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  1. 1. BEER DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage:
  2. 2. Layout What is Beer? History Ingredients Beer Making Process Styles of Beer Service of Beer Beer Storage Common Draught Beer Problems
  3. 3. What is Beer? Beer is an alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermenting malted barley, and sometimes other cereals, with hops added to flavour and stabilize it.
  4. 4. History Derived from the Anglo-Saxon word “Baere”, meaning barley It is one of the oldest alcoholic beverages and was well known in ancient Egypt. The first beer was brewed more than 6000 years ago. In the beginning, beer was made for home consumption Large scale brewing in Europe began only in the Middle ages as an increase in trade During the last decades of the 20th century, due to Engineering principles being applied has beer been made economically on an industrial scale.
  5. 5. Ingredients - Malt 1. Malt- The body and soul of a beer: Barley is the most common cereal to be malted Others like wheat, oats and rye may also be used. Barley, however, provides the best extraction rate of sugars and is, thus, the most preferred one. To produce good malt, the barley grains must be plump, sound grains and must germinate at an even rate. It should also be low in nitrogen as nitrogen can affect fermentation
  6. 6. Ingredients Malt Water Hops Yeast Other Ingredients Adulterants
  7. 7. Ingredients - Malt Handling barley: First, the batches of barley that arrive at the maltster from the field are sieved to remove straw and dirt. Next, the barley is dried to reduce the moisture content as too high a level of moisture can start a premature fermentation and also induce the development of moulds. The brewers want the barley to last them the whole season. Maltsters prefer to keep the grain dormant for a month as this aids later in germination.
  8. 8. Ingredients - Malt Soaking the grain: In traditional floor malting, the grains are soaked in large water cisterns. The process takes 2-3 days but the barley is not kept soaked for the whole duration. It is soaked for half a day and then the tank is drained so that the grain can breathe for 6-12 hrs…and the process repeated.
  9. 9. Ingredients - Malt These day, instead of the floor malting, drum malting (invented by a Belgian maltster named Galland in the 1870’s) transfers the grains from steeping tanks into a huge airtight stainless steel cylinders that continuously rotates the grains.
  10. 10. Ingredients - Malt Germination: Next, the damp grain is emptied onto huge germinating floors and evenly spread to a depth of 6-9 inches. Here, it stays for five days to allow the seeds to begin to sprout and grow. This process turns the inaccessible starch in the grains into accessible sugar. The germinating grain is raked frequently to allow for adequate aeration and even sprouting and to prevent the roots of the seed from getting tangled together. (else, becomes like a coconut mat!)
  11. 11. Ingredients - Malt Baking the green malt: After five days, when the sprouting shoots reach 3/4ths the length of the grain, germination is brought to a sharp halt. The ‘green malt’ is then sent to the kiln where it is baked. Some Bavarian maltings still used wood-fired kilns to lend it a smoky flavour.
  12. 12. Ingredients - Malt After the baking, the rootlets, known as ‘malt culms’ are screened, removed as sold as animal feed. Now the malt has become crunchy , nutty and is good to eat. This delicious final product is used not only to make beer but also for malt whisky, malted beverages, biscuits and breakfast cereals.
  13. 13. Types of Malt Depending on the intensity and duration of kilning, different coloured malts are produced. Pale malt: - the highest kilned malt, this retains the max amount of sugar used generally for light beers. Lager malt:-Lightly roasted and suited to lager production. Crystal malt:- medium roasted and used foe the production of deeper coloured and full-bodied malts. Chocolate or black malt:Deep roasted and used for the production of stout and porter.
  14. 14. Ingredients – Water/Liquor The various salts contribute to the signature/flavour. For example a high level of bicarbonate will give a highly acidic mash leading to poor extraction of sugar from the malt. Too much sulphate will produce a sharp bitterness.
  15. 15. Ingredients – Water/Liquor Plzen(CZ) has the right softness to make the famous pilsner-style beers. Water from Burton-on-Trent in Staffordshire, England, has the right amount of gypsum(CaSO4) which make for clear, bright bitters, because calcium increases malt extraction during the mashing process.
