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Beer ok Beer ok Presentation Transcript

  • DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage:
  • Pop Quiz         What is fermentation? What is distillation? What is an alcoholic beverage? What is “proof”. What are congeners? What are neutral spirits? (190 proof +) What is aging? (Casks, added congeners) What is blending? (Whiskies e.g.)
  • MODULE 3108 THEORY Beer Defined:  Beer is a generic term used for all fermented beverages made from malted grain (usually barley), hops and water.
  • Basic Characteristics     Low alcohol percentage. Highest Food value. Short life span. Especially Draft beer.
  • Brief History     Been drunk for centuries in various forms. Was consumed for nutrition and energy by many primitive people. Columbus found Indians making beer from Corn and Sap from a birch tree. Huge brewing Industry was started by 19th century German immigrants who bought the Know how to America.
  • History Continued Louis Pasteur’s research was useful in understanding Fermentation and sterilization and was applied to Beer much before milk.  From the old perception of a drink for the blue collared workers, it is now a universal drink.. 
  • Alcohol content  Alcohol content varies but is expressed in % by weight or by volume; this can mean different things since Alcohol is lighter than water, usually around 4-5% v/v.
  • Two types of beers Lagers  Ales   Difference lies in the manufacturing process.
  • Continued- Lager beer is fermented in the bottom of a cold tank ( 3-9 degrees Celsius), thus called bottom fermentation. It is then stored for several weeks (lagered) for mellowing after which it is packaged.   An ale is fermented at a warmer temperature ( 10 –21 degrees Celsius) by a yeast that rises to the top of the liquid, thus it is called top fermentation. Storage is only a few days.
  • Essential ingredients in Beer Malt or sprouted grain. (almost always barley, dried to or roasted).  Water.  Hops.(blossoms of the female hop vine)  Yeast. (Usually unique to the brewer) 
  • Basic process     Water is 90% of the mix and is the vehicle for the process. The malt and adjuncts provide the sugars to be fermented yielding alcohol and co2. They also provide the flavor, body and color. The hops provide the bitter flavor and also add aroma, also sterilizes the brew. Yeast is what acts on the sugars to break them down, it also affects taste and after effects.
  • Four steps Mashing.  Brewing.  Fermenting. Lagering 
  • Mashing.     The Barley is ground into grist, which is put into a container called a “Tun” along with hot water. Any adjuncts are added after pre roasting. The mixture is cooked at about 76 celsius for 1-6 hours. Malt enzymes (diastase) are activated and turn starch to sugars. The mixture is strained and the liquid called “Wort” is put into a “brew kettle.
  • Brewing     The wort is boiled in large copper or stainless steel kettle for 1-2.5 hours with the hops. The bitterness and flavor come in at this point. The hop extract sterilize the mix. After brewing the hops are strained out and the “wort” is cooled. This is the point when the difference between ales and lagers comes about.
  • Fermenting Yeast is added depending on whether it is an ale or a lager. Top or bottom fermentation.  Fermentation is about a week, little more for lagers and little less for ale.  Co2 is a by product of fermentation, this can be collected and stored for later addition. 
  • Lagering Lagern (storage in German), this period allows beers to mature and ripen.  Some additional fermentation takes place, impurities settle down.  Lagering takes place at near freezing temperatures from weeks to months.  Ales are ripened as well for a much shorter time at warmer temperatures. 
  • Lagering Continued    The process takes place in stainless steel or glass lined tanks. Sometimes additional newly fermented wort is added here to add a bit of zest to the beer “krausening” (German word for froth). This adds natural CO2 as well, the alternative being to add the CO2 later from the stored tanks. After this the beer is filtered and stored in kegs or bottles for service.
  • Pasteurizing    Canned and bottled beers are stabilized by this process where the beer is heated to 65 Celsius for a short time to kill bacteria. This however “bruises “ the beer causing a slight drop in quality. Draft beers are usually not subject to this process and are kept refrigerated throughout till served, that is why draft beer is better.. Some bottled beers are also not subjected to this and are passed through ultra fine filters to achieve the same purpose, thus retaining draft quality.
