Chapter 41 yield


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Food Production, Culinary practice and food preparation

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Chapter 41 yield

  1. 1. CHAPTER 41: YIELD Yield is defined as the edible usable part of a food item / raw material, which is available after preparation / pre preparation and cooking. A standard yield is the yield obtained when an item is processed as per the particular standard methods of preparation, cooking and portioning of an establishment. OBJECTIVES • To establish a standard for the quantity and number of portions obtainable from a specific item of food. • To establish a standard for comparison with operating results and thereby measure the efficiency of the production departments. • To establish an objective method of further evaluating standard purchasing specifications. • To establish a standard cost factor for the item of food. • To assist in menu costing and pricing. • To assist in converting forecast requirements into raw material requirements. IMPORTANCE OF YIELD Yield testing and yield factors are important for ant establishment for the following functions: • To determine product pricing. • To set purchase specifications and receiving standards. • To forecast purchase quantity and ordering levels. • Establishing standard recipes and portion size. • For setting control standards. • Comparison of vendor prices and quality. • Monitoring the usage of raw materials. YIELD PERCENTAGE / FACTOR: Yield percentage or yield factor is defined as the percentage of the whole purchase unit of an item that is available for portioning after any required processing has been completed. This percentage or factor is calculated by dividing the portionable weight by original weight of the item before processing. Yield percentage = number of portions x unit portion size x 100 Purchase quantity
  2. 2. YIELD TEST A yield test is performed on each item with respect to the product that needs to be made from that item. For example – an yield test may be done for pineapples for pineapple juice and for slices separately. Yield testing is a very time consuming but an important process as it helps the establishment to set its own standard yields for each of the item purchased. This helps to decide whom to purchase from, determine accurately what output each item gives and set standards for purchase for each item. Yield testing is defined as a technique to determine the number of portions produced after the required processing has been performed. These processes may include trimming, butchering, cutting, cooking or some combination of these. During these processes fat, bone and other inedible or unnecessary parts are removed. Also in some cases (roasts, for example) fat is removed by melting during cooking process. All these processes result in weight loss and thus the quantity available for portioning / serving weighs less than the quantity originally purchased. For effective yield testing, it is important to weigh the item after each set of process is completed. The two important parts of yield testing are – BUTCHER’S TEST The butcher’s test, as the name states is mainly done for meats, fish and poultry purchased as wholesale cuts. It is used to determine the standard yield and portion cost for those items portioned before cooking. Also the butcher test is done to establish the rational value for primary part of the wholesale piece. For example, if a particular cut of beef is approx. half fat and usable meat, the two parts have clearly different uses and values even though they were purchased at the same price. Only on conducting the butchers test the real value of the usable part is known. Process of butcher’s test Butcher’s test is conducted under the supervision of the chef and food controller. The butcher will cut the item down into respective parts and start to process them as per the standard portion sizes. All the parts, usable and non usable are weighed and noted. The total weight of all parts must be approx. equal to the weight of the whole. The difference if any is noted down as a loss in cutting. Thus, the yield or standard portion size available from an item after butchering is determined.
  3. 3. Butcher’s test must be conducted regularly on a reasonable no. of pieces so as to get a more accurate yield of each item depending on what it is going to be used for. Generally, it is better to have test results on a number of different pieces in order to arrive at averages. Butcher’s test is also conducted to monitor the extent to which any one dealer is adhering to specifications. With the help of butcher’s test results, menu prices can be planned because costs are known. The butcher’s test is also valuable to compare the cost of a pre portioned item purchased from the vendor as against the cost of the same item processed in the establishment (keeping in account the labor cost). COOKING LOSS TEST No yield testing is complete without determining the weight of the item that is available for serving or otherwise called the salable weight. Many items are portioned after cooking. Also there is a considerable amount of weight loss during cooking in terms of loss of moisture and fat. Thus the primary purpose of cooking loss test is to determine the standard final yield and thus determine the standard portion size and cost. When conducting the cooking loss test, it is important to note down the weight of the item available before cooking, i.e., after all the trimming, cutting and removing of fat (if any). Then the item is cooked as per the standard procedure and the weight of the item is noted down. If the standard recipe requires the bone and cooked fat to be removed then the item is again weighed after final portioning is done and this is recorded as salable weight. This salable weight is also called the final yield or the portion size / weight of the item. The final yield factor is obtained by dividing this weight by the original total weight of the item purchased. These ratios obtained during the process of yield testing helps to determine which of the several available grades of commodities would yield maximum salable weight of the desired quality. Also, cooking loss tests may be used to compare the results of cooking several pieces at different temperature or for different lengths of time or in different methods so as to maximize the yield keeping the quality standards in consideration. Once the weight and the value of the salable portion is known, the standard portion size, the prize and the cost can be determine and the standard can be established. Factors that are involved in yield testing – • Purchase weight – the weight of the raw material as purchased to a known standard and as per specifications. • Usable weight – that weight of the item that is available for cooking or further processing after all the unusable and inedible parts are removed. Mainly applies to meat, fish, and poultry and in some cases to fruits and vegetables.
  4. 4. • Cooked weight – weight of the item after it has been cooked as per standard procedure. • Saleable weight – the unit weight / quantity which is served. Vernon Coelho IHM Mumbai 2008-09