Fabric & fibres

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Fabric & fibres

  1. 1. DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: skihm86@yahoo.com , balhara86@gmail.com linkedin:- in.linkedin.com/in/ihmsunilkumar facebook: www.facebook.com/ihmsunilkumar webpage: chefsunilkumar.tripod.com Fabric and Fibres
  2. 2. arpita learning objectives  To understand the meaning of the term textile.  Classify different types of fibers , yarns and to learn at least two examples of each type.  Make wise selection of textile products for specific uses in our day to day life.  To learn about the fabric construction and finishes given to each type.  Care of textile products.
  3. 3. arpita What is a textile??  A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial fibers often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw wool fibers, linen, cotton, or other material on a spinning wheel to produce long strands known as yarn.[1] Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing
  4. 4. arpita Classification and identification of textile fibers
  5. 5. arpita Textile fibres ( based on source) There are two types of fibers  Natural fibers – they are obtained from nature & are of 3 types: vegetable fibers, animal fibers & mineral fibers  Manmade fibers –they are obtained in various way, there are 4 types of manmade fibers: synthetic, re-generated, metallic& mineral fibers
  6. 6. arpita Length based classification  Based on there length they are staple or filament .  Staple are short, all natural fibres except silk are staple  Filament fibres are continuous and are measured in metres,  All manmade fibres are filament
  7. 7. arpita Content based classification (they can be both natural or man made fibres) Cellulose Fibres Protein fibres Mineral fibres
  8. 8. arpita Examples:  Cellulose----- cotton rayon  Protein ----- silk wool,  Mineral------ asbestos
  9. 9. arpita Identification of fibre By feel By length By lustre By texture
  10. 10. arpita Characteristics of vegetable& animal fibers  Vegetable fibers are strong with a crisp feel  Good heat  Non resilient and crease easily  Stronger when wet than dry  Moth proof  Affected by mildew in damp conditions  Can be bleached  Not harmed by alkalis  Affected by acids  Animal fibers are soft to feel  Poor heat  Stronger wet when dry  Absorbent  Attacked by moths  Not affected by mildew easily  Damaged by sunlight& alkalis  Affected by chlorine bleach
  11. 11. arpita Vegetable fibers  Vegetable fibers are obtained from plant cells  Examples are- cotton, linen , jute, ramie , hemp , sisal, & coir
  12. 12. arpita Cotton fibers  This fibre is obtained from the seeds of cotton plant, which grows 1-2 meters tall .
  13. 13. arpita Advantages & limitations of cotton fibers  Advantages are-------  -can be dyed easily  Good conductor of heat  Durable since fibre is strong  Easily dry- cleaned.  Good absorbency power  Textured effects are easily available.  Highly versatile  Processed into wide range of fabrics  limitations are:--------  Cotton creases easily  Tends to shrink when washed  Sheds lint  Prone to mildew attacks  Flammable  Damaged by acids  Takes longer time to dry  When exposed to sunlight it turns yellow .
  14. 14. arpita Linen fibers  This fiber is obtained from the stem of the flax plant .this is an annual plant growing maximum about 40 inches.
  15. 15. arpita Advantages & limitations of linen fibre  Advantages are-----  More durable then cotton also.  Withstands constant washing .  Soiling is easily removed from this.  Easy to launder .  Stronger when in wet condition.  Not effected by sunlight.  Good conductor of heat.  Can withstand high ironing temperatures .  Limitations are:----------  Creases & shrinks easily  Prone to mildew attacks  It does not have good affinity for dyes  Takes long time to dry  Linen is flammable  It is expensive
  16. 16. arpita JUTE  Obtained from stems of jute plant  Advantages---it is inexpensive & can be blended with other fibres,it resists water, fire, mildew and rot.  It dyes easily.  Dis advantages---are weak & non- durable, difficult to bleach, difficult to
  17. 17. arpita Ramie, hemp, sisal, & kapok  Ramie is obtained from stems of plant, it is a woody fibre , it is also known as china grass & is used for making rope, twine, sacking & nets.  Hemp is also obtained from stems of plant & is used for manufacturing carpets & rags, its used to to make sacks & canvas  Sisal is obtained from the leaves of a plant, resembles cactus .it is used to make twine , rope, sacking& nets  Kapok is obtained from seeds of the cotton tree& are smooth & light, it is used for filling of cushions.
  18. 18. arpita Coir & Pina  It is obtained from coconut husk  It is used in making rope & mats  It is also used for stuffing upholstered furniture's  used for making bags too.  Pina obtained from the leaves of pineapple plants  Used for mats& bags
  19. 19. arpita Animal fibers  These are derived from fur of various animals  Silk is derived from insect larvae
  20. 20. arpita wool  Obtained from fleece of sheep  Wool is graded under 4 classes: fine, medium, long & carpet wools
  21. 21. arpita Advantages & limitations of wool  Advantages--------  Comfortable for wear  Dyes easily  Does not soil easily  Can be laundered easily  Flameproof  Shrink proof  Moth resistant  Limitations--------  Takes long time to dry  Weak fibers  Stretches easily  Good quality is expensive  damaged by moth  May produce allergic reaction to skin
  22. 22. arpita silk  The finest quality of raw silk is obtained from the cocoon of the bombyx mori, a type f silkworm
  23. 23. arpita Silk is of 2 types cultivated& wild silk  Important wild silks are ---  Tussar from india & china , they have a tan colour  Muga silk from assam  Others-- dupionsilk, rawsilk, spun silk
  24. 24. arpita Advantages & limitations of silk  Advantages—  Soft feel & lustre  Elegant to look at  Strongest natural fibre  Bad conductor of heat  White silk can be bleached  Limitations----  Silk is weakened by sunlight  Becomes weaker when wet  Weakened at high temperatures  Sensitive to acid  Very costly
  25. 25. arpita NATURAL MINERAL FIBRES  Asbestos is a natural mineral fibre  It is obtained from rocks  It is acid proof , rust proof & flame proof  Can withstand extreme temperatures  It is used for making fire fighting suits
  26. 26. arpita Man- made 1. Synthetic fibre 2. Re- generated fibers 3. Metallic fibers 4. Mineral fibers
  27. 27. arpita Synthetic fibers 1. Polyester . 2. Nylon ( polyamide) 3. Others are----- polyethylene,polyvinyl, polypropylene,polyacrylon,,acrylics& mod acrylics,
  28. 28. arpita Polyester fibres------------------- is composed by mixing alcohol with acid  Advantages  Fibre is very strong  Crease resistant  Requires no ironing  Resists soiling as the fibers are very smooth  Dries rapidly  Can be washed easily  Resistant to acids & alkalis  Can be blended with other fibers  Limitations  attracts dust  Has low absorbency  Does not dye easily  Attracts grease  Has low melting points  At high temperatures produces poisonous fumes
  29. 29. arpita Polyester fibre ( used for making bed& table linen net curtains, fillings for pillows & quilts).
  30. 30. arpita Nylon fibres  Advantages  Strong & durable  Crease resistant  Moth & mildew resistant  Easy to launder  Dries quickly  Fabrics needs no ironing  Limitations  Damaged by sunlight  Melts in fire  Hard to remove stains from it  Produces harmful fumes
  31. 31. arpita Nylon fibres (used for making bed linen , soft furnishings )
  32. 32. arpita Other synthetic fibres are :  Acrylics trade names are dralon, courtelle, orlon, acrilan – blankets , carpets .  Mod acrylics trade names are teklan. Used for soft furnishings, upholstery , blankets.  Polypropylene such as spunstron used for making of carpets .  Polyethylene such as courlene used for upholstery
  33. 33. arpita Re-generated fibres  A) Re generated cellulosic fibres : These are made from a substance retrieved from natural sources , most commonly cellulose, which is converted into fibre form( Example is viscose rayon) . Used for making soft furnishings & carpets .the trade name of viscose rayon is viloft  Other forms of rayon are: acetate & tri – acetate  B) Re generated protein fibres : These fibres have been obtained from protein such as milk, corn, soyabeans.
  34. 34. arpita Regenerated fibres  Cellulosic fibres  Protein fibre
  35. 35. arpita Viscose rayon- is obtained from wood pulp  Advantages  Light weight & heavy  Durable  Absorbent  Good affinity for dyes  Can be bleached  Limitations  It is weak  Creases badly  Does not dry easily  Prone to mildew  Requires low ironing temperatures
  36. 36. arpita Man made mineral fibres  Glass fibres – produced by heating silica, sand, limeston e & other minerals  These are non absorbent, easily laundered ,& highly fire proof
  37. 37. arpita Metallic fibres  A manufactured fiber composed of metal, plastic-coated metal, metal-coated plastic, or a core completely covered by metal.  Coated metallic filaments do not tarnish. When suitable adhesives and films are used, they are not affected by salt water, chlorinated water in swimming pools or climatic conditions.  Metallic filaments are used for decorative purposes in apparel, draperies, laces, military uniform decorations, ribbons, table linens, and upholstery.  In the more common process for production, aluminum foil is coated on one or both sides with adhesive to which the desired coloring matter has been added. A sheet of transparent plastic film is applied to each side of the adhesive-coated foil. The assembly is then slit into narrow widths.
  38. 38. arpita Metallic fibres
  39. 39. arpita Process of making fibre to fabrics fibres To make yarns spun weaved knitted felted bonded To make Un finished fabrics
  40. 40. arpita Conti ……… Several treatments Given to make Textile fabrics
  41. 41. arpita what are yarns?  Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibers, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, knitting, weaving and rope making. Yarn can be made from any number of synthetic or natural fibers. Very thin yarn is referred to as thread.  Types of Yarns :  Staple (Short fibers)  single  Simple (Same appearance along length)  Filament (Continuous Filaments)  Plied (Two or more strands, twisted)  Complex ( irregular in size & twist)
  42. 42. arpita Count of yarn  Tex system is most commonly used to count yarn  Tex is an internationally agreed system of yarn numbering.  The Tex system is based on the fixed length system. : (Weight per unit length)  The Tex count represents the weight in grams per 1 kilometer (1000 meters) of yarn.  (For example, a yarn numbered 10 Tex weighs 10 grams per kilometer)  The Tex number increases with the size of the yarn.
  43. 43. arpita What is weaving?  A weave can be defined as the system of interlacing warp & weft threads in order to produce a fabric.  in weaving there must be 2 types of threads.  Vertical threads are called warp, & horizontal threads are called weft.
  44. 44. arpita Types of weaves 1. Plain weave 2. Satin weave 3. Figured weave 4. Twill weave 5. Cellular weave 6. Pile weave
  45. 45. arpita Plain weave  The weft goes over & under alternate warp threads, as done in darning.
  46. 46. arpita Satin weave  In a satin weave there are fewer intersection of weft & warp threads.  The warp floats over the weft thread.  The fabric is smooth with an attractive sheen.
  47. 47. arpita Finished product of a satin weave
  48. 48. arpita Figured weave  This introduces a pattern into the fabrics.  For figured weaves two types of previously mentioned weaves are combined.  Fabrics woven in this weaves are huckaback,brocatelle, damask.
  49. 49. arpita Figured weave as damask
  50. 50. arpita Figured weave as huckaback fabric
  51. 51. arpita Twill weave  The weft crosses the warp at different intervals in different rows so that series of diagonal line is produced.  The threads are normally close to each other  Drill & gaberdine are fabrics in twill weave.
  52. 52. arpita Fabrics made from twill weave  gaberdine  drill
  53. 53. arpita Cellular weave  These weave gives a loosely woven fabric which holds air in the cells between the threads .  Example cellular blanket
  54. 54. arpita Cellular blanket made from cellular
  55. 55. arpita Pile weave  In a pile weave there loops of yarn which stand from the body of the cloth.  Example is carpet
  56. 56. arpita Knitting . •A method of constructing fabric by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns. •Only one thread is used in knitting. •Knitting is one of several ways to turn thread or yarn into cloth
  57. 57. arpita Knitting machine
  58. 58. arpita What is felting?  In this method , fibres are directly converted into fabric without being spun into yarns .  Generally wool is used for felting.  In this process a number of needles is punched into fibres.  They lack strength.  Are comparatively cheaper.
