Wines of portugal
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Wines of portugal






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Wines of portugal Wines of portugal Presentation Transcript

  • Wine of Portugal • Portugal like Spain is famous for its fortified wine than its table wines. • Portugal is the fifth largest wine producing country in the world after Italy, France, Spain & Argentina. • The yield per year is 1363 million liters of wine, which is acquired from3366 sq. km. of vineyards. • Per head consumption is 125 liters of wine. Here more table wine is produced than port. • All wines exported from Portugal must get the sanction of an official body called Gremio dos Exportadores.
  • Classification • D.O.C- Denominacao de Origen Controlada.- Similar to AOC wine of France • I.P.R- Indicacaode Proveniencia Regulamentada. • VINHO REGIONAIS – like Vin de Pay of France • VINHO DE MESA - Table wine
  • Grapes Used White Grapes • Azal • Alvanrinho • Arinto • Bastardo • Dourado Red Grapes • Azal • Amaral • Bastardo • Tinta Carvalho • Tinta Pinheira View slide
  • Regions Wine of Mountains • Minho • Doura • Dao Wine of Plain • Torres Verdas • Ribalejo • Alcobaca • Almeiri • Cartaxo Wine of Ocean • Colares • Carcavelos • Bucelas • Setubal View slide
  • Wines of Mountains MINHO – The wines of Minho comes from provinces of Entre Douro-e-Minho from the north west of Portugal. • The wines of this region are called Vinho Verde or Green Wines. • High acid, young and invigorating nature of the wine. • These wines are bottled after 5 months of maturation and contain a lot of mallic acid. • After bottling mallic acid gets converted into lactic acid and carbon dioxide. • This carbon dioxide contributes to the characteristic frizzante nature of the wine.
  • Brand Names White Wines • Casal Mendes • Casal Garcia • Pinafel Verde Red Wines • Barrocal • Espadeiro • Vinho Tinta
  • DOURO • The best Douro wines are made near the Spanish border. • Around two-third of the area produce is used for the production of table wine and one-third for the production of port. • The best wine produced in this region is Mateus Rose. • It is a medium sweet carbonated rose wine, which is sold in flagon shaped bottle called Bocksbeutel.
  • DAO • The red wines of this area are velvety due to the high glycerine content. • The red wines are the predominant produce of this area. • The red wines like Grao Vasco and Dao Caves Alianca are not unlike burgundy. • The whites are similar to Chablis
  • Wines of Ocean • COLARES – The red wines of Colares are considered to be the best in Portugal. • The law strictly regulates the use of the word Colares. • The red wines are much better than the white. The reds are much stronger, smoky and full of tannin. • The whites are quite dull and flat.
  • CARCAVELOS • Both red and white wines have good lasting power. • Carcavelos was once upon a time famous for fortified wines, which was sweet but has now become dry, pale, less in alcohol with distinct nutty flavour.
  • BUCELAS • They are at first white wines but as they grow older they change colour and upon being given more time they change to golden colour. • Once upon a time in England they used to be marketed as Lisbon Port.
  • SETUBAL • The vineyards around the port of Setubal is famous for only one wine that is “Muscatel de Setubal” which is a sweet fortified wine, golden in colour.
  • Wine Terminology • Quintas- Vineyards • Adegas- Cellars • Lagares - Troughs of stone used for pressing of grapes. The lagars are 1m deep and 5m squires. • Garrafeira- Mature inside the bottle before the sale. • Vindima- Indicates that the wine is being sold as soon as it has been bottled.
  • Port • “Claret is for boys & Port is for Men” declared by Samuel Johnson. • Port has been the official drink used for toast by English royal family for two centuries in Portugal. • Douro is the world’s second legally demarcated wine region after Italy’s Chianti Classico region. • In 1756 during the era of Marquis de Pombal, the Doura region was defined to protect the quality and good name of port (known as Porto in Portugal).
  • Cont.. • The production of port is limited to a strictly defined area of approx. 1500sq. miles along the river Douro in the northern Portugal. • Port takes its name from Port Oporto. Romans used to call Oporto a Portus Cale, which eventually got changed to Portugal. • Port started as a table wine and was being exported to England as early as the 14th century but this wine used to be very harsh and did not travel well. • Grape spirit is used to be added to keep it alive on its voyage.