  • Examples of Beer types        Lagers: Pilsner: Light, medium body, dry (typical American) Light beers: low alcohol, low calories. Malt liquers: Heavy bodied high alcohol, added enzymes. Bock beers: Strong heavy, dark, high alcohol, rich in Malt Steam beers: Combination of a lager and ale process (bottom ferm. High temp.). Dry beer: dry, clean, and refreshing.
  • Continued         Ales: Typically more fruity, rich , more body. Usually higher alcohol. Cream ale. Pale ale. India pale. Bitter.(low alcohol) Stouts. Wheat beer..
  • Non alcoholic beers: Fermentation is stopped before alcohol forms or alcohol is removed from the “Wort”.  Gaining Popularity in many countries. For health reasons.  Anything below 0.5 % alcohol v/v. 
  • Beer Storage Pull date(expiry date).  Date of brewing based.  Practice FIFO.  Always keep cold (cans/ bottles between 4 and 21degrees) 
  • Beer storage Temperatures above 21 celsius will destroy flavor.  Light will also spoil beer.  Draft must always be chilled. (shelf life is 30-45 days)  Keep upright to avoid contact will cap. 
  • Beer Service  From bottle: Do not tilt glass.  Pour into the center of glass.  Reduce pouring speed to contain froth 
  • Beer Service  For Draft beer: Tilt the glass at 45 degrees.  Straighten the glass after half full.  When head is slightly above the rim, stop. 
  • Beer Service  Accurate serving depends on three things: Cleanliness of the glass.  Temperature of the beer.  Correct pouring of beer 
  • Brandies Began as a French version of Aqua vitae.  Derived from the essence of wine.  First done to reduce storage space for wine through distilling.  Brandy derived from a Dutch word meaning “Burnt wine” (Brande wine)  Basically a distilled product of any fruit.  Usually bottled above 80 proof. 
  • French Brandies        Most famous one is Cognac. Made in the region of Cognac. Needs chalky soil and humid climate. Very strictly controlled specific process. Special copper pots (alembic)at special temperatures and set quantities used.. Aged for 1 and half years in special oak casks. Caramel is added in the process for uniform color.
  • Cognac continued A lot of evaporation occurs during maturing.  Age is not put on the label since they are often a blend of brandies of different ages.  A three star brandy must be at least 1 and half years old. 
  • Cognacs continued V = very.  S = superior.  O = Old.  P = Pale.  E = Extra.  F = Fine.  X = extra. 
  • Cognacs continued      Grand champagne refers to the grape from a region within cognac (Field) 50% or more. Also Petit champagne. Remy Martin, Hennesy, Martell, Courvoisier. Served in Brandy Baloon. Armagnac (Gascony), white grapes, matured in Burnt oak barrels. Usually cheaper.
  • Fruit Brandies     Made from a variety of fruits, peaches, cherries, black currants, apples. Distilled up to a 100 proof. Fermentation and distillation can include various components of the fruit for differing flavors. Traditional after dinner drink, served in a snifter or a balloon. Can be mixed with coffee or cocktails.
  • Liqueurs Also known as cordials.  Distilled spirit , redistilled with fruits, flowers or extracts with added sugar.  Usually after dinner drinks.  Most have secret formulas and there are new ones out all the time. 
  • Liqueurs         Usually made from a base of a distilled spirit like whisky, Rum etc. Next step can be: Steeping or soaking (maceration) Percolating over a mix of flavors. Or redistilling with flavor mix. Sugar is added (Honey, maple syrup, corn syrup) 2.5 % - 35% by weight. Colors may be added. If unsweetened they are called bitters (bark, root)
  • Whiskey  History:  Early spirit maker used whatever grew for fermentation of spirits. In the colder climates of the North i.e. Scotland, Ireland, grain was the mainstay hence whisky was created through grain fermentation.
  • History Continued  Early days the process started of similar to making beer, where grain was mashed and fermented and distilled thus leading to a strong biting drink called UISGEBEATHA OR UISGEBAUGH in Ireland. This is a Celtic translation of Aqua vitae or “water of life”. Later years the word evolved into Uisgea and now “whisky”.
