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MALARIA – INTRODUCTION.
AIDS
Avian Influenza
Ebola
Marburg
Cholera
Rift Valley Fever
Typhoid
Tuberculosis
Leptospirosis
Malaria
Chikungunya
Dengue...
Reasons for emergence of diseases:
Environmental degradation. Un controlled urbanization.
Unhygienic condition. Migration ...
Malaria, the 'King of Diseases', continues to haunt and taunt
mankind.
One of the oldest scripts, written several
thousand...
Malaria appeared in the writings of the Greeks from around 500
BC. Hippocrates, "The Father of Medicine" and probably the ...
The recurrence of malaria is a phenomenon that was known to
the ancients and first recorded by Roman Poet Horace (December...
Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, Alexander the
Great, Alaric, King of the Goths,
St. Augustine, Otto II, King of...
90% of
deaths
are in
Africa
Half the
world is
at risk
250 million
cases, 650,
000 deaths
One child
every 60
seconds
Attack...
GLOBAL MALARIA BURDEN
Lancet 2010; 376: 1566–78
Over 40% of world population live in malaria endemic
countries
247 million...
–Like HIV and TB, malaria is
–unequally distributed, even in the tropics
Malaria --endemic areas
MALARIA BURDEN IN AFRICA
Africa’s share:
• 60% of global malaria
cases
• 91% of global malaria
death
Responsible for
• 30-...
Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age
0-44 (World Health Organizat...
SEARO, 8.
50%
EMRO, 3.3
0%
AMRO, 1.1
0%
WPRO, 0.9
0%
AFRO, 86.
20%
MALARIA CASES (2008)
SEARO, 4.10
%
EMRO, 4.30
% AMRO, 0...
MALARIA CASES IN INDIA (2008)
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
59%
14%
8% 5% 4% 4% 3% 3%
%ofcases
source :Subbarao sarla K, et a...
BURDEN OF MALARIA:
Cases: 300-500 million cases world wide.
1.5- 3.0 million deaths/ year.
At risk of malaria: 2400 Millio...
BURDEN OF MALARIA (IN 2010)
216 million cases of malaria world wide.
91% were P.falciparum
81% were in African
13% in SEAR...
API
Map showing Malaria Endemic Areas in India
Haryana
Gujarat
Madhya Pradesh
Maharashtra
A.P
Karnataka
MAP SHOWING HIGH RISK TOWNS FOR MALARIA IN INDIA
ESTIMATED MORTALITY RATE:
19.8/lakh population world wide.
84.3/lakh in African region
3/lakh in SEAR.
Under 5 mortality r...
ECONOMIC CONCERN
Labor loss
due to
malaria:
1328.75
million man-
days/ year.
Expenditure
incurred on
Malaria :Rs.
7.18 per...
Leading causes of death in children under five in the world
Deaths of children under
five
Pneumonia 18%
Preterm birth comp...
Year
Total Malaria
Cases (million)
Deaths due to malaria
1995 2.93 1151
1996 3.04 1010
1997 2.66 879
1998 2.22 664
1999 2....
Month of June
25th April of every year.
WHO’s T3,
Millennium development goal 6.
The global campaign theme for 2013 and th...
MALARIA HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT ENOUGH TO
MAKE THE WORLD DIFFERENT!
Being sent to Gambia, Serra Leon,
etc. was considered a d...
World health day theme -2014 :vector-borne
diseases.
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Malaria introduction

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Transcript of "Malaria introduction"

  1. 1. MALARIA – INTRODUCTION.
  2. 2. AIDS Avian Influenza Ebola Marburg Cholera Rift Valley Fever Typhoid Tuberculosis Leptospirosis Malaria Chikungunya Dengue JE Antimicrobial resistance UP Guinea worm Smallpox Yaws Poliomyelitis Measles Leprosy Neonatal tetanus DOWN Infectious Diseases: A World in Transition
  3. 3. Reasons for emergence of diseases: Environmental degradation. Un controlled urbanization. Unhygienic condition. Migration of population. Natural disaster. International trade ,tourism. Alternations in microorganisms Resistance to antimicrobials. Insecticidal resistance. Weak public health system.
  4. 4. Malaria, the 'King of Diseases', continues to haunt and taunt mankind. One of the oldest scripts, written several thousand years ago attributes malaria to Nergal, the Babylonian god of destruction and pestilence, pictured as a double- winged, mosquito-like insect. The chinese Nei Ching (4,700 years ago) apparently refers to repeated paroxysmal fevers associated with enlarged spleens and a tendency to epidemic occurrence, suggesting P. vivax and P. malariae infections.
  5. 5. Malaria appeared in the writings of the Greeks from around 500 BC. Hippocrates, "The Father of Medicine" and probably the the first malariologist, described the various malaria fevers of man by 400BC
  6. 6. The recurrence of malaria is a phenomenon that was known to the ancients and first recorded by Roman Poet Horace (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC) in his third satire.