  • Administration In 1933 three bodies were formed to protected quality of it: - • PORT WINE INSTITUTE – which looks after the administration, sale, alcoholic strength, lodges and demarcated area. • PORT WINE SHIPPERS GUILD – Looks after the export formalities, standard of lodges and stocks etc. • DOURO DISTRICT DEPARTMENT – Which looks after the agricultural aspects like planting of new wines, tillage etc.
  • CLIMATE • The winter can be extremely cold and the main rainfall is about 127mm during the month of December. • The summers are hot and temperature varies between 27 0C to 44 0C.
  • SOIL • Granite and schistose stone are present but it is the latter, which produces grapes of high quality. • It is brown, slate and rich in minerals.
  • Grape Used For red Port • Bastardo • Tourigo • Mourisco • Tinta Francisca • Tinta Cao For White Port • Muscatel Branco • Mourisco Branco • Rabo de Ovelho • Malvasia rei • Gauveio
  • Production • HARVEST – The grapes are harvested in late September to early October.
  • CRUSHING • Crushing of grapes takes place in Lagar. • It takes two men to work in a four-hour shift to work a pipe. • The result is known as “Corte” meaning first trading after which the men dance around the must for another four hours. • The treading may continue for 24 to 48 hours.
  • Fermentation • Usually the fortified wines are fermented till all the sugar is fermented to alcohol and carbon dioxide but in case of port it does not happen. • During the fermentation the alcohol is suddenly increased to 16 degree G.L by the addition of the grape spirit while there is still some natural sugar left in the must. • The quantity of brandy added to 100 liters to every 450 liters of wine. • Port wine is the only fortified wine in the world, which has its own natural sweetness.
  • FORTEFICATION • The wine is then transferred to the lodges where more brandy is added to further increase the alcoholic strength. • Port has an alcoholic strength of around 21 G.L. • Then the wine is given sometime before being tasted for quality and characteristics. • After being tasted the wine is blended in huge vats called Balselros.
  • AGEING • The wine is now transferred to vats where the wine remains till the wine gets matured. • In between the racking takes place 3 to 4 times in the one year. • The frequency decreases the following year onwards.
  • Bottling • With the exception of vintage, crusted and very old tawny port all the other ports have to be clarified using either isinglass, egg white or filtration, refrigeration etc before bottling.
  • Types of Port Aperitif Port – • It’s white in colour and the fermentation is allowed to go on till all the sugar is converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. • It should be served chilled with a slice of lemon.
  • White Port • These tend to run from dry and slightly tangy to medium sweet. • Generally the must is allowed to ferment long but not as much as aperitif port. • Although some appear to be slightly oxidized, the dry ones are perfect aperitifs for a Portuguese dinner. • Served chilled with some crackers or cheese during warm weather, may also enjoy them.
  • Ruby Port • Traditionally they are the youngest of ports, which take their name from the ruby colour. • Rich and fruity they are best consumed when they are young. • No cellaring is necessary.
  • Tawny Port • The name is derived from the tawny colour of the wine, which comes from long aging in the barrel, which causes the wine to lose some of its redness. • Much smoother then ruby port • Spends a minimum of six to eight years in the cask
  • Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) • These wines were destined to be bottled as Vintage wine but due to lack of demand was left in barrels. • They are ports of a single vintage year from March 1 to September 30 declared by the shipper during the fourth year after the vintage. • The port is bottled between July 1 of that year and December 31 of the sixth year after harvest.
  • Vintage Port • These are by far the greatest ports. • Vintage ports are made only in the years that are declared by the shippers • Three to four vintage in a decade • Aged for two years in wooden casks. • Vintage ports are very difficult to be drunk in its youth because of the high acid, alcohol and concentration of fruit and sugar. • However those who are patient enough to wait for fifteen to twenty years will be rewarded with one of the world’s greatest fortified wine.
  • Crusted Port • A blend of young wines of several years shipped in cask and then bottled. • It gets its name because it throws a crust on the bottle. • Similar in colour to vintage port and often referred as “Poor man’s Port”.
  • Brand Names • Cockburn’s Smithes and Co. • Croft and Co. Ltd. • Genzalez Byass and Co. Ltd. • Macenzie and Co. Ltd. • Sandeman and Co. Ltd. • Leacock and Co. Ltd. • Cossart Gordon and Co. • Rutherford and Miles Ltd.
