DR SUNIL.CHISTORY OFEPIDEMIOLOGY
HISTORY STARTED WITH ADAM AND EVE EPI= AMONG DEMOS= PEOPLE LOGOS=STUDY        FOUNDATION WAS LAID IN 19TH CENTURY
DEFINITIONS THAT BRANCH OF MEDICAL  SCIENCE WHICH TREATS  EPIDEMICS- PARKIN 1873 THE SCIENCE OF MASS  PHENOMENA OF INFEC...
DEFINITION BY JOHN M LAST1988 The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specif...
HISTORICAL PHASES EARLY EPIDEMIOLOGY—5TH  CENTURY TO 1830 CLASSIC EPIDEMIOLOGY–  1830—1940 NEW EPIDEMIOLOGY-- 1940 –  T...
EARLY EPIDEMIOLOGY MORE THAN TWO MILLENNIA FROM  HIPPOCRATES [470—400 BC] TO FIRST  THIRD OF 19 TH CENTURY THEORIES WERE...
17TH CENTURY THOMAS SYDENHAM [1624– 1689]  CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING  THE OCCURRENCE OF CLINICAL  CASES IN YEAR 1700 BER...
THOMASSYDENHAM
FOUNDER OF OCCUPATIONALMEDICINE RAMAZZINI -- today regarded as founder of occupational medicine—a key section of layer fi...
GIOVANANNI MARIA LANCISI1654 A CONTEMPORARY OF  RAMAZZINI- ANATOMIST AND CLINICAN  WHOSE de subitaneis mortibus–  pathol...
JOHN GRAUNTS 1620--1674 FOUNDER OF DEMOGRAPHY THE MAJOR STEPS ARE RECORDING  COUNTING, ACCOUNTING TO  QUANTITATIVE ANALY...
LUCRETIUS LATIN POET (1-2 CENTURY BC) ―DE RERUM NATURA‖   SEEDS OF DISEASE CAN SPREAD    FROM PERSON TO PERSON
GEROCAMOFRACASTORIUS(1478-1553) DE –CONTAGONE ET CONTAGIOSIS  MORBIS 1ST CLEAR AND COHERENT GERM  THEORY VARIETY OF DIS...
GAHLEO-GAHLEI(1564-1642) BEGINNING OF 17 CENTURY GRADUAL SPREAD OF KNOWLEDGE OF PHYSICS TO OTHER BRANCHES OF STUDY
WILLIAM HARVEY 1578-1657 EXPERIMENT AND QUANTITATIVE REASONING WAS DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATION OF BLOOD.
CLASSIC EPIDEMIOLOGY ADVANCEMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF WESTERN EUROPE STARTING IN GREAT BRITAN PROPAGATING ...
WILLIAM FARR 1807-1883 INTRODUCED MEDICAL REGISTRATIONS OF DEATHS MIASMATIC THEORY-disease is transmitted by miasm/ cloud
JOHN SNOW[1813—1858] A CONTEMPORARY OF WILLIAM FARR IS    QUOTED AS AN EXAMPLE OF BRILLIANT    ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION ...
PIERRE LOUIS [1787—1872] INTRODUCED THE NUMERICAL  METHOD IN MEDICINE AND  PRODUCED STATISTICAL  EVIDENCE STATISTICAL EV...
RUDOLF VIRCHOW[1821—1902] WORKED IN PATHOLOGY IS  REGARDED AS CORNER STONE  OF MEDICINE FOUNDER OF CELLULAR  PATHOLOGY ...
ROBERT KOCH[1843-1910) DISCOVERED AGENTS OF SEVERAL DISEASES FORMULATED A SET OF CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING CASUALITY IN ...
RobertKoch
EDWARD JENNER BORN IN 1749 ON 14th MAY 1796-HE INOCULATED INTO A ―VOLUNTEER‖JAMES PHIPPS WITH COWPOX  LYMPH TAKEN FROM H...
EDWARD JENNER
EXPERIMENTALEPIDEMIOLOGY JAMES LIND- 1747HE WORKED ON SCURVY
NEWER EPIDEMIOLOGY INDIVIDUAL STUDIES ON CANCER, NON RHEUMATIC CVD CAN BE TACKLED WELL BACK IN TIME BUT ONE TAKE AS A CONV...
PEARL (1938) LIFE EXPECTATION OF SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS NEWER EPIDEMIOLOGY CLEARLY HIGH LIGHTS DUAL EXCHANGE.
