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Chapter 7 sandwiches

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Food Production, Culinary practice and food preparation

Food Production, Culinary practice and food preparation

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  • 1. CHAPTER 7: SANDWICHES It’s no good telling you about John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich. No doubt you know all about that…..At least I hope you do!! A sandwich may be many things – it can be a delicious bit of nonsense, that makes you ask for more! It can be prim and proper and just a bit stodgy – or staunch and hearty – or it might just be an empty promise!!!! It is difficult to actually pin point when the sandwich actually appeared as a form of food presentation. We do know that the concept of wrapping bread around a filling for portability is ancient. It parallels the invention of bread. The sandwich involves bread in one way or the other. There is a universal chain of food items worldwide which all have a connection of a filling enclosed in a starchy casing. In China there is the Spring roll or the Egg roll; in Italy there is the Calzone; in Mexico, the Burrito; in Spain, the Empanada and Greece has the Pita. Field workers in France have long had the custom of eating meat enclosed in two slices of bread. In southern France, it is customary to provide those setting out on a long journey with slices of cooked meat, sandwiched between two slices of bread. The Pain–Bagnat of Nice is a definite example of a sandwich that has been around for centuries. The term SANDWICH came into being about 200 years ago. There lived a notorious gambler in the court of George III His name was John Montague, the Fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792). The Earls gambling affliction was such, that he would enter into 24 hours marathons at the gaming tables. Any eating that had to be done had to be quick and not to detract from the task at hand. The Earl’s butler, who knew his master’s intensity, would place pieces of bread with cheese or meat for his sustenance. The rest is …..Well, not just history…..But the history of the Sandwich. Today, it is difficult to imagine a full-scale food service operation without the sandwich being a part of it. 1
  • 2. PARTS OF A SANDWICH The four parts of a sandwich can be listed as: - Bread - Filling - Spread - Garnish I Bread Various types of bread can be used to make sandwiches a. The Pullman loaf or the sandwich bread is the most popular. This may be white or brown b. Rolls – including hard and soft rolls, burger rolls, hot dog rolls, croissants and vienna rolls are all popular. c. French bread and baguettes for foot longs and submarine sandwiches d. Bread made of various flours such as rye, whole wheat, maize, multigrain e. Unleavened bread like pita f. Flavored bread like cinnamon bread, raisin bread, fruit and nut bread. II Spread The main function of the spread is to hold the filling and the bread together. It also forms a protective layer on the bread and prevents it from getting soggy from the moisture in the filling. Moreover, it adds to the taste of the sandwich and in case of children, contributes to the nutritive value Plain and compound butter like anchovy, herb, parsley butter Mayonnaise and its derivatives Low fat spreads like margarine Cheese spreads and cheese paste A combination of the above. 2
  • 3. III Filling Could be a variety of limitless items. The filling gives the sandwich its name. Fillings could include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese, vegetables. Salami, cooked roast chicken, ox tongue, sliced cucumber and tomato are all popular fillings. The filling could be a single item, or a combination of several. Ham and cheese, Cucumber and chutney, Bacon and tomato. It is important that the combinations are complementary to each other. IV Garnish To enhance the appearance and the presentation of the sandwich, it is necessary to create eye appeal. The garnish is not absolutely essential and can be avoided in an informal setting. The sandwich may be a simple unadorned bit of bread with a filling or a masterpiece fit for a king. Various garnishes will include a stuffed olive, a pickled onion, capers, gherkins or parsley. The garnish should be delicate and dainty and not cumbersome and ugly. The sandwich is no doubt the favorite lunch time food. For a typical customer, one who is in a rush, one who is hungry, the sandwich is the ideal food. It is quickly made and served, convenient to eat, easily adaptable to many variations. It can satisfy almost any palate and nutritional requirement. Properly made, it can be a very wholesome meal. Sandwich has long been the domain of the pantry department, along with salads and other cold snacks. Preparing sandwiches to order is one of the fundamental skills required in modern food production techniques. TYPES OF SANDWICHES 1 Conventional, Closed or Lunchbox Sandwich These consist of two slices of bread with any filling such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and vegetables. They may be served whole or cut into neat triangles, with or without the crust removed. White or whole meal bread can be used or any other similar bread. They are served in bars, cafes, coffee- 3