  16. 16. Ingredients - Hops Humulus Lupulus is a tall, climbing vine that is a member of the hemp family. It is distinctly related to the cannabis and the nettle. A single plant carries either male or female flowers. Only the female flowers form the vital cones required by the brewer. The female cone is made of petal-like structures called bracts.
  17. 17. Ingredients - Hops As the cone ripens, the bases of these bracts bear glands that are filled with a yellow resinuous substance called lupulin. It is this oil, found nowhere else in the plant kingdom that contains the alpha acids, giving hops its characteristic bitterness. Keeps the beer lasting longer, also is the spice and the seasoning to the body provided by the malt in a beer. These days, the emphasis is on growing the highalpha(extra bitterness) wilt resistant hop varieties( Verticillium Wilt)
  18. 18. Ingredients - Hops Some of the types of hop are: 1. Goldings – for traditional English Ales. 2. Fuggles - English 3. Progress – New, wilt resistant hop; a replacement for the fuggles 4. Cascade – a fruity American aromatic hop 5. Crystal – a mildly aromatic Amercian hop 6. Huller – a German aromatic hop 7. Perle- another newly developed German aromatic hop
  19. 19. Ingredients - Hops High-Alpha hops: 1. Admiral (England) 2. Phoenix (England) 3. Brewer’s Gold (England, Belgium, Germany) 4. Magnum (Germany) 5. Orion (Germany)  
  20. 20. Ingredients - Hops Function of hops (humulus lupulus): 1. To add bitterness 2. To precipitate the proteins, thereby stabilizing the beer 3. To act as an antiseptic during the brewing process
  21. 21. Ingredients - Yeast 1. Yeast: ‘Saccharomyces Cerevisiae’, a singlecelled living organism(discovered that it was living by Louis Pasteur-1885), is a member of the fungus family C6H12O6 + WATER + YEAST  C2H5OH + CO2 It flocculates to form clumps on the top(top fermented) and settles down (in bottom fermented). It is very wild and a lot of care has to taken while dealing with it.
  22. 22. Other Ingredients - Adjuncts a. b. c. Reasons: To improve flavour/ create a highly individual recipe To improve colour To save on costs a. The most common adjunct is sugar, in blocks or as a syrup…to give more alcohl …caramel to darken beers……e.g. sucrose is one of the main ingredients in Castle lager from SAB, S.Africa
  23. 23. Other Ingredients - Adjuncts b. Flaked maize: Particularly in some American breweries…give the beer a light-coloured, very dry taste. c. Rice: Like maize, rice is also used…Budweiser from Anheuser-Busch (World’s best selling beer) uses rice to give a clean, crisp finish. d. Torrefied wheat: This heated cereal, or popcorn, is added to help head retention. .
  24. 24. Other Ingredients - Adjuncts e. Malt extracts: Maltg syrups are sometimes used to make a larger brew than the capacity of the mash tun allows. f. Roasted barley: Unmalted roasted barley is sometimes used to give a darker colour. Gives a dry, harsh flavour. Guinness(a classic Irish stout) uses a little in the mash for giving it a distinctive bitter flavour
  25. 25. Other Ingredients – Flavour Enhancers In the days before hop, the brewers made their own flavouring called ‘gruit’. a. Honey b. Chilli- beers with whole chillies(red and green)- a relatively new innovation, a follow-on from the craze of Mexican Lagers c. Spices: Ginger beer can be both non-alcoholic or ginger may be added to alcoholic beer.
  26. 26. Other Ingredients – Flavour Enhancers d. Herbs: Coriander—revived be Hoegaarden e. Fruit: Orange, lemon peel, apples, raspberries(Frambozen-Belgium), cherries(KriekBelgium), bananas. Some modern marketing departments simply use fruit juice or extract as a simple flavouring, whereas, traditionally, as for Kriek and Frambozen, the fruits areused for a secondary fermentation. Adulterants: Salt, water and treacle were/are used illegally to make more out of less.
  27. 27. Beer Manufacture THE BREWING PROCESS Malted barley is required for brewing. Malting has three steps. 1) Steeping :after screening the barley to remove any extraneous matter. It is steeped into water to a moisture of about 45%. This is simply an acclerated version of germination than the natural process.
