Grammar the basics


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Grammar the basics

  1. 1. Grammar: The Basics DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage:
  2. 2. This or That ? A vase or two faces? Which image do you see? A young girl’s face or an old woman’s face?
  3. 3. Sentences Construction Objective  Understand the difference between SVO / SOV  Use the rule effectively for Sentence construction
  4. 4. Sentence Structure  Subject +Verb+Object I + eat + food  Subject +Object +Verb I + food + eat
  5. 5. Gamer Grammar Objective  Identify the commonly made mistakes while speaking in English  To increase fluency in English
  6. 6. Building Blocks
  7. 7. Parts Of Speech Noun  Noun: is a word used as the name, animal, place, or thing.  Person: man, woman, teacher, John, Mary  Place: home, office, town, countryside  Animal: dog, cat, horse, monkey  Thing: book, pen, room, tree
  8. 8. Parts Of Speech Noun Types Of Nouns  Common Noun  Proper Noun  Collective Noun  Abstract Noun  Countable / Uncountable Nouns
  9. 9. Parts Of Speech Noun  Common Noun Is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. E.g.  City, man, boat, and radio
  10. 10. Parts Of Speech Noun  Proper Noun Name of a specific person, place or thing. E.g. Eiffel Tower, India, Mr. Will Smith, Nokia
  11. 11. Parts Of Speech Noun  Collective Noun Name of a number ( or collection) of persons or things taken together and spoken of as a whole. E.g.  A Crowd -a collection of people  An Army - collection of soldiers
  12. 12. Parts Of Speech Noun  Abstract Noun Is usually the name of a quality, action, or state. E.g.  Quality - kindness, darkness, honesty  Action - laughter, theft  State - sleep, sickness
  13. 13. Parts Of Speech Noun  Countable Noun (or countables) are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count. E.g. book, pen, apple, boy  Uncountable noun (or uncountables) are the names of things which cannot count. E.g. milk, sugar, gold, oil
  14. 14. Parts Of Speech Noun  Lisa works as a programmer at Microsoft.  Let's have lunch at McDonalds. Mc Donalds Mc Donalds
  15. 15. Parts Of Speech Noun  The sun sheds it’s beams on rich and poor alike.  Edward was a great king.  The rose smells sweet.  A flock of sheep is passing by.  George was a brave soldier.
  16. 16. Name, Place, Animal, Thing  Fun time  Lets play Name, Place, Animal, Thing with a difference Proper Noun Common Noun Collective Noun Abstract Noun Peter Postman Poultry Prayer
  17. 17. Parts Of Speech Pronoun  Pronoun: is a word used instead of a noun. E.g.  Tim is absent, because he is ill.  This book is mine.  It is doubtful whether he will come for the party.  Bob is a kind boy. He has lent his bicycle to Alice.
  18. 18. Parts Of Speech Pronoun E.g.  Do you think Mary is pretty? I think Mary is beautiful. With pronouns, we can say:  Do you think Mary is pretty? I think she is beautiful.
