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Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
Chapter 27 cookies and  biscuits
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Chapter 27 cookies and biscuits

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Food Production, Culinary practice and food preparation

Food Production, Culinary practice and food preparation

Published in: Food
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  • 1. CHAPTER 27: BISCUITS AND COOKIES The name biscuit comes from the French word bis, which means twice and cuit which means baked. It is a sweet or savory dry flat cake with a high calorie content (420-510 / 100 gm) The raw materials used for biscuit manufacture is flour, sweeteners, shortening, milk, leavening agents and other miscellaneous products. Cookies were at one time referred to as small cakes or sweet biscuits. The Dutch have provided bakers and confectioners with the word kocke which means small cake. The Americans began to use the word cookie, whereas the English continue to use the word biscuit for the same product. There are more varieties of cookies than any other baked product because there are so many different shapes, sizes, textures and flavors that are possible. CLASSIFICATION OF COOKIES/BISCUITS Cookies can be formed by dropping, rolling, cutting out, moulding and pressing. Cookies are usually classified according to the way in which the dough is shaped: 1. bars and squares 2. drop cookies 3. rolled cookies 4. pressed cookies 5. moulded or shaped cookies 6. refrigerator cookies 7. bag cookies (piped) Bar and drop cookies are made with soft dough that has a comparatively high percentage of liquid. The other varieties call for a stiff dough, usually less sweet and often higher in fart content than soft dough.
  • 2. MIXING METHODS Cookie mixing methods are similar to cake mixing methods. Major difference is that less liquid is incorporated, therefore less gluten. The methods of mixing are: a. One stage b. Creaming c. Sponge One Stage method: All the ingredients are mixed at once. Here the baker has less control over the mixing. Creaming method: This is identical to the creaming method for cakes. The amount of creaming affects the texture of the cookies, the leavening and the spread, Hence only a small amount of creaming is desirable. Sponge method: This is similar to the egg foam method for cakes. The only batter is delicate. precaution that one has to take is to keep the batches small because the
  • 3. MAKE UP METHODS Because their mixing are simple, it is better to classify cookies and biscuits according to their make up. Bagged: also called Pressed cookies. Are made from soft dough. The dough must be soft enough to be forced through a pastry (piping) bag, but stiff enough to hold its shape. E.g.: Butter Buttons Dropped: these cookies are made from a soft dough. In this method, the batter is deposited on a sheet for baking with a spoon or a scoop. When the dough contains pieces of nuts, dried fruits or chocolate bits or chips, this method is used. Also, when you want the cookie to have a rough homemade look. E.g.: peanut macaroons. Rolled: Cookies are rolled and then cut with cutters. Bakeshops and 5 star operations do not make these type of cookies because of the labour involved. Also, after cutting the scraps, these are re rolled, making tough and inferior cookies. The only advantage is that you can make different shapes and sizes. E.g.: Tricolor biscuits Moulded : In this method, each piece of dough is moulded into the desired shape. This usually involves flattening the piece out with a weight. (stamp the design) e.g.: Shrewsbury Biscuits (from Kayani, Pune).
  • 4. Icebox: Also called refrigerated cookies. This method is ideal for operations that wish to have freshly baked cookies on hand at all times. Rolls of dough are made in advance and kept in the fridge. They are then cut and baked as needed. This method is also used to make multi colored cookies in various designs. E.g.: chequered and pinwheel. Bar: Here the dough is baked in long narrow strips which are then cut cross wise into bars. Sheet: This make up is like the sheet cakes….only denser and richer. No matter what method is used, one important rule to follow is – the cookie should have a uniform size and thickness. This is essential for even baking. If the cookies are to be garnished, they must be done immediately on panning. Press them gently when still fresh. If you wait, the surface dries up. PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE WHILE MAKING COOKIES/BISCUITS 1. A major precaution to be observed while making cookie mixture is that they should be quickly mixed and never over processed. 2. For hard to handle soft doughs, roll the dough directly on to the baking sheet. Cut into the desired shapes and remove the scraps from around. 3. If cookies should stick to the pan, put the pan back into the oven for a few seconds. This usually loosens the cookies easily. Cookies may be iced, sandwiched with filling or dusted with confectioners sugar. They make a excellent finger food dessert or can be used as a garnish for a dessert. Cookies are one of the most profitable items produced by the baker. An important factor in the production is the use of high grade ingredients. Butter is the preferred shortening. It has a better flavor and a melt in the mouth quality. Careful selection of the purest spices, extracts and flavorings will assure delicious cookies. The type of flour used for cookies can vary from flours of medium strength to soft texture. Strong flours are not recommended for making cookies.
  • 5. COOKIES AND BISCUIT FAULTS 1. Lack of spread. a. Too fine granulation of sugar b. Adding sugar at one time c. Excessive mixing d. Too hot oven temperature e. Too much of acidity in the dough 2. Excess of spread a. Excessive sugar b. Too soft a batter consistency c. Excessive pan grease d. Too low an oven temperature e. Excessive or improper type of shortening 3. Tough cookies a. Insufficient shortening b. Flour too strong c. Over handling 4. Sticking to pans a. Too soft a dough b. Excessive egg content c. Unclean pans 5. Black spots and harsh crumbs a. Excessive ammonia Sometimes we want some cookies to be crisp, others to be soft, some to hold their shape and others to spread. In order to produce characteristics we want, and to correct faults, it is useful to know what causes these basic traits.
  • 6. Crispness: Cookies are crisp if they are low in moisture. - Low proportion of liquid in the mixture, so stiff dough - High sugar and fat content - Baking long enough to reduce moisture - Small sizes or thin shapes - Proper storage Softness: This texture is the opposite of crispness - High proportion of liquid - Low sugar and fat - Use of honey and molasses - short baking times - Large size or thick shapes. - Proper storage Chewiness: Moisture is necessary for chewiness - High sugar and liquid content - High proportion of egg - Strong flour Spread: This feature is desirable in some varieties of cookies while others must hold their shape - High sugar content increases the spread. Coarse sugar increases the spread while fine sugar reduces spread. - Baking soda and ammonia increases spread - Creaming fat and sugar contributes to leavening by incorporating air and therefore increases spread. Just blending fat and sugar to a paste reduces spread. - Low temperature increases spread - Excess liquid (slack batter) will increase the spread - Strong flour decreases spread - Spread is more on a heavily greased tray. Vernon Coelho iHM Mumbai 2008-09

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