  28. 28. Beer Manufacture 2)Germination:-in this step the food reserves in the grain namely starch and protein are broken down into starch and amino acids. The embryo release the hormones which in turn release which triggers the production of enzymes. The key step in germination is the destruction of the endosperm which is the insoluble part of the grain. the moist grains are then spread on air conditioned floors(malting floors) to regulate growth and temperature and to provide oxygen to assist germination. At this point the enzymes begin to convert the starch into sugar. The main fermentable sugar obtained is maltose.
  29. 29. Beer Manufacture 3) Kilning:This is to restrict further germination after five days .The grain is generally dried to attain the moisture content of 4.5%. Depending on the intensity and duration of kilning, different coloured malts are produced.
  30. 30. Beer Manufacture MASHING Malted barley is lightly crushed by passing it through a mill which produces a coarse powder called GRIST. At this stage other cereals can be introduced such as wheat, unmalted barley rice and flaked maize(ADJUNCTS) to give more flavour and color to the finished brew. But there will be still 90% of the malt barley in the blend. The grist is transferred to a very large vessel called as the mash tun where it is mashed with hot water. The temp is kept at 65c . allowing the enzymes formed during malting to degrade the starch in the grain. Producing a sweet brown liquid known as wort to be run off.
  31. 31. Beer Manufacture LAUTERING The wort is now taken to a copper a sort of massive kettle made of stainless steel where sugar and hops are added and Boiled for hour and a half. BREWING This mixture is then taken to hopback , a large tank where the hops settle and make a compact filter for the wort to as it goes though. The wort is pumped through to a Para flow where it is cooled to a temp of 15c.
  32. 32. FERMENTATION It is now ready for fermentation. The wort is now put into a fermenting tun and pitched with yeast. This yeast converts the sugar into alcohol and co2. Over the first the yeast utilizes almost 80% of the sugar and forms a thick 1m cauliflower like layer on the surface. The surplus yeast is skimmed off and used for the next brew. The final yeast head which is formed on the brew protects it from air borne infection. Fermentation takes 7 or 8 days to fully complete. For the lagers the fermaentation takes about 7days and For ales about 4 days.
  33. 33. LAGERING The beer is now racked into casks which clears some of the debris left after fermentation. Isingglass finings are injected into each cask before dispatch to further clarify the beer. However there will be still some viable yeast remaining to feed on the residual sugar, producing alcohol and co2 which gives the finished beer its natural carbonation or the co2 is even reintroduced later also.
  34. 34. KRAUSENING Some beers use this process to introduce co2 into beers. This word originates from the German word krausen which means froth . in this process additional newly fermented wort is introduced in the beer before it is put in the maturing tanks. This produces a 2nd fermentation and natural carbonation the beer .
  35. 35. KRAUSENING Sometimes instead of being krausened they are primed with sugars . some sweet ales are thus produced. The primary aim of priming is to stimulate secondary fermentation. The cask is then sealed and the natural carbonation thus occurs. In some cases the sweetness is then counteracted by dry hopping in which whole hops are added to increase the classic bitter hop aroma.
  36. 36. PASTEURISING It is the process of heating the beer in its final container at 60-65c for atleast 20mins. It kills any bacteria in the beer as well as the dry remaining yeast, which might allow the fermentation to continue, thereby exploding the beer. Barrel and keg beers also called as draught beers are not pasteurized which is why many people believe that they have superior taste
  37. 37. PASTEURISING However unpasteurized beer should be kept refrigerated until used, to maintain its quality. These beer can continue to ferment that si why they are kept in steel containers constructed to withstand pressure. Some canned and bottled beers are also not pasteurized, instead it is finely filtered to remove the remaining yeast and must be stored under refrigeration.
  38. 38. LAGER VERSUS ALE It is the yeast that most distinguish the type of beer produced. The cooled wort is aerated to provide oxygen for the fermentation process and yeast from the preceeding brew is added. .depending on the type of yeast the operating parameters of the fermentation varies. With the yeast SACCHAROMYCES CARLSBERGENESIS The fermentation process is controlled at 8-9c and it takes about 7-8 days until about 85% of the malt extract is fermented.
