5 cleaning agents

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5 cleaning agents

  1. 1. Cleaning DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: skihm86@yahoo.com , balhara86@gmail.com linkedin:- in.linkedin.com/in/ihmsunilkumar facebook: www.facebook.com/ihmsunilkumar webpage: chefsunilkumar.tripod.com
  2. 2. Why do we need to clean areas?  Prevention of the spread of infection and disease  Preservation of the surfaces, fittings and furnishings  Safety- minimise the risk of accidents
  3. 3. The standard of cleaning depends on the following factors  The design, materials and condition of the surface to be cleaned  Choice of cleaning agents and equipment  Individual care and effort- much depends on the training and supervision of staff
  4. 4. Cleaning will be effective if the combination of equipment, materials and labour and the method selected, is correctly used. All these factors depend on:  Customer/ guest requirements  Traffic and usage of the area  Nature of surfaces  Safety  Materials used for the surfaces and finishes
  5. 5. Frequency of cleaning:  The frequency depends on the standard required and the degree of soiling. Can be broadly classified as:  Daily cleaning- sweep, mop etc.  Weekly cleaning- polishing and buffing of floors  Periodic cleaning- washing the exterior walls, cleaning curtains
  6. 6. How does a cleaning Agent clean? A cleaning agent cleans by the following methods:  Holding the dirt and carrying it away, as a rinsing process  Reacting with dirt, breaking it down, holding it in suspension and carrying it away  Dissolving the grease or other substances, which fix the dirt (e.g addition of ammonia or methylated spirit to water for washing )  Emulsifying the grease and holding it in suspension together with the dirt, to be removed
  7. 7. Cleaning Agent Major requirement for cleaning is 1. Hygiene 2. Good appearance 3. Longer life of the surface
  8. 8. Surface to be Cleaned 1. Hard surface like floors, walls 2. Soft surface like curtains clothes.
  9. 9. Following are removed from the surface  Dirt 2 types dust (loose particles) or oil (grease)  Stains This is a spot or decolorisation, when it comes in contact with an external agent.  Tarnish This is decolorisation of metals, due to the chemical reaction which take place when they come in contact with external agents like water, air etc.
  10. 10. Cleaning agents Any agent that helps in the removal of soil is called a cleaning agent. Cleaning agents may be either natural or synthetically developed. They are generally classified as: water, detergents, abrasives, degreasers, acid cleaners, organic solvents, and other cleaning agents.
  11. 11. Various Types of Cleaning Agents Glass cleanser Floor sealers Toilet Cleanser Deodorizers Polishes Disinfectant And Bleaches Organic solvents Reagents Abrasive Detergents water Cleaning agents
  12. 12. Question for Assignment  Do a market survey on 10 types of cleaning agents and make a report on it keeping in mind the following. composition of each brand names Used by where For what purpose  Report should be submitted within 15 days  Failed will loose the marks  Marks is 20  There should not be any similarity
  13. 13. WATER • It is a universal cleaning agent • It is the simplest of all cleaning agent. • Water alone is not effective cleanser • To be effective in cleaning it must be conjunction with other cleaning agents such as detergent, soap and so on
  14. 14. Water may be hard or soft Hard water is due to the presence of Calcium & Magnesium ions which make it unfavourable for cleaning Hardness of water is of two types Temporary & Permanent Temporary hardness can be remove by heating Permanent hardness can be remove by adding certain chemical agents
  15. 15. Liquid Cleaning Agent  Liquid cleaning agent can either be diluted in a water or used directly with a dry cloth. e.g  Ammonia  Turpentine  Vinegar  HCL (hydrochloric acid )  CCL4 (carbon tetra chloride)
  16. 16. ACIDS  Acid clean by dissolving metal, thus making it possible to clean metallic stains, hard water deposits & tarnish on silver and copper  Mild acid like citric acid and acetic acid clean mild stains  Strong acid like oxalic acid & HCl clean stubborn stains  Through rinsing of the surface after use  Acid must be used in a diluted form
  17. 17. ALKALIS  Alkali are used as a grease emulsifier and to remove stains  They are available in flake, powder or liquid form  They are used in addition to surfactants  They are used to clean the block drains, ovens etc  E.g bleach,
  18. 18. Polishes  Polishes clean by producing shine by providing a smooth surface from which light is reflected evenly  They are available in the form of a cream, paste or liquid  Three categories are Spirit based- used on metals & window panes Oil based – used on painted wood, synthetic flooring & leather Water based- thermostat and rubber flooring
  19. 19. Types of Polish Floor polish – consist of wax, water & spirit (after application water & spirit evaporate giving a shine) Furniture polish Metal polish
  20. 20. Seals  Seals form a non porous layer. They can be either water based or resin based Types of seals  Oleo- resinous These are made up of oils , resins, thinner 7 dryers They are dark in colour & used on wooden floors which take 10 days to dry  One pot plastic The main component is polyurethane, which does not contain oil & used to clean wooden floors & dries fast
  21. 21.  Two pot plastic It has one base & one hardener blended together used on wooden floors  Pigmented seal It is used on concrete floors  Water based seal. It is cheap, easily available & therefore widely used. It can be used on any floors except a wooden floor.
  22. 22. Selection of sealer  The of traffic in the area  Availability type of floor  The amount of the floor for future sealing  Good fixing , durability, appearance, and anti- slip qualities  Ease of application, repair, removal, renewal  Odour and fumes  Drying time  Shelf life  Cost - effectiveness
  23. 23. Soaps  Soaps are cleaning agents that are obtained when fat or oil is treated with an alkali (the process is called saponification) caustic soda + fat ----- Soap + glycerol Additives like dyes, perfumes etc are added to increase the bulk of soap.
  24. 24. Types of soap  Toilet soaps used for washing and bathing available in small to medium size cake Soap Flakes Dissolve easily and yield quicker suds than cakes. Used for washing hands Soap powder Dissolve easily, contain large quantities of builder, Good for used in washing machine
  25. 25. Detergents  Detergent are cleaning agents, which when used in conjunction with water can loosen and remove dirt and then hold it in suspension so that the dirt is not re- deposit on the clean surface
  26. 26. Properties of Detergent  Good wetting power ( to lower the surface tension of water and enable the surface to be thoroughly wet)  Good emulsifying power ( to break up the grease and enable the dirt to be loosened)  Good suspending power ( to suspend the dirt in solution, thus preventing its re-deposit)
  27. 27. Properties  Be readily soluble in water  Be effective in all types of H20  Be effective over wide range temperature  Be harmless to article and skin  Cleanse easily and quickly  Easily rinsed away  Be Bio- degradable
  28. 28. Ingredients Detergent are complex compounds obtained from organic synthesis of petroleum products. They contain surfactants as their basic ingredient which can be cationic or anionic. Amphoteric (acidic and basic) builders like sodium silicate or sodium carbonate
  29. 29. Additives of Detergent  Water softener: to reduce the amount of detergent used.  Filling: it is used to add bulk to the product  Bulking Agents ( to flow freely e.g.-sodium sulphate)  Oxidizing Bleaches ( Removing Tea, coffee stains)  Foam or lather stabiliser (ensure lather is maintained)  Fluorescers (absorbs ultra violet light & maintain whiteness)
  30. 30. Ingredients of detergent  Enzymes (breaks down organic substances)  Germicides (to kill germs)  Perfumes ( fresh smell)  Dye- stuffs ( maintain colour)  Suspending agents ( to prevent Re- deposition)  Sequestering Agents (They disperse and suspend dirt ) By inactivating the ion with a sequestering agent, the other detergent ingredients are better able to clean clothes
  31. 31. Selection of Detergent  A detergent should  Have good wetting, emulsifying  Readily dissolve in water  Cleans quickly with minimum agitation  Be effective in all hard water  Be effective over wide range of temp.  Be harmless to skin  Be easy to rinse  Be biodegradable
  32. 32. ABRASIVE  These are substance or chemicals that depend on their rubbing or scratching action to clean dirt and grit from hard surface  They are used to remove very stubborn stains on various surfaces
  33. 33. Types of Abrasive  Fine abrasive  Medium abrasive  Hard / coarse abrasive
  34. 34. Fine Abrasive  These include precipitated whiting (filtered chalk) and jeweller’s rouge (a pink oxide of iron) used for shining silver  They are also constitute of commercial silver polishes
  35. 35. Medium Abrasive  Rotten stone, scouring powdered, salt, pumice stone  Scouring powdered is made up of fine particles of pumice mixed with detergent, alkali, and little bleach
  36. 36. Hard / Coarse Abrasive  Bath bricks, sand paper, steel wool, emery paper
  37. 37. Glass Cleaner  These are composed of an organic , water- miscible solvent such as isopropyl alcohol and a alkaline detergent. Some glass cleaner also contain mild abrasive  Glass cloth  Methylated spirit  Vinegar
  38. 38. DEODORIZERS  It helps in the cleaning process by counteracting stale odours and sometimes also introducing fragrance to mask them  Used in restroom, guestroom, guest bathroom, cloakroom,  They are available as aerosol spray, liquid, powder, and crystalline blocks  Eg naphthalene balls
  39. 39. TOILET CLEANSER  These are strong , concentrated cleaning agents design to clean and disinfectant WCs and urinals  They are available in liquid , powder, and crystalline form  They are acidic in nature to remove stubborn stain
  40. 40. Some Common Cleaning Agents  Ammonia Bath brick  Benzene Borax  Bran Fuller’s earth  Hydrochloric acid Jeweller’s rouge  Lemon Linseed oil  Magnesia Methylated spirit  Oxalic acid Paraffin oil  Petrol Pumice
  41. 41. Common Cleaning Agent  Rotten stone Common salt  Sand Sawdust  Shikakai Soda  Steel wool Turpentine  Vaseline Vinegar  Whiting / precipitated whiting Where all these cleaning agent used .
  42. 42. Selection of Cleaning Agents  The type of soilage  The type of surface  Odour  Range of action  Composition of cleaning agent  Ease of use, saving of effort & time  No side effects  Shelf life  Packaging volumes & quantities  Cost effectiveness
  43. 43. Storage of Cleaning Agents  Ensure that the storage racks are sturdy, heavier container should be kept on the bottom shelf  The store should be kept clean & well ventilated at all times  Label all containers with water proof marker  Ensure that the lids are tightly secured  Avoid spillage
  44. 44. Storage of cleaning agent  When dispensing cleaning agents, use appropriate dispenser and measuring apparatus  Ensure that no residual deposits of cleaning agent are left around the rims of the container  Follow a systematic procedure for rotating stocks
  45. 45. Storage of cleaning agent  Organic solvents, strong reagents, polishes, and aerosol- based agents should be kept away from heat sources  Check the stock regularly  The store should be kept locked when not in use
  46. 46. STORE STOCK SHEET S No Name of item Unit Stock in hand Stock received Total stock Less issues Book stock Actual stock Diff. in stock Sign of Housekeeper……….Sign of Housekeeper………. Sign of Storekeeper……….
  47. 47. Issuing of Cleaning Agent  Requisitioning  Full for empty  Topping up
  48. 48. Question for Assignment  Do a market survey on 10 types of cleaning agents and make a report on it keeping in mind the following. composition of each brand names Used by where For what purpose  Report should be submitted within 15 days  Failed will loose the marks  Marks is 20  There should not be any similarity
  49. 49. DESINGED BY Sunil Kumar Research Scholar/ Food Production Faculty Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, MAHARSHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK Haryana- 124001 INDIA Ph. No. 09996000499 email: skihm86@yahoo.com , balhara86@gmail.com linkedin:- in.linkedin.com/in/ihmsunilkumar facebook: www.facebook.com/ihmsunilkumar webpage: chefsunilkumar.tripod.com

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