MAKING STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLANS:

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MAKING STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLANS: PRESENTATION BY SUNIL KOHLI IDAS JS&FA, NDMA IN TRIVANDRUM IN JUNE 2010

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  • The NDMA guidelines on the preparation of State DM Plan has outlined the process for the development of the State/UT Plan wherein aspects related to: vulnerability assessment and risk analysis, prevention measures, mainstreaming DM concerns into developmental Plans/Programmes/Projects, Preparedness measures, Response, Partnership with other stakeholders, Financial arrangements, Disaster specific action plans and Coordination and implementation aspects need to be addressed
  • Therefore, the current perceptions of disaster management that considers disasters as rare occurrences managed by emergency response services require a paradigm shift. The new approach emanates from the conviction that disaster mitigation and preparedness should be built into the development process and it should be multidisciplinary spanning across all sectors of development.
  • The Disaster Management Policy calls formechanism for coherence and alignment with existing policies of the government andfuture legislations.
  • MAKING STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLANS:

    1. 1. FELICITATIONS FROM<br />1<br />
    2. 2. ON THE OCCASION OF <br />CONSULTATION MEETING <br />ON <br />DISASTER MANAGEMENT <br />AND <br />RELEASE OF <br />STATE POLICY ON <br />DISASTER MANAGEMENT <br />AND <br />DISTRICT DM PLANS <br />IN THE <br />GOVERNMENT OF KERALA<br />2<br />
    3. 3. PRESENTATION ON THE <br />NATIONAL GUIDELINES <br />ON <br />STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN <br />BY <br />SUNIL KOHLI, IDAS<br />JOINT SECRETARY & FINANCIAL ADVISER<br />NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY<br />JUNE 28TH 2010<br />3<br />
    4. 4. DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLANS<br />4<br />
    5. 5. BACKGROUND<br />India is a country highly vulnerable to natural disasters. <br />Enormous population pressures and urbanization have forced people to live on marginal lands or in cities where they are at greater risk to disasters.<br />Whether it is a flood, a drought or an earthquake, millions of peoples are affected each time a disaster occurs. <br />In addition to large-scale displacement and the loss of life, these events result in the loss of property and agricultural crops worth thousand of Crores of rupees annually.<br />5<br />
    6. 6. The reasons for this are varied including:<br />an increasing population pressures in urban areas<br />an increase in the extent of encroachment into lands, e.g., river beds or drainage courses, low lying areas etc.<br />poor or ignored zoning laws and policies<br />lack of proper risk management (insurance)<br />In India the primary responsibility for responding to disasters lies at the State level. <br />Many states have yet to prepare Disaster Management Plans.<br />6<br />BACKGROUND<br />
    7. 7. PREPARATION OF PLANS<br />Section 11 of DM Act provides that “There shall be drawn up a plan for Disaster Management for the whole of the Country to be called National Plan.”<br />The National Response Planto be prepared by an Inter Ministerial Central Team formed by the NEC in the MHA Spanning all the Central Ministries/Departments. <br />The Mitigation and Preparedness Plans<br />The National Human Resource and Capacity Building Plan To be prepared by National Institute of Disaster Management, <br />7<br />
    8. 8. RESPONSIBILITY IN STATE<br />Sections 18 of DM Act 2005:Powers and function of SDMA<br />State Authority shall have responsibility for laying down Policies and Plans for Disaster Management in State.<br />Lay down the State Disaster Management Policy;<br />Approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Authority;<br />Approve the disaster management plans prepared by the departments of the Government of the State;<br />Lay down guidelines to be followed by the departments of the Government of the State for the purposes of integration of measures for prevention of disasters and mitigation in their development plans and projects and provide necessary technical assistance therefor;<br />8<br />PREPARATION OF PLANS IN STATES<br />
