disorder as to be unfit for marriageor procreation.3) Has been suffering from recurrentattacks of insanity.5/22/2013 192A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 193. THE COMPETENCE OF INSANETO BE A WITNESS An insane person is not competent to giveevidence, if he cannot understand thenecessity of telling the truth due to insanity. A person of unsound mind who suffers fromdelusions, but is capable of telling what hehas seen and who understands theimportance of an oath, is competent to giveevidence An insane person is competent to giveevidence during the lucid interval.5/22/2013 193A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 194. CONSENT AND INSANITYConsent to certain acts like, sexualintercourse or hurt is not valid, ifsuch consent is given by a personwho due to unsoundness of mindis unable to understand the natureand consequences of the act.5/22/2013 194A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 195. TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY Testamentary capacity refers to the capacity of aperson to make a valid will. The law defines it aspossession of a sound disposing mind (corpus mentis)which must be certified by a doctor. A will is a document detailing the disposition ofproperty owned by a person, which is prepared by himduring his lifetime but takes effect only after hisdemise. The person who makes the will is referred to as thetestator. Will written by the testator in his own handwriting iscalled “Holograph will”. It can be revoked or changed any number of times5/22/2013 195A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 196. ELIGIBILITY FOR MAKING AWILLAs per Indian succession act 59, the following personsare eligible to make a valid will Every person of sound mind who is over age of 18years An insane person cannot write a valid will unless he isin a lucid interval. An intoxicated person cannot make a will, unless it iscertified by a doctor that he was under his senses A deaf dumb or blind person can make a will if he cancommunicate effectively Convicts are not debarred from making a will.5/22/2013 196A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 197. PROCEDURE The will must always be in writing, the only exceptionprovided under law is for members of the armed forces whoare out on expedition or engaged in warfare. They can makean oral will (privileged will). Muslims are permitted to makean oral will by their personal law. There is no particular format for a will. It need not be evenon a stamp paper. The testator can write a will himself usinga fountain or ball pen (holographic will). The will must beattested by at least 2 witnesses, neither of them can bebeneficiaries. It is preferable that one of them should be a doctor. The signature or thumb impression of the testator ismandatory The will comes into effect only on the death of the testator.5/22/2013 197A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 198. CONDITIONS The person making a will should Have a sound disposing mind Have thorough knowledge about hiswealth and property Be free from undue influence, or fraud Do it voluntarily5/22/2013 198A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 199. 5/22/2013 A SUZY PRESENTATION 199
  • 200. CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OFTHE INSANEMCNAUGHTONS RULEIn 1843, one person named McNaughton, under delusion ofpersecution shot dead Mr. Drummond, the private secretaryof Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister of England. In fact, hewanted to kill Sir Robert Peel but since he could not identifyhim properly, he shot dead Mr. Drummond by mistake. Hewas later arrested and sent to prison. Since he was insaneand there was no English law at that time to fix criminalresponsibility of an insane, a committee of 14 judges wereconstituted to frame law which resulted in “McNaughtonsRule” or “Legal Test” according to English law which statesas follows:……cont…5/22/2013 200A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 201. CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OFTHE INSANEThat to establish a defense on the ground ofinsanity, it must be clearly proved that “at thetime of committing the act, the accused waslaboring under such a defect of reason, fromdisease of the mind, as not to know thenature and quality of the act he was doing, or,if he did know it, that he did not know he wasdoing what was wrong.”