JOHN RYLE(1899—1950) FIRST DIRECTOR OF INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL MEDICINE AT OXFORD –(2nd WORLD WAR) TO INVESTIGATE THE OF SOC...
CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY IN A PARALLEL AND OPPOSITE MOVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS OVER SHADOWING VALUE FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH A...
ARCHIE COCHRANE(1909—1988) ADVOCATED SYSTEMATIC USE OF RCT.
LANGMUIR REGARDED AS   ―FATHER OF  INFECTIOUS DISEASES‖ IN 1949 HE ESTABLISHED  EPIDEMIOLOGY SECTION OF  FEDERAL AGENCY....
TODAY’s EPIDEMIOLOGY1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS  OF INVESTIGATIONS.2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL  SUBSTANTIVE NOTIONS   DEVELOPED BY S...
ADVANCES1. ADVANCES OF RESEARCH IN SOME   DOMAINS FUNDAMENTAL TO   OTHER FIELDS OF BIOLOGY2. ADVANCES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE...
TOMORROWS HORIZON
THE CHALLENGE OF EVOLVINGBIOLOGYSir Richard Doll (Doll, 1993):―Classical methods of epidemiological  research are proving ...
THE CHALLENGE OF EVOLVINGBIOLOGYEXAMPLES    BIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF EXPOSURE    INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY      GENETIC   ...
THE CHALLENGE OF EVOLVINGSOCIETY AGEING POPULATIONS REPRODUCTIVE RATES BELOW  REPLACEMENT RATE POPULATION MIGRATION SO...
THE CHALLENGES OF DIVERSIFICATION VsINTEGRATION   A first axis is methodology   versus substantive studies    treatment ...
THE CHALLENGES OF  DIVERSIFICATION Vs  INTEGRATION• A second axis is diversification of different fields of substantive in...
THE CHALLENGES OFDIVERSIFICATION VsINTEGRATION Final axis of diversification tends to  separate   those who specialize i...
REFERENCES :- PARK’S TEXTBOOK OF PREVENTIVE  AND SOCIAL MEDICINE 20TH  EDITION EPIDEMIOLOGY by LEON GORDIS  4TH EDITION...
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
History of epi sps
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History of epi sps

  1. 1. DR SUNIL.CHISTORY OFEPIDEMIOLOGY
  2. 2. HISTORY STARTED WITH ADAM AND EVE EPI= AMONG DEMOS= PEOPLE LOGOS=STUDY FOUNDATION WAS LAID IN 19TH CENTURY
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS THAT BRANCH OF MEDICAL SCIENCE WHICH TREATS EPIDEMICS- PARKIN 1873 THE SCIENCE OF MASS PHENOMENA OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES- FROST 1927 THE STUDY OF DISEASE,ANY DISEASE AS MASS PHENOMENON- GREENWOOD 1934 THE STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION AND DETERMINANTS OF DISEASE FREQUENCY- MACMAHON 1960
  4. 4. DEFINITION BY JOHN M LAST1988 The study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations and application of this study to control of health problems
  5. 5. HISTORICAL PHASES EARLY EPIDEMIOLOGY—5TH CENTURY TO 1830 CLASSIC EPIDEMIOLOGY– 1830—1940 NEW EPIDEMIOLOGY-- 1940 – TILL DATE
  6. 6. EARLY EPIDEMIOLOGY MORE THAN TWO MILLENNIA FROM HIPPOCRATES [470—400 BC] TO FIRST THIRD OF 19 TH CENTURY THEORIES WERE ELABORATD TO EXPLAIN THE SPREADING OF DISEASES NOTABLY THOSE WERE RECURRENTLY STRIKING AND DECIMATING POPULATION– EPIDEMICS HIPPOCRATES --MEDICAL APPROACH BY PROVIDING CONCISE ,ACCURATE AND COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF CLINICAL CASES INCLUDING TETANUS AND TYPHUS IN HIS BOOK ON AIR ,WATER AND PLACES - --IDENTIFIABLE ARRAY OF NATURAL EXTERNAL FACTORS
  7. 7. 17TH CENTURY THOMAS SYDENHAM [1624– 1689] CIRCUMSTANCES SURROUNDING THE OCCURRENCE OF CLINICAL CASES IN YEAR 1700 BERNARDINO RAMAZZINI WROTE IN HIS BOOK – DE MORBIS ARTIFICUM DIATRIBA HIPPOCRATES STATES IN –DE AFFECTIONIBUS-when u face a sick person u should ask him from what he is suffering?
  8. 8. THOMASSYDENHAM
  9. 9. FOUNDER OF OCCUPATIONALMEDICINE RAMAZZINI -- today regarded as founder of occupational medicine—a key section of layer field of environmental medicine and epidemiology
  10. 10. GIOVANANNI MARIA LANCISI1654 A CONTEMPORARY OF RAMAZZINI- ANATOMIST AND CLINICAN WHOSE de subitaneis mortibus– pathological investigation of series of sudden deaths in ROME probably 1st epidemiological study of NCDs
  11. 11. JOHN GRAUNTS 1620--1674 FOUNDER OF DEMOGRAPHY THE MAJOR STEPS ARE RECORDING COUNTING, ACCOUNTING TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS HIS NATURAL AND POLITICAL OBSERVATION WERE UPON MORTALITY [1662] HIS DATA INCLUDED THREE KEY INNOVATIONS  A CRITICAL EXAMINATIONS OF THE SOURCES  THE USE OF FREQUENCIES  THE APPLICATION OF METHOD TO TACKLE PROBLEM
  12. 12. LUCRETIUS LATIN POET (1-2 CENTURY BC) ―DE RERUM NATURA‖  SEEDS OF DISEASE CAN SPREAD FROM PERSON TO PERSON
  13. 13. GEROCAMOFRACASTORIUS(1478-1553) DE –CONTAGONE ET CONTAGIOSIS MORBIS 1ST CLEAR AND COHERENT GERM THEORY VARIETY OF DISEASES CAUSED BY  TRANSMMISION  SELF PROPAGATING SYPHILIS [1530]
  14. 14. GAHLEO-GAHLEI(1564-1642) BEGINNING OF 17 CENTURY GRADUAL SPREAD OF KNOWLEDGE OF PHYSICS TO OTHER BRANCHES OF STUDY
  15. 15. WILLIAM HARVEY 1578-1657 EXPERIMENT AND QUANTITATIVE REASONING WAS DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATION OF BLOOD.
  16. 16. CLASSIC EPIDEMIOLOGY ADVANCEMENT OF THE INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION OF WESTERN EUROPE STARTING IN GREAT BRITAN PROPAGATING FROM MID-18 CENTURYEg. CROWD DISEASES
  17. 17. WILLIAM FARR 1807-1883 INTRODUCED MEDICAL REGISTRATIONS OF DEATHS MIASMATIC THEORY-disease is transmitted by miasm/ cloud
  18. 18. JOHN SNOW[1813—1858] A CONTEMPORARY OF WILLIAM FARR IS QUOTED AS AN EXAMPLE OF BRILLIANT ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC ORGANISM FROM ENVIRONMENT CHOLERA[ASIATIC CHOLERA] INVESTIGATED THE MAJOR EPIDEMIC EPISODES IN LONDON[1849—1854] ELABRORATED AND PRESENTED A PAPER ENTILED –ON CONTIOUS MOLECULAR CHANGES ALONG THE LINES OF PREVIOUS WORK BY GERMAN PATHOLOGIST JACOB HENLE[1809—1885]
  19. 19. PIERRE LOUIS [1787—1872] INTRODUCED THE NUMERICAL METHOD IN MEDICINE AND PRODUCED STATISTICAL EVIDENCE STATISTICAL EVIDENCE OF BLOOD LETTING IS HARMFUL
  20. 20. RUDOLF VIRCHOW[1821—1902] WORKED IN PATHOLOGY IS REGARDED AS CORNER STONE OF MEDICINE FOUNDER OF CELLULAR PATHOLOGY INTERNATION CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASE DEFINED MEDICINE AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE
  21. 21. ROBERT KOCH[1843-1910) DISCOVERED AGENTS OF SEVERAL DISEASES FORMULATED A SET OF CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHING CASUALITY IN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES TUBERCULOSIS
  22. 22. RobertKoch
  23. 23. EDWARD JENNER BORN IN 1749 ON 14th MAY 1796-HE INOCULATED INTO A ―VOLUNTEER‖JAMES PHIPPS WITH COWPOX LYMPH TAKEN FROM HAND OF A MILK MAID-SARAH NELMES
  24. 24. EDWARD JENNER
  25. 25. EXPERIMENTALEPIDEMIOLOGY JAMES LIND- 1747HE WORKED ON SCURVY
  26. 26. NEWER EPIDEMIOLOGY INDIVIDUAL STUDIES ON CANCER, NON RHEUMATIC CVD CAN BE TACKLED WELL BACK IN TIME BUT ONE TAKE AS A CONVINENT TURNING POINT. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW EPIDEMIOLOGY--TOBACCO AND HEALTH STORY
  27. 27. PEARL (1938) LIFE EXPECTATION OF SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS NEWER EPIDEMIOLOGY CLEARLY HIGH LIGHTS DUAL EXCHANGE.
  28. 28. JOHN RYLE(1899—1950) FIRST DIRECTOR OF INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL MEDICINE AT OXFORD –(2nd WORLD WAR) TO INVESTIGATE THE OF SOCIAL GENETIC, ENVIRONMENTAL AND DOMESTIC FACTORS ON DISEASE MORBIDITY.
  29. 29. CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY IN A PARALLEL AND OPPOSITE MOVE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS OVER SHADOWING VALUE FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH AND INCREASE INCORPORATED INTO A GROWING STREAM OF IT
  30. 30. ARCHIE COCHRANE(1909—1988) ADVOCATED SYSTEMATIC USE OF RCT.
  31. 31. LANGMUIR REGARDED AS ―FATHER OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES‖ IN 1949 HE ESTABLISHED EPIDEMIOLOGY SECTION OF FEDERAL AGENCY. PRESENTLY CDC EPIDEMIOLOGY INTELLIGENT SERVICE.
  32. 32. TODAY’s EPIDEMIOLOGY1. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATIONS.2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIVE NOTIONS DEVELOPED BY SUCH METHODS.
  33. 33. ADVANCES1. ADVANCES OF RESEARCH IN SOME DOMAINS FUNDAMENTAL TO OTHER FIELDS OF BIOLOGY2. ADVANCES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE AT DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC LEVELS3. ESCALATING COSTS OF ALL HEALTHCARE DELIVERY SYSTEMS4. RENEWED AWARENESS OF PROFESSIONALS AND GENERAL PUBLIC
  34. 34. TOMORROWS HORIZON
  35. 35. THE CHALLENGE OF EVOLVINGBIOLOGYSir Richard Doll (Doll, 1993):―Classical methods of epidemiological research are proving less and less productive as the simple problems are being successfully solved.They will doubtless continue to be used to make new discoveries from time to time …but without some brilliant new inspirations, the rate of discovery of new facts of any importance by the use of these classical methods must be expected to slow down.‖
  36. 36. THE CHALLENGE OF EVOLVINGBIOLOGYEXAMPLES  BIOLOGICAL MARKERS OF EXPOSURE  INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY  GENETIC  ACQUIREDbring back to the level of etiology and preventionthe wealth of investigations that the convergence of epidemiology and modern biology is now making possible
  37. 37. THE CHALLENGE OF EVOLVINGSOCIETY AGEING POPULATIONS REPRODUCTIVE RATES BELOW REPLACEMENT RATE POPULATION MIGRATION SOCIOECONOMIC AND GENDER INEQUALITIES
  38. 38. THE CHALLENGES OF DIVERSIFICATION VsINTEGRATION  A first axis is methodology versus substantive studies  treatment of exposure measurements and errors of measurement to reduce misclassification and improve study power  methods in genetic epidemiology  modeling of the exposure–response relationship with multiple longitudinal measurements
  39. 39. THE CHALLENGES OF DIVERSIFICATION Vs INTEGRATION• A second axis is diversification of different fields of substantive interest  Cancer epidemiology & Epidemiology of ageing  Clinical epidemiology  Application of epidemiological methods within clinical domain  Evolving formal methods of optimal clinical decision making  ― Evidence Based Medicine‖
  40. 40. THE CHALLENGES OFDIVERSIFICATION VsINTEGRATION Final axis of diversification tends to separate  those who specialize in investigative aspects for routine or research purposes from  those who plan and implement interventions Clinical medicine – clinical chemist, clinical pathologist, diagnostic radiologist, etc Epidemiology – pure specialist in etiological and evaluative investigations
  41. 41. REFERENCES :- PARK’S TEXTBOOK OF PREVENTIVE AND SOCIAL MEDICINE 20TH EDITION EPIDEMIOLOGY by LEON GORDIS 4TH EDITION INTRODUCING THE HISTORY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY – RODOLFO SARACCI Images from http://dodd.cmcvellore.ac.in/hom/17% 20-%20James%20Lind.html
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