    9. 9. RESPONSIBILITY IN STATE<br />Sections 18 of DM Act 2005:Powers and function of SDMA<br />State Authority shall have responsibility for laying down Policies and Plans for Disaster Management in State.<br />Coordinatethe implementation of the State Plan;<br />Recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures;<br />Review the development plans of the different departments of the State and ensure that prevention and mitigation measures are integrated therein;<br />Review the measures being taken for mitigation, capacity building and preparedness by the departments of the Government of the State and issue such guidelines as may be necessary.<br />9<br />PREPARATION OF PLANS IN STATES<br />
    10. 10. RESPONSIBILITY IN STATE<br />The State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) headed by the Chief Minister will lay down policies and plans for DM in the state. <br />It will, approve the State Plan prepared by the State Executive Committee in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA and coordinate its implementation <br />10<br />PREPARATION OF PLANS IN STATES<br />
    11. 11. GROUND REALITY<br />Only 20 states / UT’s have made Plans<br />However, the major drawback is that the plans completed have not been updated with respect to multiple hazards and NDMA guidelines<br />Considering the pre-occupation of the institutional framework at the State or with time-bound regular work; Technical Assistance through a Knowledge Institutionis a viable means to supplement the efforts of the State<br />11<br />PREPARATION OF PLANS IN STATES<br />
    12. 12. STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN<br />Fiscal 2008; NDMA has prepared and issued the guidelines to all states for the preparation of State Disaster Management Plan.<br />Preparation of DM plans by Central Ministries / Departments and States is underway. <br />Under the “Scheme For Preparation of Disaster Management Plans,” Rs. 5.0 Crore was sanctioned to the Central Ministries/Departments and the States/UT’s. <br />Out of this 100 % was released to States during last Fiscal (2010). <br />12<br />
    13. 13. GUIDELINES<br />13<br />
    14. 14. 14<br /><ul><li>Outlined the process for the development of the State/UT Plans.
    15. 15. Wherein the following aspects need to be addressed :
    16. 16. Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Analysis,
    17. 17. Prevention Measures,
    18. 18. Mainstreaming Disaster Management concerns into Developmental Plans / Programmes / Projects,
    19. 19. Preparedness Measures,
    20. 20. Response,
    21. 21. Partnership with other stakeholders,
    22. 22. Financial Arrangements,
    23. 23. Disaster Specific Action Plans and
    24. 24. Coordination and Implementation</li></li></ul><li>SECTIONS OF FRAMEWORK<br />Framework has five sections<br /><ul><li>Operational Issues
    25. 25. Administrative Issues
    26. 26. Financial Issues
    27. 27. Legal Issues; and
    28. 28. Process</li></ul>15<br />
    29. 29. OPERATIONAL ISSUES-I<br />Stress on equity based inclusive SDMP, taking due care of socially and economically disadvantaged/ marginalized sections of the society<br />Address concerns of women<br />Horizontal & vertical linkages with national, district, block, local level plans with due stress on community participation to maintain harmony and synergy<br />Develop a socio-economic base line to assess risk<br />16<br />
    30. 30. ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES-I<br />Synergy with State five year plan<br />Availability of NDRF, Civil Defence & Home Guards and youth organizations<br />Public Private Partnership (PPP). <br />Consider enlarging it to Public Private People’s Participation (PPPP)<br />Knowledge Management including Community Service Centres in the state<br />Documentation of Traditional Best Practices<br />Development and updating of resource inventory<br />17<br />
    31. 31. FINANCIAL ISSUES<br /><ul><li>Budget Provisions: Funding for short, medium and long term activities
    32. 32. Modalities for creation of mitigation and response funds at state and district level and guidelines for their utilization
    33. 33. Integration of DM concerns in development plans-financial aspects
    34. 34. DRR Sub Plan on the lines of Special Component Plan for SCs and Tribal Sub Plan
    35. 35. Provision of funds for relief materials; estimate on the basis of past experiences, at least for recurrent disasters
    36. 36. External aid proposals, if any, with the approval of Central Government/ NDMA</li></ul>18<br />
    37. 37. LEGAL ISSUES<br />Statutory Responsibilities of SEC- Section 22 of DM Act<br />Monitor Specific Components based on state’s vulnerability and requirements<br />Legislative back-up <br />For putting in place techno-legal regime<br />Specific target dates to the extent feasible<br />19<br />