…..cont…………..5/22/2013 201A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 202. CRIMINAL RESPONSIBILITY OFTHE INSANEIn India, Section 84 of the I.P.C. defines the legal test orcriminal responsibility of the insane, as:“Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, atthe time of doing it, by reason of unsoundness of mind,is incapable of knowing the nature of the act, or thathe is doing what is either wrong or contrary to law.”Section 85 of the I.P.C. defines legal responsibility of aperson under intoxication. If it is proved that a personwas given intoxication without his knowledge oragainst his will, and due to intoxication he lost mentalreasoning and then committed the crime, he will notbe held responsible for it. Drunkenness caused byvoluntary use of alcohol or drugs offers no excuse forcommitting the crime.5/22/2013 202A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 203. Loss of Self-control or Sudden and GraveProvocationSometimes, a person may lose self-control, orthere is sudden and grave provocation, and asa result, he may commit crime. Commonsituation is that, if a person sees his wifeteased by goons, he may lose self-control andmay kill any goon. In such cases doctrine ofpartial responsibility is used and the murdermay be charged the under Section 304 of theI.P.C. rather than Section 302 of the I.P.C.Section 304 the of I.P.C. prescribes lesssentence as compared to Section 302 of theI.P.C.5/22/2013 203A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 204. 5/22/2013 A SUZY PRESENTATION 204LOSS OF SELF-CONTROL OR SUDDEN AND GRAVEPROVOCATION
  • 205. HYPNOSISIt is also a sleep-like stage, indeedby suggestion. But it is verydifficult to convince a person inhypnosis to commit some actwhich he would not do in normalcircumstances. It is a wrongimpression that a person maycommit murder under• hypnosis.5/22/2013 205A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 206. 5/22/2013 A SUZY PRESENTATION 206
  • 207. SOME RECENT GUIDELINESOne of the major defects in the McNaughtons Rule, isthat, from deciding that a person is insane, onlycognitive (intellectual) faculties are taken intoconsideration, where as emotional factors,hallucination and the ability of the individual to controlthe impulse (resistible impulse) are not considered. So,these neurotic disorders are not given any importance.Some western countries have taken this intoconsideration and have formulated some guidelines.Some of them are known as: Durham Rule (1954) Curren‟s Rule (1961) American Law Institute Test. (1970) The Brawner rule (1972) The Irresistible impulse5/22/2013 207A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 208. DURHAM RULE (1954)The Durham rule states that an accused is not criminallyresponsible if his unlawful act was the product ofmental disease or mental defect. The Durham rule waseventually rejected by the federal courts, because itcast too broad a net. Alcoholics, compulsive gamblers,and drug addicts had successfully used the defense todefeat a wide variety of crimes.The federal insanity defense, established by theComprehensive Crime Control Act, now requires thedefendant to prove, by "clear and convincingevidence," that "at the time of the commission of theacts constituting the offense, the defendant, as aresult of a severe mental disease or defect, wasunable to appreciate the nature and quality or thewrongfulness of his acts".5/22/2013 208A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 209. CURREN‟S RULE (1961)An accused person will not be held criminallyresponsible, if at the time of committing act,he did not have the capacity to regulate hisconduct to the requirement of law, as a resultof mental disease or defect.As per Curren‟s rule, it was contested that, atthe time of committing the criminal act, aperson may have the knowledge that what hewas doing was wrong but he neither had thecapacity nor the will to control (adjust) hisact. Therefore such person should not be heldresponsible.5/22/2013 209A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 210. AMERICAN LAW INSTITUTETEST. (1970)A person is not responsible for hiscriminal conduct if at the time ofsuch conduct as a result ofmental disease or defect, he lackssubstantial capacity either toappreciate the wrongfulness ofhis conduct or to adjust hisconduct to the requirement oflaw.5/22/2013 210A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 211. THE BRAWNER RULE (1972)According to this rule,insanity should be decidedby a jury. Under thisproposal, juries areallowed to decide the “insanity question” as theysee fit.5/22/2013 211A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 212. IRRESSISTABLE IMPULSEAn accused person is not criminallyresponsible, if he knows the nature andquality of his act and knows that it is wrong,if he is incapable of restraining/controlhimself from committing the act because thefree agency of his will has been destroyed bymental disease.In 1994. Lorena Bobbitt was found not guilty ofa crime, when her defense argued that anirresistible impulse led her to cut off herhusband‟s penis.5/22/2013 212A SUZY PRESENTATION
  • 213. 213THANKYOU… WE NEEDLOT OF SUGGESTIONSPLEASE…..