  19. 19. Parts Of Speech Pronoun  Personal Pronoun: I, we, you, he, (she, it), are called Personal Pronouns because they stand for three persons. E.g.  The person speaking –This is my book  The person spoken to – Those are your books  The person spoken of- That is her book
  20. 20. Parts Of Speech Pronoun  Indefinite Pronoun  Refers to noun that are indefinite. E.g.  One evening a beggar came to my door.  Somebody stole the mangoes. Anybody Each Either None Someone One Few
  21. 21. Parts Of Speech Pronoun  Relative Pronoun- such as that, who, which, whose and whom which give extra information about the subject. E.g.  The woman who interviewed me was very friendly.  I can't stand dogs that bark loudly. This, That These, Those Who, Whom Whose, Which What
  22. 22. Parts Of Speech Pronoun  Reflexive Pronoun  Pronouns combined with –self or –selves to emphasize the subject of the verb. E.g. I hurt myself. Myself Yourself Himself Ourselves Themselves
  23. 23. Parts Of Speech Pronoun Person and Number Subjective Possessive Subjective First Person Singular I Mine Me First Person Plural We Ours Us Second Person Singular You Yours You Second Person Plural You Yours You Third Person Singular He / she / it His / hers / its Him / her / it Third Person Plural They Theirs They
  24. 24. Lie detector  Lets have some fun I love Chinese Food I am born in New York I love scuba diving
  25. 25. Parts Of Speech Adjectives  An adjective is a word that tells us more about a noun, pronoun or another adjective. An adjective "qualifies" or "modifies" a noun. Adjectives can be used before a noun or after certain verbs. We can often use two or more adjectives together. E.g.  A big car  I like Chinese food  It is a tough decision  A beautiful young French lady
  26. 26. Parts Of Speech Adjectives Adjective Patterns:  Adjectives can come before noun: a new car  Adjectives can come after verbs: such as be, become, seem, look, etc.: that car looks fast  They can be modified by adverbs: a very expensive car
  27. 27. Name Chain  Fun Time Hi! I’m Witty William Hi! This is my friend Witty William And I am Energetic Esther Hi! That’s Witty William, this is Energetic Esther and I am Helpful Henry
  28. 28. Parts Of Speech Verb Verb: is a word that tells something about a person or thing. E.g.  The sun shines brightly.  Harry laughs.
  29. 29. Parts Of Speech Verb Types of Verbs  Auxiliary Verbs  Regular Verbs  Irregular Verbs  Modal Verbs
  30. 30. Parts Of Speech Verb  Auxiliary Verb: „To Do‟, „Be‟ and „Have‟ are the English auxiliary verbs / helping verbs used in a negative structure, a question or to show tenses.  Modal Verb: Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as possibility, intention, obligation and necessity. E.g. Can, Could, May, Might, Will, Would, Shall, Should
  31. 31. Parts Of Speech Verb  Regular Verb: A regular verb is one that follows the pattern of taking -ed for the past simple and past participles. E.g. walk / walked / walked  Irregular Verb: An irregular verb is one that does not take the -ed ending for the Past Simple and Past Simple forms. Some verbs do not change.
  32. 32. Parts Of Speech Verb  Irregular Verbs Base Form Past Tense Past Participle Shut Read Shut Read Shut Read Sit Build Sat Built Sat Built Know See Knew Saw Known Seen Types of Verbs
  33. 33. Parts Of Speech Verb Characteristics of Verbs  Verbs usually come after the subject of the sentence. E.g. Chris paints well.  Verbs must agree in person (first, second, etc.) and number (singular and plural) with the subject of the sentence. E.g. She sings sweetly. They sing sweetly.
  34. 34. Parts Of Speech Adverb  Adverb - An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. An adverb "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb. But adverbs can also modify adjectives, or even other adverbs. E.g.  The man ran quickly.  Tara is really beautiful.  The Cell phone works very well.
  35. 35. Parts Of Speech Adverb Characteristics of Adverb 1. Function The main job of an adverb is to modify (give more information about) verbs, adjectives and other adverbs. Modify a verb: - John speaks loudly. (How does John speak?) - Mary lives locally. (Where does Mary live?) - She never smokes. (When does she smoke?) (In the following examples, the adverb is in red and the word that it modifies is in purple.)
  36. 36. Parts Of Speech Adverb 2. Form  Many adverbs end in -ly. E.g. quickly, softly, strongly, honestly, interestingly.  But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. E.g. "Friendly", is an adjective.  Some adverbs have no particular form. E.g. well, fast, very, never, always, often, still
  37. 37. Parts Of Speech Adverb 3. Position Adverbs have three main positions in the sentence:  Front (before the subject): - Now we will study adverbs.  Middle (between the subject and the main verb): - We often study adverbs.  End (after the verb or object): - We study adverbs carefully.
  38. 38. Dumbverb  Lets have some fun  Enact the given adverbs while the class guesses the same. E.g. Harry and Sally dance gracefully.
  39. 39. Parts Of Speech Prepositions  Prepositions: are words that we can use to indicate time, place and space. PREPOSITIONS Period/Point of Time During Throughout At Position In, Under, Over, Beside, Between, Opposite, Among, Between Direction Towards Past Around
  40. 40. Parts Of Speech Prepositions Commonly used Prepositions Aboard About Above Across After Against Along Among Around At Before Behind Below Beneath Beside Between Beyond By Down During Except For From Into Like Of On Over Since To Within In Up Over Off Towards Under Until Upon With
  41. 41. Parts Of Speech Prepositions  We went to school on Monday.  My plane stopped at Washington and New Jersey and arrived in New York two hours late.
  42. 42. Lord of the Ad world Fun Time Identify slogans with Prepositions in them E.g. Lets go in an ALTO – Maruti King of good times - Kingfisher
  43. 43. Parts Of Speech Conjunctions  Coordinating Conjunctions - are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses. E.g.  Jack and Jill went up the hill.  The water was warm but I didn't go swimming. F – For A – And N – Nor B – But O – Or Y – Yet S - So
  44. 44. Parts Of Speech Conjunctions  Subordinating conjunctions - A word or words used to connect unequal parts of a sentence. E.g. I went swimming, although it was cold. Since, Because, If, After, Until, Although, Before, As Though, Though, When, Unless As
  45. 45. Parts Of Speech Conjunctions  Correlative Conjunctions – A pair of conjunctions used to show a comparison. (They are also known as paired conjunctions) E.g. Not only is she rich, but also intelligent. Both-and Either-or Neither-nor Since-therefore If-then Not only-but also
  46. 46. Conjingle  Fun time And Also But Nor SoFor
  47. 47. Parts Of Speech Interjection  Interjection: is a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Hello!, Bravo!, Alas! or Ah! They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. An interjection is followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.
  48. 48. Parts Of Speech Interjection E.g.  "Hey ! look at that!" (calling attention )  "Hi ! What's new?" (expressing greeting )  "Well ! what did he say?" (introducing a remark ) Well ! what did he say? Hi ! What's new?
  49. 49. Subjects and Verbs Objective  Identify the correct usage of Subject and Verb in a sentence  Identify the correct usage of Subjects and Verbs while speaking in English
  50. 50. Subjects and Verbs Verb: The part of speech that expresses action, or state of being. Subject: The part which names the person or thing we are speaking about in a sentence.
  51. 51. Subjects and Verbs Subject and Verb Agreement The Verb agrees with the Subject in Number and Person E.g. Sam and Harry are friends.
  52. 52. Subjects and Verbs  Harry Potter is an interesting book.  Every boy and girl is ready to run for the marathon. Harry Potter
  53. 53. Articles Objective  Identify the mechanisms to use articles appropriately.
  54. 54. Articles  Articles: are Determiners.  Types Of Articles Indefinite – A / AN Definite – THE
  55. 55. Articles  Indefinite Article (A)  A dog is a faithful animal.  A man is known by the company he keeps
  56. 56. Articles  Indefinite Article (AN)  An Apple  An Honest Man
  57. 57. Articles  Definite Article ( THE)  Lets go to the Golf Club.  The Solar System.
  58. 58. Articles Lets have fun Identify articles in the songs (Clips to be added)
  59. 59. Tenses Objective  Identify the correct usage of Tense in a sentence  Identify the correct usage of Tense while speaking in English
  60. 60. Tenses  The Tense of a verb shows the time of action or event.  Verb tenses are tools that English speakers use to express time in language.
  61. 61. Tenses  There are three main Tenses:  Present Tense: a verb that refers to the present time. E.g. I write a letter.  Past Tense: a verb that refers to the past time. E.g. I wrote a letter.  Future Tense: a verb that refers to the future time. E.g. I will write a letter.