    38. 38. PROCESS<br />Designate Nodal Departmentfor formulating SDMP<br />Nodal Officer with an alternate nodal officer to coordinate with a core group of officers in each department- capacity development of core group<br />Identify Institutes for technical support to Core Group<br />Identify Nodal Departments for Civil Society, Civil Defence & Home Guards, ICDS, youth Organizations, Gender Equity, differently able & modalities for coordination with nodal deptt.<br />Modalities for logistic management<br />Modalities for consultative process with district & local authorities and people’s representatives<br />20<br />
    39. 39. STATE PLANS<br />SUGGESTED OUTLINE<br />21<br />
    40. 40. STATE PLANS<br />SUGGESTED OUTLINE<br />Part I: General<br />Chapter I: Introduction<br />Chapter II: Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Analysis<br />Chapter III: Preventive Measures<br />Chapter IV: Mainstreaming DM Concerns into Developmental Plans/Programmes/Projects<br />Chapter V: Preparedness Measures<br />Chapter VI: Response<br />Chapter VII: Partnership with other stakeholders<br />Chapter VIII: Financial Arrangements<br />22<br />
    41. 41. STATE PLANS<br />SUGGESTED OUTLINE<br />Part II: Disaster Specific Action Plan<br />Chapter IX: Floods<br />Chapter X: Cyclone<br />Chapter XI: Earthquakes<br />Chapter XII: Landslides<br />Chapter XIII: Chemical Disasters (including emphasis on off site plans—preparation and rehabilitation)<br />Chapter XIV: Nuclear Disasters<br />Chapter XV: Biological Disasters<br />Chapter XVI: Oil Spills and Mine Disasters<br />Chapter XVII: Tsunami<br />Part III: Cross-cutting Issues<br />Chapter XVIII: Review and updation of plans<br />Chapter XIX: Coordination and Implementation<br />Annexures to the Plan<br />23<br />
    42. 42. CHAPTER-WISE CONTENTS PART I-GENERAL<br />24<br />
    43. 43. Chapter I: Introduction<br />State profile—social, economic and demographic<br />Vision.<br />Theme.<br />Objectives<br />Shift in approach from reactive to proactive<br />National and Global perspective<br />Disaster Management Act, 2005<br />Key features of National Policy on Disaster Management<br />25<br />
    44. 44. Chapter II: Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Analysis <br />Historical background of vulnerability of state to different types of natural and man-made disasters<br />Hazard and risk assessment and vulnerability mapping (high resolution)-Precedence to recurrent disasters<br />Threat perception for specific types of human-induced disasters<br />Initial indicators and emerging concerns (e.g. urbanization, environment protection, population explosion, problems related to migrant workers & growth of slums, gender bias, children in emergencies and other socio-economic aspects)<br />Action Plan for each component<br />Coordination and monitoring mechanism<br />26<br />
    45. 45. Chapter III: Preventive Measures<br />Man-made disasters.<br />Natural Disasters—specific to the state.<br />Early warning and dissemination systems.<br />Prevention and mitigation plans; short, medium and long term with structural and non-structural measures required to be taken together with identification of nodal department(s) for each activity.<br />Training needs analysis and development of state HR plan (to be added as annexure)<br />General mitigation measures common to all disasters<br />Techno-legal regime<br />Land Use Planning and Zoning Regulations-review of legal framework and enforcement of zoning regulations<br />Formulation of Plan Schemes for disaster risk reduction <br />Development of State DM Codes by amending existing Relief Codes/ Famine Codes-add prevention and mitigation measures in the codes<br />27<br />
    46. 46. Chapter. IV. Mainstreaming Disaster Management into the Development Planning Process-<br /><ul><li>This includes economic and social infrastructure like irrigation, power, drinking water, sanitation, roads, buildings, schools and hospitals, housing, heritage monuments etc.</li></ul>• Elements of impact assessment, risk reduction, and the “do no harm” approach to be build into the developmental plans of each department while building in DM concerns into such plans.<br />28<br />
    47. 47. Chapter V: Preparedness measures<br />Resource availability—national and state resources: government, private, civil society:<br />Inventory of human and material resources should be included in IDRN/ SDRNwith modalities for regular updating on quarterly basis.<br />Community Based Disaster Management (CBDM).<br />Training, capacity building and other proactive measures:<br />Civil Defence.<br />Home Guards.<br />NCC.<br />NSS.<br />NYK.<br />Educational and training institutions.<br />Civil society, CBOs, corporate entities.<br />Fire brigade.<br />State Disaster Response Force.<br />Civil police.<br />Media—electronic, print and through folk media, inter personal communication.<br />29<br />
    48. 48. Chapter V: Preparedness measures<br />Awareness generation.<br />Outline an effective GIS process for collecting and analyzing spatial data for emergency management problem solving.<br />Techno-legal regime.<br />Medical preparedness—nominate/ designate hospitals, doctors and paramedics to cover emergency health management including trauma and psycho-social care.<br />Knowledge management<br />Take steps to inventorise Indigenous technological knowledge for combating disasters and validate it for appropriate use.<br />Arrange for the use of ICT tools and resources such as Community Service Centres.<br />Fail-safe communication including last-mile connectivity.<br />Testing of the plans—through mock drills and rehearsals.<br />Lessons learnt—to be incorporated at the time of updating of plan<br />30<br />
    49. 49. Chapter V: Preparedness measures<br /><ul><li>Establishment of State Disaster Response Force (SDRF) on the lines of NDRF from state police and Fire Services
    50. 50. Specialist Response teams raised from Civil Defence and Home Guards
    51. 51. Institutional training arrangements for Response Force/Teams, based on relevant training modules of NDRF for disasters to which state is vulnerable
    52. 52. Equipments for response teams
    53. 53. Extension of UNDP assisted Disaster Risk Management Program
    54. 54. Development of state disaster resource network- periodic updating of same
    55. 55. Development of DMTs from youth organizations-NCC, NSS (urban areas) & NYKs (rural areas) </li></ul>31<br />
    56. 56. Chapter VI: Response<br />The design of plans developed for immediate response which would be initiated on a trigger mechanism basis upon the occurrence of a calamity of extreme nature.<br />Incident Command System (suitably modified/indigenised).<br />Emergency Operation Centres.<br />Alert mechanisms; early warnings etc.<br />Disaster risk reduction framework, policy, act of the state/state road map for hazard risk management.<br />Probabilistic scenario-building for different levels of various disasters to which different areas of the state are vulnerable.<br />The yearly schedule for the conduct of mock exercises for different disasters in different parts of the state at specified locations.<br />Some exercises should be undertaken without prior intimation to enable a correct assessment of the level of preparedness.<br />Procedure for the activation of plans upon occurrence of any disaster.<br />32<br />
    57. 57. Chapter VII: Partnership with other stakeholders<br />The roles of academic institutions and scientific and technical organisations which have an important function in DM may be spelt out from early warning to recovery, together with names and designation of the nodal persons.<br />Media. <br />Identify academic, training, science and technology institutes to train and support stakeholders for different functions to be carried out under SDMP including development of training modules and to impart TOT <br /><ul><li>Sensitization of Media, their role and responsibilities; free air time and print space for awareness generation, advertisements at concessional rates</li></ul>33<br />
    58. 58. Chapter VIII: Financial Arrangements<br />Arrangements for the funding of the components of the state plan.<br />Provision of funds for specific mitigation projects aimed at improving prevention, preparedness, and mitigation in requirement of specific disasters at the national, state and district levels (these would have to be prioritized and phased over time).<br />Steps taken for the constitution of the Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund both at the state and district level which can also serve as a source for funding of various activities as mandated by the DM Act, 2005.<br />Detailed SOPs of each department to make provision in its annual budget for funds to carry out the activities set out in its own DM plan and role and responsibilities of all other stakeholders.<br />34<br />
    59. 59. Chapter VIII: Financial Arrangements<br />Statutory obligation of the state to provide funds for financing state plan [section 23(6) of DM Act]<br />Statutory obligation of the state to provide funds for allocation of funds for prevention of disaster, mitigation, capacity building and preparedness by the departments of state government in accordance with the provisions of state plan and district plan [section 38(2)(d) of DM Act]<br />Establishment of State and District Response and Mitigation Funds obligatory [section 48 of DM Act]<br />Assessment and quantification of funds for specific projects for prevention, mitigation and preparedness (general as also for specific disasters)<br />35<br />
    60. 60. Part III: Cross-cutting Issues<br />36<br />
    61. 61. Chapter XVIII: Review and updation of plans<br />The plan should include a schedule for submitting Action Taken Reports at prescribed periodicity, confirming that their components have been duly updated.<br />37<br />
    62. 62. Chapter XIX: Coordination and Implementation<br />Coordination, as between and amongst the various agencies involved in DM and ensuring implementation of the tasks entrusted to them is an important statutory responsibility of authorities at various levels.<br />The plan should explicitly spell out the crosscutting nature of activities that constitute DM and the vertical and horizontal linkages required between government departments, scientific and technical institutions, NGOs, CBOs and local bodies and describe how ensuring of implementation of their functions will be done by the SDMA/SEC/DDMA etc.<br />38<br />
    63. 63. Chapter XIX: Coordination and Implementation<br />Coordination of efforts amongst various government departments and other stakeholders generates synergy and involves the bringing together of agencies and functionaries to ensure effective performance.<br />It is primarily concerned with the systematic acquisition and application of resources (personnel and equipment) in accordance with the requirements demanded by emergencies. Monitoring mechanisms incorporating, inter alia, quality and outcome indicators should also be spelt out.<br />39<br />
    64. 64. Chapter XIX: Coordination and Implementation<br />Through the installation of a regular Management Information System (MIS), clear responsibilities should be cast upon the various agencies to report either to the SDMA/SEC/DDMA in regard to the subject matter to be reported upon, the authorities to whom the report has to be sent together with specific time lines, frequency and reporting formats. To focus attention on areas that are not functioning as required, the principle of management by exception should be followed.<br />40<br />
    65. 65. MAINSTREAMING DISASTER MANAGEMENT INTO THE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PROCESS<br />41<br />
    66. 66. Mainstreaming Disaster Management into the Development Planning Process<br /><ul><li>Mainstreaming disaster management into the development planning process essentially means looking critically at each activity that is
    67. 67. Being planned, not only from the perspective of reducing the disaster vulnerability of that activity, but also
    68. 68. From the perspective of minimizing that activity’s potential contribution to the hazard</li></ul>42<br />
    69. 69. Development programmes<br />DRR<br />43<br />
    70. 70. 44<br />MAINSTREAMING ………..<br /><ul><li>Risk reduction strategies and measures are most effective when integrated into the framework of overall development.
    71. 71. Risk reduction should not be considered as an end in itself which requires incorporation into development but rather as an integral component of all development processes in the first place.
    72. 72. Hence, a central theme of mainstreaming is to expose and address natural hazard risk within the development context and
    73. 73. Ensure that development policies, projects and programmes do not unwittingly create new forms of vulnerability</li></li></ul><li>45<br />MAINSTREAMING ………..<br />
    74. 74. MAINSTREAMING ………..<br /><ul><li>As envisaged by the Hyogo Framework for Action-
    75. 75. Government of India has become one of the first National Governments to visualize and plan the mainstreaming of disaster management in development plans.</li></ul>46<br />
    76. 76. There are two ways of mainstreaming disaster management into developmental process. These include:-<br /><ul><li>Structural Measures
    77. 77. Non Structural Measures</li></ul>47<br />MAINSTREAMING ………..<br />
    78. 78. <ul><li>Structural measures relate to physical construction
    79. 79. To reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards, or application of engineering techniques to achieve hazard-resistance and resilience in structures or systems.