  7. 7. Emperor Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus, Alexander the Great, Alaric, King of the Goths, St. Augustine, Otto II, King of the Germans and Emperor of Rome, Pope Gregory V Pope Damasus II, Friedrich IV, Herzog von Schwaben, German King and Holy Roman Genghis Khan, Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Henry of Luxemburg, Dante, Italian poet Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III Palaeologus, Sultan Muhammed bin Tughluk, King Edward IV died THE RICH AND THE FAMOUS WHO DIED OF MALARIA:
  8. 8. 90% of deaths are in Africa Half the world is at risk 250 million cases, 650, 000 deaths One child every 60 seconds Attacks the most vulnerable Poverty is a factor $12 billion in lost productivity MALARIA.
  9. 9. GLOBAL MALARIA BURDEN Lancet 2010; 376: 1566–78 Over 40% of world population live in malaria endemic countries 247 million cases and nearly one million deaths in 2008 (WHO report 2010) Endemic in 109 countries
  10. 10. –Like HIV and TB, malaria is –unequally distributed, even in the tropics
  11. 11. Malaria --endemic areas
  12. 12. MALARIA BURDEN IN AFRICA Africa’s share: • 60% of global malaria cases • 91% of global malaria death Responsible for • 30-50% of hospital admissions • 50% of outpatient visits in areas of high transmission • 10% of the overall disease burden in Africa
  13. 13. Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age 0-44 (World Health Organization)
  14. 14. SEARO, 8. 50% EMRO, 3.3 0% AMRO, 1.1 0% WPRO, 0.9 0% AFRO, 86. 20% MALARIA CASES (2008) SEARO, 4.10 % EMRO, 4.30 % AMRO, 0.30 % WPRO, 0.50 % AFRO, 90.80 % MALARIA DEATHS ( 2008) Source: Subbarao sarla K, et al.ICMR Bulletin 1999; 29:76-80 AFRO: African region. AMRO: Regions of America. SEARO: South-East region. EMRO: Eastern mediterren. WPRO: western pacific region.
  15. 15. MALARIA CASES IN INDIA (2008) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 59% 14% 8% 5% 4% 4% 3% 3% %ofcases source :Subbarao sarla K, et al.ICMR Bulletin 1999; 29:76-80
  16. 16. BURDEN OF MALARIA: Cases: 300-500 million cases world wide. 1.5- 3.0 million deaths/ year. At risk of malaria: 2400 Million of world’s population 3000 deaths/ day world wide. 10 deaths/ second in African region. J.Kishore’. National Health programs of India.10th edition.century publications, New Delhi.
  17. 17. BURDEN OF MALARIA (IN 2010) 216 million cases of malaria world wide. 91% were P.falciparum 81% were in African 13% in SEAR. 5% in East mediterrean region Park’s text book of Preventive and social medicine.22nd edition(2013).Bhanot publication, Jabalpur.India.
  18. 18. API Map showing Malaria Endemic Areas in India
  19. 19. Haryana Gujarat Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra A.P Karnataka MAP SHOWING HIGH RISK TOWNS FOR MALARIA IN INDIA
  20. 20. ESTIMATED MORTALITY RATE: 19.8/lakh population world wide. 84.3/lakh in African region 3/lakh in SEAR. Under 5 mortality rate due to malaria :7%. 27% of population lives in malaria high transmission area. 97% deaths due to malaria is reported from North eastern states, India Park’s text book of Preventive and social medicine.22nd edition(2013). Bhanot publication, Jabalpur.India.
  21. 21. ECONOMIC CONCERN Labor loss due to malaria: 1328.75 million man- days/ year. Expenditure incurred on Malaria :Rs. 7.18 per capita per annum. Annual income loss : 10,270 millions ( if Rs.10 /capita annual expenditure is taken into account). J.Kishore’. National Health programs of India.10th edition.century publications, New
  22. 22. Leading causes of death in children under five in the world Deaths of children under five Pneumonia 18% Preterm birth complications 14% Diarrhoea 11% Birth asphyxia 9% Malaria 7% Other causes 41%
  23. 23. Year Total Malaria Cases (million) Deaths due to malaria 1995 2.93 1151 1996 3.04 1010 1997 2.66 879 1998 2.22 664 1999 2.28 1048 2000 2.03 932 2001 2.09 1005 2002 1.84 973 2003 1.87 1006 2004 1.92 949 2005 1.82 963 2006 1.79 1707 2007 1.51 1311 2008 1.53 1055 2009 1.56 1144 2010 1.60 1018 2011 1.31 754 2012( Prov.) 1.06 519 Incidence of Malaria in India [http://nvbdcp.gov.in/malaria-new.html
  24. 24. Month of June 25th April of every year. WHO’s T3, Millennium development goal 6. The global campaign theme for 2013 and the coming years : Invest in the future , defeat malaria World Malaria day Anti malaria month Test. Treat. Track initiative
  25. 25. MALARIA HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANT ENOUGH TO MAKE THE WORLD DIFFERENT! Being sent to Gambia, Serra Leon, etc. was considered a death sentence because of the probability of contracting malaria!
  26. 26. World health day theme -2014 :vector-borne diseases.
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