  62. 62. Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Future ContinuousPast ContinuousPresent Continuous Future PerfectPast PerfectPresent Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Simple Future I study English everyday. IS / AM / ARE + verb in ING I am studying English now. WAS / WERE + verb in ING I was studying English when you called yesterday. HAS / HAVE + P.P I have studied English in several different countries. HAS / HAVE + BEEN + verb in ING I have been studying English for five years. Two years ago, I studied English in England. HAD + P.P. I had studied a little English before I moved to the U.S. HAD + BEEN + verb in ING I had been studying English for five years before I moved to the U.S. I will be studying English next year. SHALL / WILL + BE + verb in ING I will be studying English when you arrive tonight. SHALL / WILL + BE + verb in ING I will be studying English when you arrive tonight. SHALL / WILL + HAS / HAVE + BEEN + verb in ING I will have been studying English for over two hours by the time you arrive.
  63. 63. Tense Tenses  Fun Time Group B write a story in the Past Group C write a story in the Future Group A write a story in the Present
  64. 64. Question Tags Objective  To aid formulating appropriate questions.  To learn to convert ideas or sentences into questions.
  65. 65. Question Tags  Question tags are a grammatical structure in which a statement or idea is turned into a question by adding an interrogative fragment ( tag ).  Their pattern is „auxiliary + n‟t + subject‟, if the statement is „positive‟ and „auxiliary + subject‟, if the statement is „negative‟.
  66. 66. Question Tags E.g. Positive Sentence  He has left already, hasn’t he?  Andrew came to school yesterday, didn’t he? Negative Sentence  He doesn‟t like tea, does he?  John can‟t speak English fluently, can he?
  67. 67. Question Tags  Lets have some fun Peanut Butter New York Madonna
  68. 68. Direct And Indirect Speech Objective  To understand the two ways of relating and quoting what someone has said.
  69. 69. Direct And Indirect Speech  In Direct Speech the original speaker‟s exact words are given and indicated by quotation marks (“ ”)  E.g. “I don‟t know what to do,” said Dean.  In Indirect Speech the exact meaning of the speaker‟s words are given, but the exact words are not directly quoted.  E.g. Dean said that he didn‟t know what to do.
  70. 70. Direct And Indirect Speech Some pointers to convert Direct Speech into Indirect Speech and vice – versa.  If the main verb is in the past tense, the present tense verbs in that sentence must be changed to past tense.  First and second person pronouns must be changed to third person pronouns.
  71. 71. Direct And Indirect Speech
  72. 72. Voice  Objective To create awareness that using the Passive Voice sounds more objective.
  73. 73. Voice Active Voice: The verb is active, when the subject (agent) does the action (verb) to something (object). E.g. The doctor wrote a prescription. Passive Voice: The verb is passive, when the subject takes the action upon itself. E.g. The prescription was written by the doctor.
  74. 74. Voice The refreshments are going to be prepared by Karen. That skyscraper was built in 1934. Grammar is taught to us by Ratna. By whom was this done? Jane is helped by Fred. Passive Voice Karen is going to prepare the refreshments. They built that skyscraper in 1934. Ratna teaches us grammar. Who did this? Fred helps Jane. Active Voice The refreshments are going to be prepared by Karen. That skyscraper was built in 1934. Grammar is taught to us by Ratna. By whom was this done? Jane is helped by Fred. Passive Voice Karen is going to prepare the refreshments. They built that skyscraper in 1934. Ratna teaches us grammar. Who did this? Fred helps Jane. Active Voice
  75. 75. Creativity Unlimited  Sell a refrigerator to an Eskimo
  76. 76. News Time Aftermath of 9/11 gets film focus Charles and Camilla's wedding day Beckham family affairs are fair game for the public Joseph Ratzinger is the new Pope
  77. 77. Movie Time
  78. 78. Thank You DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage: