Rift Valley Fever
Infectious Diseases: A World in Transition
Reasons for emergence of diseases:
Environmental degradation. Un controlled urbanization.
Unhygienic condition. Migration of population.
Natural disaster. International trade ,tourism.
Alternations in microorganisms Resistance to antimicrobials.
Insecticidal resistance. Weak public health system.
Malaria, the 'King of Diseases', continues to haunt and taunt
One of the oldest scripts, written several
thousand years ago attributes malaria to
Nergal, the Babylonian god of destruction and
pestilence, pictured as a double-
winged, mosquito-like insect.
The chinese Nei Ching (4,700 years ago) apparently refers to
repeated paroxysmal fevers associated with enlarged spleens
and a tendency to epidemic occurrence, suggesting P.
vivax and P. malariae infections.
Malaria appeared in the writings of the Greeks from around 500
BC. Hippocrates, "The Father of Medicine" and probably the the
first malariologist, described the various malaria fevers of man by
The recurrence of malaria is a phenomenon that was known to
the ancients and first recorded by Roman Poet Horace (December
8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC) in his third satire.
Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, Alexander the
Great, Alaric, King of the Goths,
St. Augustine, Otto II, King of the Germans and Emperor of
Rome, Pope Gregory V
Pope Damasus II, Friedrich IV, Herzog von Schwaben, German
King and Holy Roman
Genghis Khan, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Henry of
Luxemburg, Dante, Italian poet
Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus, Sultan
Muhammed bin Tughluk, King Edward IV died
THE RICH AND THE FAMOUS WHO DIED OF
GLOBAL MALARIA BURDEN
Lancet 2010; 376: 1566–78
Over 40% of world population live in malaria endemic
247 million cases and nearly one million deaths in 2008
(WHO report 2010)
Endemic in 109 countries
–Like HIV and TB, malaria is
–unequally distributed, even in the tropics
MALARIA BURDEN IN AFRICA
• 60% of global malaria
• 91% of global malaria
• 30-50% of hospital
• 50% of outpatient visits in
areas of high transmission
• 10% of the overall
disease burden in Africa
Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age
0-44 (World Health Organization)
BURDEN OF MALARIA:
Cases: 300-500 million cases world wide.
1.5- 3.0 million deaths/ year.
At risk of malaria: 2400 Million of world’s
3000 deaths/ day world wide.
10 deaths/ second in African region.
J.Kishore’. National Health programs of India.10th edition.century publications, New Delhi.
BURDEN OF MALARIA (IN 2010)
216 million cases of malaria world wide.
91% were P.falciparum
81% were in African
13% in SEAR.
5% in East mediterrean region
Park’s text book of Preventive and social medicine.22nd edition(2013).Bhanot
Map showing Malaria Endemic Areas in India
MAP SHOWING HIGH RISK TOWNS FOR MALARIA IN INDIA
ESTIMATED MORTALITY RATE:
19.8/lakh population world wide.
84.3/lakh in African region
3/lakh in SEAR.
Under 5 mortality rate due to malaria :7%.
27% of population lives in malaria high
97% deaths due to malaria is reported from
North eastern states,
Park’s text book of Preventive and social medicine.22nd edition(2013). Bhanot
income loss :
millions ( if
J.Kishore’. National Health programs of India.10th edition.century publications, New
Leading causes of death in children under five in the world
Deaths of children under
Preterm birth complications 14%
Birth asphyxia 9%
Other causes 41%
Month of June
25th April of every year.
Millennium development goal 6.
The global campaign theme for 2013 and the coming years
: Invest in the future , defeat malaria
World Malaria day
Anti malaria month
MALARIA HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT ENOUGH TO
MAKE THE WORLD DIFFERENT!
Being sent to Gambia, Serra Leon,
etc. was considered a death
sentence because of the probability
of contracting malaria!
World health day theme -2014 :vector-borne
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