  • The Process  Process starts by converting the starch of the grain into sugar. This is done by adding malt (sprouted barley).  This contains an enzyme that converts the starch into sugar. Hot water is the vehicle and mix is called a “mash”.  Adding yeast ferments this mix.
  • The Process  After fermentation it undergoes a distillation process thus creating raw whisky.  Hereafter this raw whisky is stored in Oak barrels for at least 2 years where it takes on various characters and flavors.  This basically leads to a straight whisky i.e. a whisky that has more than 51% of a single grain (rye, corn, barley).
  • The process  Many whiskies are blended i.e. they contain a mix of several types of straight whiskies or even neutral spirits to create the distinctive flavor unique to the manufacturer. This mix is usually a house secret.
  • Types of Whiskeys - Scotch    Scotch whiskeys generally have 2 component blends: Barley malt whiskeys blended with high proof grain whiskies (usually corn). The distinctive flavor comes from the water in the mash and the peat fires used to roast the sprouted barley. The grain whiskeys are distilled to a high proof and have a very light flavor but are high in alcohol (just below neutral spirits).
  • Scotch whiskeys They are aged separately and then blended. Some brands can have as many as 30-40 separate whiskeys in them.  Scotch became popular for 2 reasons:  The prohibition in America.  Bad wine years in France due to disease. 
  • Scotch  A single malt is whiskey that is not blended but is just one of the straight whiskeys used in blending (Glenlivet, Glenfiddich
  • Irish whiskey        Origins till the 12th century. Similar to scotch whiskey. Malted barley is not exposed to peat smoke. There are several grains in addition to the malted barley. Triple distillation process. Results in a smooth, mellow, medium body whisky. Many are blended with high proof grain whiskey as well to make a lighter bodied drink.
  • Bourbons (Kentucky)   This is a well know straight unblended American whiskey. It is distilled at 160 proof from a fermented mash of at least 51% corn and aged at least for 2 years in charred oak containers.  Most Bourbons are aged for about 6 years. 
  • Bourbons They are strong flavored, full-bodied, charred flavor.  Sour mash yeasting process. Old yeast from previous distillation is added to the fresh yeast for continuity.  Jim beam, old turkey etc. 
  • Rye Whiskey This is a whisky that is distilled at 150 proof from a mash that consists of at least 51% rye and aged in a charred oak container for at least 2 years  There are many other variation that exist with various combinations of corn, rye and barley. 
  • Blended American Whiskeys  These are combinations of straight whiskeys or whiskeys and neutral spirits. A blend must contain at least 20% straight whiskey. Some may even have sherry, prune liqueur or even fruit extracts added. There are no aging requirements for these whiskeys and most are labeled as American Whiskeys.
  • Canadian Whiskeys These are mostly blended whiskeys (140-180 proof) light in body, delicate, mellow. Law requires that they must be made from cereal grains and aged at least three years. The rest is up to the distiller.  Canadian club, crown royal, Seagram’s. 
  • Service of Whiskey Neat.(shot glass with a side of cold water)  On the rocks. ( 5-7 ounce glass, first ice and then whiskey)  Or with Soda, water, soft drink (high ball glass and swirled) 
  • Tea. Been drunk for about 5000 years.  Originally drunk for medicinal purposes.  1700’s onwards it was drunk commonly.  Comes from the leaf buds and top leaves of the plant “ Camellia sinenses”.  Contains caffeine, relaxes muscles, stimulates CNS.  10 billion cups a year. 
  • Countries 25 countries, acidic soils, warm climate, at least 130 cm. Of rain. It is an annual crop.  China: oldest producer, keemun, lapsang, green tea, Souchong, Oolong.  East Africa (Kenya ,Malawi, Tanzania, Zimbabwe), bright coppery and brisk.  India: largest producer of tea about 30% of the world tea.(Assam, Darjeeling and Nilgiri) 
  • Countries  Indonesia: Light fragrant with bright colors, used mainly for blending.  Sri Lanka: Delicate light lemony flavor. Excellent afternoon teas, good for ice tea.
  • Purchase forms Bulk leaf.  Tea bags.  String and tie.  Envelope.  Instant granules.   Leaf particle size refers to the grade (Pekoe), Top leaf – tea dust. Fannings refers to grades in between. Flush refers to picking time.