  • Service of port • When served as an aperitif it should be served either 30 or 60 ml in a port wine glass or an A.P wine glass. It should be served chilled with a slice of lime. • When served as an accompaniment to the desert, it should be served 30 or 60 ml in a port wine glass or an A.P glass at room temperature.
  • MADEIRA • In 1418, one of Henry Gonzalves Zarco discovered an island around 560k.m to the north of Portugal capital Lisbon. • The island was completely wooden in its entire length of 50k.m and width of 23k.m. • He named the island as Madeire, meaning wood or timber in Portugal language.
  • Cont.. • Zarco was eventually appointed as the Captain General of the island. • He established his base at the site, which is now the island capital of Funchal. • Zarco saw that the trees are an obstruction to the growth of colonialism. • So Zarco set fire to the forest. • It is told that the forest kept burning for seven years and the wood ash enriched the soil.
  • Grape Variety • Sercial • Verdelho • Bual • Malmsay
  • Production • Harvesting- • The grapes are generally harvested in the mid- August and the harvest continues till the late October. • The grapes at sea level (Verdelho and Bual) are harvested first. • Then the Mamlsay and finally the Sercial is harvested. • The grapes are harvested manually.
  • Pressing of Grapes • Pressing of grapes takes place in lagar, a wooden trough in which barelegged people crush the grapes. • The must is then immediately transferred to the lodges at Funchal.
  • Fermentation • The must is transferred in lorries or 65 liters goatskin by hardy labourers. • Fermentation starts in the fermentation tank • wines which are intended to be sweet fortified wines will have the fermentation terminated at a very early stage by the addition of grape spirit. • The drier form of Madeira that is Sercial and Verdelho are fermented much longer.
  • Maturation • When the fermentation is complete the fortified wine is given a resting period in the cool lodges. Now these wines are known as Vinho Claro. • Journey to tropic but now uneconomical. • The wine are mature through ESTUFAGEM OR ESTUFA SYSTEM
  • ESTUFAGEM OR ESTUFA SYSTEM • The Estufa is simply a heated room or a stove. Now day’s two types of heating systems are in use • In its earliest form it used to be known as “Estufa de Sol” or a glasshouse where natural sunrays used to heat the wines kept in pipes (casks having a capacity of 418 liters) but the cold air during the night used to adversely of the wine.
  • Types • The central heating system where hot water pipes run along the walls of the room, which heats the Madeira. • Hot water pipes run through the walls of the cement tanks in which the wine is matured. The capacity of the cement tanks is around 4000 liters.
  • Operation of Estufa system • maximum temperature is fixed between 43 0C to 66 0C • 50 0C is optimum temperature. • It is increased very gradually and is never more than 2.75 degree centigrade per day. • When the required temperature is reached it is kept 3 to 4 months, sometimes up to 6 months. • Then the temperature is gradually reduced to the normal temperature. The temperature is never reduced more than 2.75 0C per day.
  • Cont.. • The wine is called “Vino Estufado”. • It must have become a little darker and developed slight burnt taste. • After being given a good resting period it is ragged into new casks. Now the wine is called “Vino Trasfegado”. • In these new casks the wine is added with 10% alcohol.Now the wine is known as “Vino Generoso”. • Now the wine enters into the Solera system for blending and slight maturation.
  • Types • SERCIAL – Sercial Madeira is an amber coloured aperitif wine with a crispy taste. It varies from dry to not so dry. Served chilled.
  • VERDELHO • It is golden coloured Madeira, almost rose and not so dry as Sercial. This can be an excellent accompaniment to soups or can be enjoyed at any time of the day.
  • Cont.. • RAINWATER – The wine was believed to have been created by Mr. Habisham, a local Madeira shipper from Savannah Georgia. • Mr. Habisham made a very special blend of Sercial and Verdelho that were lighter and quite a bit paler (almost like rainwater) then most of the Madeiras. • It used to be consumed during the early 19th centuary.
  • BUAL OR BOAL • The Bual or Boal Madeira is deep golden rich and heavy bodied Madeira. It has a nice balance of sugar acid and tannin It has somewhat smoky taste and goes well with sweet dishes.
  • MALMSAY • It is dark brown in colour and the most renowned and expensive form of Madeira. Truly a dessert wine and can also be drunk after the coffee.
  • Brand Names • Blandys • Cossart Gordan