  39. 39. ALE With SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It occurs at higher temp. zone of 16-20C , within 3 days. There is another marked difference between the two yeasts. Saccharomyces Carlsbergenesis tends to flocculate ad settles quickly to the bottom after the fermentation is complete. This process produces lager beer. Where as saccharomyces cereviasae rises to the top of the fermentation tank. This process produces ale beer.
  40. 40. LAGER The word lager is from the German word which means resting or storing . lager beer is generally stored or several weeks, to clear it of sediment and to make it more mellow. It is usually lighter bodied and less alcoholic than ale.
  41. 41. REDUCED ALCOHOL BEER There are 2 categories of beer with reduced alcohol. 1) non alcoholic beers:- <.5% alcohol 2) low alcohol beers :-<1.2% alcohol Beer is firstly made by the normal process and then the alcohol is removed by any one of the following processes. 1)Vacuum distillation:Here, the alcohol and other volatile compounds are removed by passing the beer down the heated column under the conditions of vacuum. This lowers the temp needed to evaporate the alcohol. The lower the alohol the better the flavour of the ensuing product.
  42. 42. REDUCED ALCOHOL BEER 22) Reverse Osmosis:Also known as cold filtration is carried out at low temp. the beer is passed through a system of cellulose membranes which permits small molecules os alcohol to pass through.. It can also be done by arresting fermentation at the appropriate point.
  43. 43. STORAGE OF BEER BOTTLED AND CANNED BEER:Most beers in bottles and cans are pasteurised to increase their shelf life so do not have to be refrigerated before use. however they should always below 21C, preferably in a dark room. These can be stored without refrigeration for three mts and bottled for 6mts. Beer should never be frozen, for when thawed it will precipitate or is frozen for along tome and not handled carefully then it may gush when poured.
  44. 44. STORAGE OF BEER Bright light may cause the beer to deteriorate. Sunlight can be particularly damaging and beer served in a glass in bright sunlight will start deteriorating within minutes.because of their perishability canned and bottled beers should always be rotated in the stores. FIFO method should be followed.
  45. 45. STORAGE OF BEER KEG OR DRAUGHT BEER Since this is not pasteurized therefore it should be kept refrigerated at 2-3C at all times, lest the active yeast will continue to work and will produce more alcohol and CO2. Even refrigerated keg beers have a shelf life of only 2 weeks. Because kegs need constant refrigeration it may be necessary to keep a separate storage area for these beers this area should be close to the bars, so it becomes easier to tap the beer.
  46. 46. STORAGE OF BEER Tapping is the process of opening the kegs under CO2 pressure. Tapping provides carbonation to the beer and also provides propulsion to the beer to move it from the barrel to the dispensing tap. The temp of the beer as well as the pressure should be constantly monitored. The lines from the keg to the taps should be flushed at the end of each days service.
  47. 47. Styles of Beer 1. Ale: Nowadays, a common term referring to any beer using the top fermenting yeast. 2. Barley Wine: English name for a powerful, almost syrupy, strong ale, that is usually sold in small nip-sized bottles. The darker versions of barley wine were once called “Stingo”.
  48. 48. Styles of Beer 3.Bitter: A distinctive stlye of draught ale in England, generally served in England and Wales. It is usually dry and hoppy with an alcohol content of 3%-5%. Traditionally reddish-amber in colour, paler varieties are gaining popularity in England. Eg. Pedigree, 6X, Freeminer Bitter.
  49. 49. Styles of Beer 4Bock: The word bock means ‘billy goat’ and usually a goat’s head often features on the label. Are also made from dark toasted malt and are rich and heavy lagers, again with a caramel flavour. A strong malty, warming German beer of 6.5% alcohol, bock was originally brewed for the colder months. Traditionally dark in colour, today it is more likely to be golden-bronze. Originated in Einbeck in Lower Saxony, but now more associated with Bavaria. Extra-potent versions called Doppelbock(chiefly associated with Bavaria- names usualy end with ‘ator’ e.g. Salvator) have an alcohol content of 7%. Eisbock(is the original Ice Beer), in which frozen water is removed fromn the beer are even stornger (10%).