  • Blends Blend indicates that tea has many different types of tea.  Usually marketed under a brand name.  Indian for strength, Chinese for delicacy, African for color etc.  All teas except Chinese are oxidized to give black color. 
  • Storage Dry clean covered container.  Well ventilated area.  Away from excess moisture.  Away from strong odors. 
  • Making Tea 42.5 -56.7 grams dry tea per 4.5 litres.  1.5 litres for 20 24 cups.  1.5 kg sugar for 80 cups.  1 tea bag per cup.  Heat pot before putting in the leaf.  Measure your portions.  Use freshly boiled water. 
  • Continued Should be boiling while entering the pot.  Brew for 3- 4 minutes.  Remove tea leaves at the end.  Ensure all equipment is thoroughly clean.  Use china or metal pots. 
  • Continued Chinese tea is more delicate and flavor ful and one should use less.  Normally drunk without additives (lime)  Sugar may be offered. Always in china pot.  Russian style involves serving in a glass with lime.  For ice tea, make strong and chill well, strain and store, add lemon. (mint leaves)  Bulk making use infusion pot, brew and remove infuser. 
  • Specialty Teas / some examples Assam: rich, malty-breakfast/milk.  Darjeeling: Light grape flavor, afternoon, little milk.  Jasmine: green unoxidized, jasmine blossom.  Earl Grey: Blend of Darjeeling and China/ lemon or milk. 
  • Tisanes  Fruit flavored teas for medicinal purposes.  Herbal: Camomile, Peppermint, Rosehip, Mint.  Fruit: Cherry, lemon, Black currant, mandarin orange.
  • Coffee       Originated in Yemen (1000 years) Commercial cultivation in 15th century, Arabia. Spread around the world by mid 16th century. Grows naturally in many countries, Brazil is largest producer. The tree is Coffea Rubiaceae (50 different species). Only two are commercially significant (Arabica and robusta)
  • Coffee It is an evergreen shrub, reaches 2-3 meters when cultivated. The fruit of the plant is called a “cherry” about 1.5 cm. In length.  This contains 2 seeds which are roasted and brewed for coffee.  Tree takes about 3-5 years to produde and will last for about 15 years. 
  • Blend Experts have to keep the blend consistent despite varying quality of beans.  Most coffees are a blend of 2 or more coffees.  Roasting releases the aroma, correct roasting gives uniform color. The output of the roasting provides different blends. 
  • Coffee Light roasting: good for mild beans to preserve delicate aroma.  Medium roast: stronger flavor, define character.  Full roasted: Bitterish flavor.  High roast: very bitter, flavor lost.  Higher roast = less acidity more bitter 
  • Storage Well ventilated storeroom.  Air tight containers, oils evaporate.  No excess moisture.  No strong odors nearby. 
  • Making coffee          Use freshly roasted and ground coffee. Buy the correct grind for the type of method. Ensure clean equipment. Use a set measure283 – 340 gm. Per 4.5 liters of coffee. Add boiling water and allow to infuse. Do not boil the coffee continuously Strain and serve. Add cream and milk separately. 82 degrees for coffee and 68 degrees for milk.
  • Bean grades for coffee making      Filter drip. Jug Turkish Espresso Percolator      Fine to medium grade Coarse. Pulverized Very fine. Medium
  • What is good coffee Flavor  Aroma  Color with milk.  Body 
  • Bad coffee Weak: water not boiled, Insufficient coffee, infusion time too short, stale coffee used, incorrect grind of coffee.  Flat: Left in urn too long, wrong temperature, dirty equipment, water not fresh, reheated coffee.  Bitter: Too much coffee, infusion too long, incorrect roasting, sediments remaining in service compartment, Infusion temp. too high, coffee in urn too long before service. 
  • Liquor coffees Method: Sugar, black coffee, Spirit, Double cream. Irish Coffee: Bush mills. Highland coffee: Scotch. Russian coffee: Vodka. Jamaican Coffee: Rum. Calypso coffee: Tia Maria. French coffee: Cointreau. Café Royal: Brandy
  • DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: , linkedin:- facebook: webpage: