CHAPTER 29: BAKERY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
1. What do you understand by he term syneresis in relation to bread?
Syneresis is...
form a skin. This skin, when mixed into the dough will cause ugly patches and
will form cores, which are hard pellets of u...
8. Why do the fruit in a fruit cake tend to sink to the bottom?
To prevent fruit (dry) from sinking, make sure they are dr...
10. Why is an acidic medium like lemon juice or cream of tartar added to
flour while making puff pastry?
An acidic medium ...
egg. Therefore, fresh eggs are ideal for choux pastry, as the strength of
the albumin is greater than that of aged or olde...
egg. Therefore, fresh eggs are ideal for choux pastry, as the strength of
the albumin is greater than that of aged or olde...
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Chapter 29 bakery q & a

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Chapter 29 bakery q & a

  1. 1. CHAPTER 29: BAKERY QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1. What do you understand by he term syneresis in relation to bread? Syneresis is the term given to a physical change that takes place in starch, gels etc, as they age. It is this change that brings about the staling of bread that is a day or two old, a sensation suggesting that bread contains less moisture. This change in starch is known as syneresis. It is affected by conditions of humidity and temperature in which bread is stored. 2. Why is salt used in bread making? Salt is used because: - of its beneficial influence on flavor - it strengthens and stabilises the gluten, thus giving bulk to the bread. - it controls and prevents the excessive action of yeast - it hampers the growth of harmful bacteria, which would spoil the flavor of the bread. 3. Why is bread knocked back once, sometimes twice during fermentation? When dough is knocked back (punched), a fresh supply of oxygen is given to the yeast, enabling it to work more vigorously and the excess of carbon di oxide is expelled. Also, during knocking back, the films of gluten are sub divided and therefore more evenly distributed. It also helps to relax the strained strands of gluten and this improves the texture of the bread. 4. Why is dough covered with a wet cloth during the period of resting? The temperature of the dough is usually higher than the air surrounding it. The wet cloth helps to steady the temperature and thereby stabilise the fermentation. If left uncovered, the dough will warm the air that immediately surrounds it, causing it to expand and rise. A fresh current of air replaces it and this air will cause the surface of the dough to dry and
  2. 2. form a skin. This skin, when mixed into the dough will cause ugly patches and will form cores, which are hard pellets of uncooked dough that is sometimes found in bread. 5. Why should all the materials used in cake making be approximately the same temperature? By keeping all the materials at similar temperatures better aeration and easier, better and more thorough amalgamation is affected. Consequently, cakes will have a better appearance, volume and texture. Batters made with ingredients of varying temperatures become tough and undersized. 6. Why do cake batters sometimes ‘curdle’? Cake batters curdle when fat separate from the water in the mixture and breaks the emulsion. It can occur due to: - hasty preparation and quick addition of the eggs - hard fat being used - too many eggs being used - high moisture content in the fat 7. Why do cakes sometimes sink in the center? Cakes tend to sink in the middle because: - too much handling during the baking - too much baking powder is used. - If too much fat and sugar is used (in relation to the flour) - If the cake is removed from the oven before it is cooked (center is in a liquid or semi liquid state)
  3. 3. 8. Why do the fruit in a fruit cake tend to sink to the bottom? To prevent fruit (dry) from sinking, make sure they are dry (often, fruit like cherries are soaked in sugar syrup) Moisture makes the fruit heavy and cause them to sink to the bottom. Coat the fruit with a sprinkling of flour before adding them to the batter. This flour will absorb the excess moisture. Fruits could also sink if the batter is too light to support the fruit during the baking. Over beating of the butter and sugar or the eggs cause excess air to be incorporated thus making the batter light. One more reason is the type of flour used. Harder flours are ideal for fruit cake, as the extra gluten formed will be able to hold the fruit in place. Sufficient gluten can also be developed for this purpose by working the batter after the flour has been added. 9. What happens to cake batters when put into the oven? As soon as the oven door closed on the cake, the heat commences to melt the fat from the outside of the cake towards the inside. The raising agent produces carbon di oxide. As the temperature of the batter increases, some other starch cells begin to gelatinize. A skin forms on the top (due to the evaporation of moisture from the surface) and begins to color rapidly due to the caramelization of the sugar. The batter now begins to rise. The egg coagulates and begins to get firm. Gluten strands are strengthened. The entire product gets cooked to a firm sponge. To check whether the cake is cooked, the following tests can be done: - press the top center lightly and if it springs back, it is done - insert a cake tester, wooden skewer or a small knife in the center of the cake and if it comes out clean, it is done. - If the cake begins to leave the sides of the pan, it indicates doneness.
  4. 4. 10. Why is an acidic medium like lemon juice or cream of tartar added to flour while making puff pastry? An acidic medium is added to puff pastry because: - The acid makes the gluten in the flour more pliable and extensible and improves the ability to hold in the steam during the aeration while baking. - Acids reduce the PH and this aids the pastry in acquiring greater volume and the layers become more distinguishable, thinner and better baked. 11. Why should the dough and the fat be approximately the same consistency when making puff pastry? Dough and the fat should be of the same consistency because if not, during the rolling, whichever were softer would be rolled much thinner. This will result with the fat tending to ooze out of the dough. 12. Why is puff pastry allowed to stand for half an hour before baking? After a lot of the rolling and folding involved during the pre preparation of puff pastry, it is obvious that there will be considerable strength and elasticity in the gluten formed. This elasticity will cause the product to ‘draw up’ if it is not allowed a good rest before the baking. If it were baked immediately, the heat would soften it at once because of its decreased resistance to the pull exerted by the gluten and will become misshapen. In some cases, the filling will also ooze out. 13.What factors control the volume of choux pastry? Egg albumin is extensible and will be inflated by internal pressures of gases, air and steam. Thus the pastry increases in volume and expansion ceases when the egg white loses their extensibility and gas holding power. Thus, the volume of choux pastry will depend only slightly upon the strength of the gluten n the flour but more on the gas holding power of the albumin in the
  5. 5. egg. Therefore, fresh eggs are ideal for choux pastry, as the strength of the albumin is greater than that of aged or older eggs. 14 Why are ‘stale’ egg whites recommended in the making of meringues? Stale refers to the fact that the egg whites have been exposed to air for some time. It does not refer to old eggs. Stale egg whites have less moisture due to evaporation, hence they whip better. 15. Why do Swiss rolls crack sometimes during rolling? This happens because: - Too little egg in the mixture, hence less moisture hence less pliable - Uneven spreading of the batter thus having thick and thin areas which will cause cracking. - Warped baking sheets/trays - Too hard flour - Too mixture on the tray, hence too thick and this will crack while rolling - Rolling is done too long after removing from the oven. This means evaporation of surface moisture leading to dryness and eventual cracking of the cake. VERNON COELHO 2008-09 Ihm mumbai
  6. 6. egg. Therefore, fresh eggs are ideal for choux pastry, as the strength of the albumin is greater than that of aged or older eggs. 14 Why are ‘stale’ egg whites recommended in the making of meringues? Stale refers to the fact that the egg whites have been exposed to air for some time. It does not refer to old eggs. Stale egg whites have less moisture due to evaporation, hence they whip better. 15. Why do Swiss rolls crack sometimes during rolling? This happens because: - Too little egg in the mixture, hence less moisture hence less pliable - Uneven spreading of the batter thus having thick and thin areas which will cause cracking. - Warped baking sheets/trays - Too hard flour - Too mixture on the tray, hence too thick and this will crack while rolling - Rolling is done too long after removing from the oven. This means evaporation of surface moisture leading to dryness and eventual cracking of the cake. VERNON COELHO 2008-09 Ihm mumbai

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