  50. 50. Styles of Beer 5. Chilli Beer: Produced by a handful of American breweries, it goes well with Mexican food. E.g. Crazy Ed’s cave Creek Chilli Beer of Phoenix, Arizona, has a whole chilli pod inside each bottle. 6. Cream Ale: A sweetish, smooth golden ale from the US, crem ale was originally introduced by brewers trying to copy the pilsner style. Some cream ales are made by blending Ales with bottom-fermenting beers.
  51. 51. Styles of Beer 7. Dry Beer: First produced by Asahi Breweries in Japan, it is a strong, super-dry (all sugar converted into alcohol) beer. Widely adopted in North America. 8. Dunkel: German lagers were traditonally dark, anf these soft, malty brown beers are associated with Munich- around 4.5% alc.
  52. 52. Styles of Beer 9. Framboise/Frambozen: These are Flemish and French words for a Belgian fruit Beer made by adding Raspberries to a lambic. Framboise has a sparkling, pink champagne character and the raspberries impart a light, fruity flavour. 10. Ginger Beer: Despite the name, this is an alcohol-free soft drink flavoured with root ginger. However, long before the hop appeared, ginger was used in beer, and some micro-brewers are trying it again. Salopian in England adds ginger to its dark wheat beer, Gingersnap.
  53. 53. Styles of Beer 11. Green Beer: Any young beer which has not had time to mature is a green beer. The term is also used to denote a beer made with organic malt and hops. Organic Green Beer is known as Biologique in France( Castelain makes the beer ‘Jade’) and biologisch in Germany. In Scotland, the Caledonian Brewery of Edinburgh has pioneered organic ale with Golden Promise.
  54. 54. Styles of Beer 12. Hefe: The German word for yeast is used to describe a beer that has not been filtered, with a sediment in the bottle. Draught beers “mit Hefe” are usually cloudy. 13 Hell: The word means pale or light in German and indicates a light malty-golden lager, often from Munich. E.g. Augustiner, HackerPschorr.
  55. 55. Styles of Beer 14. Honey Beer: Made with fermented honey or beer to which honey was added as a soft sweetener. E,g, Waggle Dance – Staffordshire, England. 15. Ice Beer: The brew is frozen during maturation to produce a purified beer, with the ice crystals removed to increase the strength. E.g. Bud Ice (Anheuser-Busch), Miller’s Ice House, but the sales are at only 4% of the total market.
  56. 56. Styles of Beer 16. IPA: India Pale Ale. This strong, heavily hopped beer was actually brewed in Burton-on-Trent by companies like Allsopp and Bass. The recipe was designed to withstand the long journeys to the far ends of the british empire like India. 17.Kriek: In this Belgian lambic beer, secondary fermentation is stimulated by adding cherries to give a dry, fruit flavour and deep colour. The kriek is a small dark cherry grown near Brussels
  57. 57. Styles of Beer 18. Lager: The German word ‘to store’ nowadays refers to any bottom-fermented beer. 19. Lambic: This wild, spontaneous fermenting beer uses wild yeasts and open air fermentation. The beer is brewed only in cooler months as otherwise, the fermentation would be too unpredictable.
  58. 58. Styles of Beer 20. Lite: In North America, the trem is used to denote a thin, low calorie beer(e.g. Miller Lite). In Australia, lite csn mean low in alcohol. 21. Low Alcohol Beers: less than 2.5%; nonalcoholic less thasn 0.05%. 22. Malt Liquor: In the US, the term denotes a strong lager, often made with a high amount of sugar to produce a thin but patent brew. Malt Liquor beers are just used to deliver a strong alcoholic punch.
  59. 59. Styles of Beer 23. Pilsner: Strictly speaking, Pilsner is a golden, hoppy, aromatic lager from the Bohemian Czech town of Plzen, where this classic style was first produced. The original Pilsner Urquell(meaning original source) is still brewed there. It is the leading beer sold in Poland and very popular in Germany too. Alc 5%. Has a flowery hop aroma and a dry finish.