  59. 59. arpita Needle Felting machine
  60. 60. arpita Bonded fibres  Bonded fibres are made from natural & manmade fibres.  The fibres are bonded either by using adhesive, by heating or by laminating.
  61. 61. arpita Finishes given to fabrics  Mechanical finishes 1. Beetling 2. Sanforizing 3. Embossing 4. Moiering 5. Calendering 6. Crinkling 7. Napping 8. Glazing 9. creping  Chemical finishes 1. Anti- crease treatment 2. Creping 3. Fire proofing 4. mercerizing 5. Shrink resistant 6. Mothproofing 7. Oil repellant 8. Water repellant
  62. 62. arpita Apart from the above mentioned finishes we have  Dyeing-----  This processes generally enhance the appearance of a fabric by adding colour & pattern  Printing--- 3 types  Block printing  Screen printing  Roller printing
  63. 63. arpita Chemical finishes 8 chemical finishes are there
  64. 64. arpita mercerizing  A chemical finishing process used on cotton yarn and cloth through chemical action of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) solution. The treatment increases the fabrics' strength, affinity for dyes and luster.
  65. 65. arpita Anti – crease treatment  Used for cotton fabrics usually this chemical finish method is produced by treating fabrics with a solution of synthetic resin, the fabric is then dried at a high temperature
  66. 66. arpita creping  Caustic soda is applied on the fabrics on some parts , parts to which the paste is applied do shrinks leaving the other parts unshrunken. Thus a crepe effect is produced on the fabric
  67. 67. arpita Fire proofing  This chemical finish is also known as the flame retardant finish.  in this method the fabric is dipped in a solution of borax & boric acid dissolved in water.  Even bed linen such as duvets , pillows, etc are made flame retardant
  68. 68. arpita Water repellant finish  The fabric is coated with hydrophobic substances making it water repellant  Hydrophobic substances are- silicones, gelatin, paraffin wax.
  69. 69. arpita Oil-repellant  Oil Repellent- A Treatment That Allows A Fabric To Resist Staining By Oily Substances. Oilcloth, A General Term For Any Oil Coated Fabric.  Fabrics are treated with layers of linseed oil & metallic salts.
  70. 70. arpita Shrink resistant finish  Given to wool to control shrinkage
  71. 71. arpita Moth proofing  This is important to wool fabrics  Treated with chemicals such as fluorine compounds
  72. 72. arpita Mechanical finishes– machine is used to produce different effects on fabrics
  73. 73. arpita Beetling  Originally carried out by beating the fabric surface.  Modern era a machine is used to give a flattened impact, thus a desired lustrous effect is produced
  74. 74. arpita Brushing & shearing  Cuts out the short end of fibres which are sticking out of the fabric  The fabric is passed through two roller brushes  In this process the material gets cleaned
  75. 75. arpita calendering  Removes wrinkles, adds sheen & gives a smooth effect.  This finish is produced by passing the fabric between to highly polished rollers
  76. 76. arpita sanforizing  To overcome the defect of shrinkage fabrics are sanforized  Sanforized articles are passed through the surface of a steam heated rollers  The process ensures less then 1% shrinkages for fabrics after washing
  77. 77. arpita crinkling  Also known as creping  By this process a wavy crepe effect is produced on the fabric  The material is passed between two hot rollers
  78. 78. arpita glazing  This produces a high sheen on the fabrics  in this process also the material is passed through a machine consisting of three rollers
  79. 79. arpita napping  This produces a raised effect on fabrics & makes it soft & warm  In this method the fabric passed through a revolving cylinder  Cotton & wool fabrics are given this finish
  80. 80. arpita moireing  Produces watery line effect on fabrics  Machine consists of three steam rollers& rotates at high speed to get the desired effects on fabrics

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