  • 4. shops and snack counters. They are the ideal item for the lunchbox that school children and office-goers carry. The filling is usually heavy and hearty, as the objective is to provide a wholesome and nutritious meal. Or, it could be light and fancy ….the perfect food for the weight watcher. 2. Tea Sandwiches These are similar to the above but are cut into smaller triangles or in fingers. They are served at afternoon tea, usually with a very light filling. The crust is normally removed so that they look prim and proper like the high society ladies who usually eat them!!!! They will be suitably garnished for service. 3. The Buffet Sandwich These are similar to the conventional sandwich but are cut into fancy shapes like hearts, diamonds, and ovals, with sandwich cutters. Obviously, there will be a lot of wastage and can only be used when cost permits. 4. Continental or French Sandwiches Consists of crusty French baguettes slit horizontally, well buttered with a savory filling. It can be garnished with lettuce, slices of cucumber and tomatoes. It can be served whole or cut into pieces so that they can be lifted easily. If left whole, they are referred to as foot longs. In America, they are called submarine sandwiches. 5. Double Decker / Triple Decker and Club Sandwiches These are extremely popular these days. If you top an ordinary sandwich with another filling and close that with a third slice of bread you get a double - decker (two fillings, three slices of bread). Similarly, a triple - decker will have three fillings and four slices of bread. A club sandwich will have multiple fillings and multiple slices, all piled up one over the other. The fillings must be substantial and complement each other. There must be a balance in the fillings. The bread in a club sandwich may be toasted or grilled but in a double decker or a triple decker, plain bread may be used as well. 4
  • 5. These sandwiches are cut diagonally into half for service so that they can be eaten easily. 6. Open Sandwiches Are technically not sandwiches, as a sandwich needs two slices of bread. But for convenience, they are classified as sandwiches. If the top slice of a sandwich is missing….what do you call it?….half a sandwich?? A garnished piece of bread? Until a better name is found, we can call it an open sandwich. Open sandwiches are slices of buttered bread on top of which is arranged a variety of toppings. The bread is then trimmed and garnished. They may even be cut into fancy shapes. The bread may be white or brown, toasted or plain. They should not be confused with canapés, which have a variety of different bases. Please remember that sandwiches are not made only to please the eye and look pretty on the platter. They must please the eye….yes, but they must also satisfy the palate. 7. Fancy Sandwiches Ribbon sandwiches Checker Board sandwich Pinwheel Sandwich Rolled sandwich Mosaic sandwich These are a variety of fancy sandwiches which look good when put on exhibition and display. They add a new dimension to a cold buffet presentation. 8. Hot Sandwiches These are hot snacks but are really a hot sandwich. These include: - Book Maker (England) - Strammer Max (Germany) - Lindstrom (Sweeden) - Croque Monsieur/Madame (France) 5
  • 6. GENERAL RULES FOR SANDWICH MAKING 1. Soften the butter before spreading. 2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature. 3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading 4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing. 5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together 6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient. 7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut. 8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich. 9.Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification. VERNON COELHO ihm mumbai 2008-09 6
  • 7. GENERAL RULES FOR SANDWICH MAKING 1. Soften the butter before spreading. 2. Smooth fillings like fish paste and cream cheese spread easiest at room temperature. 3. Use a palette knife for easy spreading 4. Ideally, the bread should be 12 to 18 hours old. This ensures easy slicing. 5. Butter both slices of the bread being used for the sandwich. It helps to hold the sandwich together 6. Use sliced bread….it is neater and more convenient. 7. If cutting the bread yourself, arrange the bread slices in the order they have been cut. 8. Use sufficient filling. The label should not be the only means of identification of the sandwich. 9.Wrap prepared sandwiches in cling film or in a moist duster in separate batches for easy identification. VERNON COELHO ihm mumbai 2008-09 6