  60. 60. Styles of Beer 24. Porter: Said to have been originally made by Ralph Harwood, when he grew tired of making the Three Threads, a popular drink of the day (by mixing Strong, Brown and Old ales). He wanted to make a single beer having the cmbination of the Three threads. A very successful and widely exported beer due to large scale production leading to economies of scale in the 18th and 19th century. Porter was the first mass-produced beer, a gift of the Iunduatrail revolution.The name today is used to indicate a brown beer.
  61. 61. Styles of Beer 25. Rauchbier: The intense smoky flavour of these German smoked beers from the region of Franconia comes from the malt that has been dried over moist beechwood fire…e.g. Spezial, Schlenkerla. 26. Root Beer: An American temperance soft drink, not a beer, it was originally flavoured with sassafras root bark. Root Beer is boiled but not fermented.
  62. 62. Styles of Beer 27. Steam Beer: An American cross between a bottom-fermented beer and an ale, steam beer was originally made in the Gold Rush days in California. It was brewed with lager yeasts at warm ale temperatures in wide, shallow pans. Casks of this lively brew were said to hiss like steam when tapped. Now, it is only brewed by the Anchor Steam Brewery of San Francisco.
  63. 63. Styles of Beer 28. Steinbier: German “stone beer” is brewed using a primitive method of heating in which red hot rocks are lowered into the brew to bring it to a boil. The sizzling stones become covered in burnt sugars and then are added back to the beer at the maturation stage to spark a second fermentation.
  64. 64. Styles of Beer 29. Stout: One of the classic styles of ale, originally a stout porter. Stout has survived and prosperd thanks to the sharp contrast in taste and colour. It is made with a proportion of dark, roasted barley in the massh and is heavily hopped to give its distinctive taste. Draught stout tend to be much creamier and smoother than the more distinctive bottle beer because it uses nitrogen gas in its dispenser. Guinness-Arthur Guinness 1759, altogether brewed in 50 countries and on sale in a further 100. Other egs. Dragon Stout, Murphy’s Irish Stout.
  65. 65. Beer Service Glasses should be clean and free of any lint. Special care should be taken that the glasses are grease free. Draft BeerIt is very important to serve draught beer with a proper head, which depends on two factors. The firstis the angle at which the glass is held while the beer is poured. The glass should be held one inch below the tap at an angle of 45c.
  66. 66. Beer Service The second factor is the length of time at this angle. When the glasses is about half full it should be straightened upright and the beer should be allowed to run into the middle of the glass until the head rises slightly above the rim of the glass. Head on the glass should be between ½ -1 inch depending upon the size of the glass.
  67. 67. Beer Service Canned or bottled beerTo get a good head in this case, the glass should be held upright when the pouring is started. The can or bottle should first be held at a steep almost 45degree angle and beer poured into the center of the glass and as the glass gets filled and the foam is formed the pouring angle is decreased to 0 degrees so that the remaining is poured more slowly until the glass is filled. Serving temperatures: Lager- 3 to 4C Ale- 7C Thick glass used can have a temperature rise of around 2C.--so, use thinner glass
  68. 68. Common Draught Beer Problems 1. Flat beer- storage temp too low, insufficient air pressure, greasy glasses, dispensing lines too cold. 2. Wild beer-storage temp too high, dispensing pressure too high. 3. Cloudy beer-beer is old, beer previously frozen, lines are unclean, beer is dispenced through a partly open faucet.
  69. 69. Common Draught Beer Problems 4. Unpalatable Beer- stale beer, lines , coils , glasses are unclean , air pressure incorrect. 5. Beer too warm or cold 6. Glass head unstable
  70. 70. Brands - Ireland Beamish Red Irish Ale Guinness Extra Stout Murphy’s Irish Stout – Draught
  71. 71. Brands- England Fuller’s Ale Boddingtons Draught Mackesons Milk Stout Sheperd Neame – Original Porter
  72. 72. Brands Amstel and Amstel Light – Holland Heineken – Holland Carlsburg – Denmark Tuborg - Denmark
  73. 73. Brands - Germany Beck’s St. Pauli Girl Lowenbrau Dab
  74. 74. Brands Pilsner Urquell – Czech rep. Castle Lager – South Africa Tsingtao – China Asahi Black and Stout – Japan Kirin – Japan Tiger – Singapore Foster’s - Australia
  75. 75. DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage: