Wine of Portugal
• Portugal like Spain is famous for its fortified wine
than its table wines.
• Portugal is the fifth largest wine producing country in
the world after Italy, France, Spain & Argentina.
• The yield per year is 1363 million liters of wine,
which is acquired from3366 sq. km. of vineyards.
• Per head consumption is 125 liters of wine. Here
more table wine is produced than port.
• All wines exported from Portugal must get the
sanction of an official body called Gremio dos
• D.O.C- Denominacao de Origen Controlada.-
Similar to AOC wine of France
• I.P.R- Indicacaode Proveniencia Regulamentada.
• VINHO REGIONAIS – like Vin de Pay of France
• VINHO DE MESA - Table wine
• Tinta Carvalho
• Tinta Pinheira
Wine of Mountains
Wine of Plain
• Torres Verdas
Wine of Ocean
Wines of Mountains
MINHO – The wines of Minho comes from provinces of
Entre Douro-e-Minho from the north west of Portugal.
• The wines of this region are called Vinho Verde or Green
• High acid, young and invigorating nature of the wine.
• These wines are bottled after 5 months of maturation and
contain a lot of mallic acid.
• After bottling mallic acid gets converted into lactic acid and
• This carbon dioxide contributes to the characteristic
frizzante nature of the wine.
• The best Douro wines are made near
the Spanish border.
• Around two-third of the area produce
is used for the production of table
wine and one-third for the production
• The best wine produced in this region
is Mateus Rose.
• It is a medium sweet carbonated rose
wine, which is sold in flagon shaped
bottle called Bocksbeutel.
• The red wines of this area are velvety due to
the high glycerine content.
• The red wines are the predominant produce of
• The red wines like Grao Vasco and Dao Caves
Alianca are not unlike burgundy.
• The whites are similar to Chablis
Wines of Ocean
• COLARES – The red wines of Colares are
considered to be the best in Portugal.
• The law strictly regulates the use of the word
• The red wines are much better than the white.
The reds are much stronger, smoky and full of
• The whites are quite dull and flat.
• Both red and white wines have good lasting
• Carcavelos was once upon a time famous for
fortified wines, which was sweet but has now
become dry, pale, less in alcohol with distinct
• They are at first white wines but as they grow
older they change colour and upon being given
more time they change to golden colour.
• Once upon a time in England they used to be
marketed as Lisbon Port.
• The vineyards around
the port of Setubal is
famous for only one
wine that is “Muscatel
de Setubal” which is a
sweet fortified wine,
golden in colour.
• Quintas- Vineyards
• Adegas- Cellars
• Lagares - Troughs of stone used for pressing
of grapes. The lagars are 1m deep and 5m
• Garrafeira- Mature inside the bottle before the
• Vindima- Indicates that the wine is being sold
as soon as it has been bottled.
• “Claret is for boys & Port is for Men” declared by
• Port has been the official drink used for toast by
English royal family for two centuries in Portugal.
• Douro is the world’s second legally demarcated
wine region after Italy’s Chianti Classico region.
• In 1756 during the era of Marquis de Pombal, the
Doura region was defined to protect the quality and
good name of port (known as Porto in Portugal).
• The production of port is limited to a strictly defined
area of approx. 1500sq. miles along the river Douro
in the northern Portugal.
• Port takes its name from Port Oporto. Romans used
to call Oporto a Portus Cale, which eventually got
changed to Portugal.
• Port started as a table wine and was being exported
to England as early as the 14th century but this wine
used to be very harsh and did not travel well.
• Grape spirit is used to be added to keep it alive on
In 1933 three bodies were formed to protected quality of
• PORT WINE INSTITUTE – which looks after the
administration, sale, alcoholic strength, lodges and
• PORT WINE SHIPPERS GUILD – Looks after the
export formalities, standard of lodges and stocks etc.
• DOURO DISTRICT DEPARTMENT – Which looks
after the agricultural aspects like planting of new
wines, tillage etc.
• The winter can be extremely cold and the
main rainfall is about 127mm during the
month of December.
• The summers are hot and temperature
varies between 27 0C to 44 0C.
• Granite and schistose stone are present
but it is the latter, which produces grapes
of high quality.
• It is brown, slate and rich in minerals.
For red Port
• Tinta Francisca
• Tinta Cao
For White Port
• Muscatel Branco
• Mourisco Branco
• Rabo de Ovelho
• Malvasia rei
• HARVEST – The grapes are harvested in late
September to early October.
• Crushing of grapes takes place in Lagar.
• It takes two men to work in a four-hour shift to
work a pipe.
• The result is known as “Corte” meaning first
trading after which the men dance around the
must for another four hours.
• The treading may continue for 24 to 48 hours.
• Usually the fortified wines are fermented till
all the sugar is fermented to alcohol and
carbon dioxide but in case of port it does not
• During the fermentation the alcohol is
suddenly increased to 16 degree G.L by the
addition of the grape spirit while there is still
some natural sugar left in the must.
• The quantity of brandy added to 100 liters to
every 450 liters of wine.
• Port wine is the only fortified wine in the
world, which has its own natural sweetness.
• The wine is then transferred to the lodges where
more brandy is added to further increase the
• Port has an alcoholic strength of around 21 G.L.
• Then the wine is given sometime before being tasted
for quality and characteristics.
• After being tasted the wine is blended in huge vats
• The wine is now transferred to vats where the
wine remains till the wine gets matured.
• In between the racking takes place 3 to 4 times
in the one year.
• The frequency decreases the following year
• With the exception of vintage, crusted and
very old tawny port all the other ports have to
be clarified using either isinglass, egg white or
filtration, refrigeration etc before bottling.
Types of Port
Aperitif Port –
• It’s white in colour and the fermentation is
allowed to go on till all the sugar is converted
into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
• It should be served chilled with a slice of
• These tend to run from dry and
slightly tangy to medium sweet.
• Generally the must is allowed to
ferment long but not as much as
• Although some appear to be
slightly oxidized, the dry ones are
perfect aperitifs for a Portuguese
• Served chilled with some crackers
or cheese during warm weather,
may also enjoy them.
• Traditionally they are the
youngest of ports, which
take their name from the
• Rich and fruity they are best
consumed when they are
• No cellaring is necessary.
• The name is derived from
the tawny colour of the
wine, which comes from
long aging in the barrel,
which causes the wine to
lose some of its redness.
• Much smoother then ruby
• Spends a minimum of six to
eight years in the cask
Late Bottled Vintage (LBV)
• These wines were destined to be bottled as Vintage
wine but due to lack of demand was left in barrels.
• They are ports of a single vintage year from March
1 to September 30 declared by the shipper during
the fourth year after the vintage.
• The port is bottled between July 1 of that year and
December 31 of the sixth year after harvest.
• These are by far the greatest ports.
• Vintage ports are made only in the years that are
declared by the shippers
• Three to four vintage in a decade
• Aged for two years in wooden casks.
• Vintage ports are very difficult to be drunk in its
youth because of the high acid, alcohol and
concentration of fruit and sugar.
• However those who are patient enough to wait for
fifteen to twenty years will be rewarded with one of
the world’s greatest fortified wine.
• A blend of young wines of
several years shipped in
cask and then bottled.
• It gets its name because it
throws a crust on the bottle.
• Similar in colour to vintage
port and often referred as
“Poor man’s Port”.
• Cockburn’s Smithes and Co.
• Croft and Co. Ltd.
• Genzalez Byass and Co. Ltd.
• Macenzie and Co. Ltd.
• Sandeman and Co. Ltd.
• Leacock and Co. Ltd.
• Cossart Gordon and Co.
• Rutherford and Miles Ltd.
Service of port
• When served as an aperitif it
should be served either 30 or 60
ml in a port wine glass or an
A.P wine glass. It should be
served chilled with a slice of
• When served as an
accompaniment to the desert, it
should be served 30 or 60 ml in
a port wine glass or an A.P glass
at room temperature.
• In 1418, one of Henry Gonzalves Zarco
discovered an island around 560k.m to the
north of Portugal capital Lisbon.
• The island was completely wooden in its entire
length of 50k.m and width of 23k.m.
• He named the island as Madeire, meaning
wood or timber in Portugal language.
• Zarco was eventually appointed as the Captain
General of the island.
• He established his base at the site, which is
now the island capital of Funchal.
• Zarco saw that the trees are an obstruction to
the growth of colonialism.
• So Zarco set fire to the forest.
• It is told that the forest kept burning for seven
years and the wood ash enriched the soil.
• The grapes are generally harvested in the mid-
August and the harvest continues till the late
• The grapes at sea level (Verdelho and Bual)
are harvested first.
• Then the Mamlsay and finally the Sercial is
• The grapes are harvested manually.
Pressing of Grapes
• Pressing of grapes takes place in lagar, a
wooden trough in which barelegged people
crush the grapes.
• The must is then immediately transferred to
the lodges at Funchal.
• The must is transferred in lorries or 65 liters
goatskin by hardy labourers.
• Fermentation starts in the fermentation tank
• wines which are intended to be sweet fortified
wines will have the fermentation terminated at
a very early stage by the addition of grape
• The drier form of Madeira that is Sercial and
Verdelho are fermented much longer.
• When the fermentation is complete the
fortified wine is given a resting period in the
cool lodges. Now these wines are known as
• Journey to tropic but now uneconomical.
• The wine are mature through ESTUFAGEM
OR ESTUFA SYSTEM
ESTUFAGEM OR ESTUFA
• The Estufa is simply a heated room or a
stove. Now day’s two types of heating
systems are in use
• In its earliest form it used to be known as
“Estufa de Sol” or a glasshouse where
natural sunrays used to heat the wines
kept in pipes (casks having a capacity of
418 liters) but the cold air during the night
used to adversely of the wine.
• The central heating system where hot water
pipes run along the walls of the room, which
heats the Madeira.
• Hot water pipes run through the walls of the
cement tanks in which the wine is matured.
The capacity of the cement tanks is around
Operation of Estufa system
• maximum temperature is fixed between 43 0C to 66
• 50 0C is optimum temperature.
• It is increased very gradually and is never more than
2.75 degree centigrade per day.
• When the required temperature is reached it is kept 3
to 4 months, sometimes up to 6 months.
• Then the temperature is gradually reduced to the
normal temperature. The temperature is never
reduced more than 2.75 0C per day.
• The wine is called “Vino Estufado”.
• It must have become a little darker and developed
slight burnt taste.
• After being given a good resting period it is ragged
into new casks. Now the wine is called “Vino
• In these new casks the wine is added with 10%
alcohol.Now the wine is known as “Vino Generoso”.
• Now the wine enters into the Solera system for
blending and slight maturation.
• SERCIAL – Sercial
Madeira is an amber
coloured aperitif wine
with a crispy taste. It
varies from dry to not so
dry. Served chilled.
• It is golden coloured
Madeira, almost rose
and not so dry as
Sercial. This can be an
soups or can be
enjoyed at any time of
• RAINWATER – The wine was believed to
have been created by Mr. Habisham, a local
Madeira shipper from Savannah Georgia.
• Mr. Habisham made a very special blend of
Sercial and Verdelho that were lighter and
quite a bit paler (almost like rainwater) then
most of the Madeiras.
• It used to be consumed during the early 19th
BUAL OR BOAL
• The Bual or Boal Madeira
is deep golden rich and
heavy bodied Madeira. It
has a nice balance of sugar
acid and tannin It has
somewhat smoky taste and
goes well with sweet
• It is dark brown in
colour and the most
expensive form of
Madeira. Truly a
dessert wine and can
also be drunk after the