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Wines of ItalyWines of Italy
• Italy often called as “Vineyards of the
• The Greeks called Italy Oenotria-tellus (The
land of vines), because of the great affinity
that the vines displayed for the sun & soil of
• The Greeks first brought the vines to Italy
almost 5000 years ago.
• The vines thrive on Italy’s mountainous
slopes, rich planes & gently rolling hills.
• It can probably claim to the longest unbroken,
tradition of viticulture in comparison to any
• Italy is divided into 6 areas, which are made
up of provinces.
• The northern produces better wines than the south.
• Table wines in the ratio of 4:1 red: white, sparkling,
fortified& aromatized wines are produced.
• The per capita consumption of wines is 184 bottles
• Italy in last 30 odd years of this century has
undergone more changes than it had in the previous
• In 1960 a widespread replanting took place in
Italy, where viticulture underwent a total
change. As opposed to the Greek influence the
vine in the north are now trained low & those
in south, which were traditionally, trained low
are now trained higher.
• Entire peninsula covered with mountains.
• In the west & north lies snow covered Alps and in the
east Venetian Alp.
• Winters are long & bitter
• Valley is fertile.
• Due to great length Italy has a varied climate.
• Soil is chalky and volcanic.
• DOCG - Denominazione di Origine Controllata Garantita-
Controlled & guaranteed. Guarantees of high quality of wine, which
have confirmed to the most demanding regulation.
• DOC - Denominazione di Origine Controllata. This is category of
Italian wine. The vine species used & where they may be grown,
maximum yields, minimum strength etc. are some factors that are
taken into consideration before granting this appellation to a wine.
• IGT- Indicazione Geografica Tipica is the second of four
classifications of wine recognized by the government of Italy. IGT
wines are labeled with the locality of their creation, but do not meet
the requirements of the stricter DOC or DOCG designations. It is
considered broadly equivalent to the French vin de pays designation.
• VDT- Vino Da Tavola - A table wine.
Wine producing RegionsWine producing Regions
• Situated in North east.
• Main river Po
• Famous for Italian vermouths, which are sweet &
• Asti spumante is made by Methode
Barolo (Red)Barolo (Red)
• Highest rated Italian red wine.
• It is produced from 100%
• Barolo must have a minimum
alcoholic strength of 13%,
• Aged for a minimum period of 3
Barbera (Red)Barbera (Red)
• Also the name of grape
dark red, acidic &
specialty of piedmont
Gattinara (Red)Gattinara (Red)
• Given a DOC status on
July 9, 1967 states that
it must be produced
from 90% nebbiolo
grapes 10% bonarde
Barbaresco (red)Barbaresco (red)
o This district lies north east
of river Alba and
produces dry, full bodied
ruby red wine.
• Freisa (red) – Also a name of grape variety, grown
in piedmont, which produces 2 styles of wine
Asti spumante (sparkling)Asti spumante (sparkling)
• White sweet
produced in the
town of Asti in
• Alcoholic strength
is 7%, having full
flavour of ripe green
Cortese (White)Cortese (White)
• The traditional white wine grape variety
of Piedmont that produces a white wine
of particular refinement.
• The wine made from cortese grapes can
be labeled as Cortese d’ gavi or simply
• Northwest zone east of piedmont. It is the fashion &
the financial capital of Italy. Campari is the most well
• Barbacario (Red) – should have a minimum alcoholic
strength of 12% & is produced from a blend of
Barbera & Bonarda grapes
• Riesling (White) – minimum 11% alcohol also
produced as spumante. Made from a blend of Riesling
Renano or Riesling Italianco or a combination of
• Important city is Verona, but Venice is the
city, which is well known & is also a port for
merchant navy. It is famous for
• St. marks Square,
• St. Marks cathedral.
Main WinesMain Wines
• Soave (White) –
• A famous white wine
that is dry.
• Produced from
garganega & trebbiano
• Minimum 10.5% of
• Gambellara (White) –
Made from a
garganega & trebbiano
grapes. Should have
minimum 11% alcohol
• Bianco di custoza (White)
Made from a combination of
trebbiano, toscano &
garganega grapes. Also
produced as a spumante
should have a minimum
alcoholic strength of 11%
Valpolicella (Red)Valpolicella (Red)
• This dry light bodied
red wines produced
from Verona is
drunk quite young &
ideal for red meat.
Bardolina (Red)Bardolina (Red)
• A light bodied dry red
• It is famous for the
leaning tower of Pisa &
architecture and aged
wines, which are probably
the most famous of all
Italian red table wines that
is the Chianti.
Main WinesMain Wines
• Chianti (Red) –
Geographically & historically,
Chianti is an area lying
between Florence & Siena
encompassing the town of
Arezzo, Pistoia & Pisa in the
region of Tuscany.
• The red wine produced from
this area is known as Chianti.
• It is made from a combination
of Sangiovese, Cabernet
sauvignon, Trebbiano &
Chianti classico (RedChianti classico (Red))
• In the heart of the area
mentioned above in the hills
between Florence & Siena
lie approx 175000 acres of
land where Chianti classico
• It is actually the name of one
of the 7 Chianti zones.
Other winesOther wines
Brunello di Montalcino (Red)-
• An extremely full-bodied red wine
produced from the Tuscany region it
is Italy’s finest & longest-lived
Bianco di Pitigliano (White)Bianco di Pitigliano (White)
• A white wine
region white dry,
fruity, & lively.
• The main city is Rome where the world’s smallest country
is located the name of the country is Vatican City.
• It has around
11.5% of alcohol.
It can be a dry
white wine or a
Est! Est!! Est!!! (White)Est! Est!! Est!!! (White)
• Abbreviated form of
venum bonum est.
Est, est, est is made
from Muscat ,
Merlot & Cabernet
• The area is more famous as a tourist attraction
rather than wine production.
• The main city is Naples.
• The most well known wine from this area is:
Lacryma Christi (Tear of Christ)Lacryma Christi (Tear of Christ)
• The white wine known as lacryma
Christi del vesuvio bianco, has a
minimum alcoholic strength of
• The red lacryma Christi del vesuvio
rosso has a minimum 12% alcohol.
• The grapes for the production of
wine is obtained from the slopes of
• A red, rose & a sparkling version is
• It is known for its dessert wines, both white &
red. It also produces table wines, which are
red, or white & which are considered good.
• Moscato del Templo- White dessert wine.
• Giro di Sardegan- Red dessert wine.
• Marlestella- A white table wine.
• Santa Marla la Palmo- Red table wine.
Italian Wine TermsItalian Wine Terms
• Rosato/ Chaiaretto
• an estate or farm
• a reserve wine
• Medium Sweet
• Semi sparkling wine
• Must or grape juice
• 225 Liters of oak casks
• Sealed stainless cask for
production for Frizazante
PRODUCTION OF MARSALAPRODUCTION OF MARSALA
• Marsala is both the name of the city in the north-west Sicily
and the name of a blend of grapes most notably the Citaratto
and or Grillo grapes with with a maximum of 15% of Inzolla
• The white wines rich in extract and low in acidity are allowed
to ferment till dry.
• The blend is slowly heated for about 24 hours until it has been
reduced to one third of its original raw volume.
• During this time they must become sweet, thick and caramel
like. This cooked is wine is called Cotto .
• This Cotto is then added to a base wine in the proportion
of six part of Cotto to six part of alcohol to 100 part
of base wine.
• The dry Marsala is also made in the same way except
that less of Cotto is used, sometimes to a tune of 1%.
• Marsala is aged in casks for a minimum period of four
months to as much as five years occasionally longer.
• During this time it takes on a dark brown colour with the
original white wine imparting a dry undertone to the
general sweetness, which slowly reduces with age.
• Marsala Vergine (18%)-
This is considered as the
finest Marsala and is made
by the solera system
• Aged for at least five years
in oak casks.
• It is extremely dry.
• Marsala Fine(17%)
• this version must be aged
for a minimum period of
• Alcohol content of no less
• This the most heavily
advertised and consumed
Marsala in U.S.
• It is often labeled as I.P,
for Italia Particularly Italia.
• Marsala Superiore (17%)-
This type Marsala is
sometimes labeled as follows
– L.P ---- London Particular
– O.P ---- Old Particular
– S.O.M --- Superiore Old
– C.O.M --- Choice Old Marsala
– G.D --- Garbaldi Doice
– P.G --- Particularly Genuine
• Marsala Speciale(18%) -
COMMON SHIPPERS OF MARSALACOMMON SHIPPERS OF MARSALA
• Woodhouse and company
• Ingham wittaker and company
• Florio and company