    80. 80. Non-structuralmeasure include any measure not involving physical construction that uses knowledge, practice or agreement to reduce risks and impacts, in particular through policies and laws, public awareness raising, training and education.
    81. 81. Non-Structural measures include capacity building /training and education</li></ul>48<br />MAINSTREAMING ………..<br />
    82. 82. NDMA’S INITIATIVES <br />One of the major areas of concern for NDMA has been the mainstreaming of the DM into the developmental plans and projects, so that all newly built structures and those under construction are upgraded as disaster resilient and those which have already been constructed are selectively retrofitted in accordance with priority.<br />49<br />
    83. 83. WORKING GROUP ON DM<br /><ul><li>For the XIth Plan document the Planning Commission took the important step of setting up a Working Group (WG) on DM. The Group has submitted its report on Jan 10, 07.
    84. 84. The recommendations of the WG emphasize the mainstreaming of DM concerns into the overall developmental effort.
    85. 85. This essentially means looking critically at each activity that is planned:
    86. 86. From the perspective of reducing disaster vulnerability of that activity.
    87. 87. Also with a view to minimizing the possible potential of such activity contributing to hazards in the future. </li></ul>50<br />
    88. 88. TYPES OF MEASURES REQUIRED<br /><ul><li>Investment Neutral
    89. 89. Putting in place techno-legal regimes; e.g., amending building bye-laws, bringing in flood plain zoning legislation etc.
    90. 90. Requiring funds
    91. 91. Structural measures and
    92. 92. Non-Structural Measures:- Awareness generation, training etc.</li></ul>51<br />
    93. 93. Revisiting Designs of Structural Measures with regard to:<br /><ul><li>Existing structures - Retrofitting etc.
    94. 94. (NDMA has laid down guidelines in the case of earthquakes. Will be done for other disasters also).
    95. 95. Ongoing Programmes - Review from the point of view of disaster resilience, e.g.
    96. 96. Housing: IndiraAwasYojana.
    97. 97. School Buildings: SarvaShikshaAbhiyan.
    98. 98. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission.
    99. 99. New Programmes – Incorporate disaster risk reduction measures into all infrastructure and developmental projects. </li></ul>52<br />TYPES OF MEASURES REQUIRED<br />
    100. 100. We had taken up with Planning Commission and the Ministry of Finance (MoF), the need to setup mechanisms, to ensure that all newly built environment is disaster-resilient. <br />The revised format of ‘EFC’ and “CNE” and ‘Detailed Project Report (DPR) includes this clause. Instructions have already been issued to all the Central Ministries by the Ministry of Finance, vide their letter dated 19 June 2009. <br />The process of self certification is to be followed with a view to ensure that there is no delay in project implementation. <br />53<br />TYPES OF MEASURES REQUIRED<br />
    101. 101. The design of all new and ongoing projects/programmes will thus be addressed from the point of view of DM concerns, while existing infrastructure will be selectively revised for appropriate mitigation measures.<br />In our letter date 18 Dec 2008, we had also requested the State Govt. to implement similar procedures of DM audit for Projects / programmes under their purview.<br />54<br />TYPES OF MEASURES REQUIRED<br />
    102. 102. The Finance Commission is reviewing financing of Disaster Management with reference to the National Calamity Contingency Fund and the Calamity Relief Fund with a view to making appropriate recommendations thereon towards the constitution of a permanent disaster management fund and formalizing separate funds towards maintenance.<br />55<br />TYPES OF MEASURES REQUIRED<br />
    103. 103. 56<br />MAINSTREAMING DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATION<br /><ul><li>The education sector plays a critical role to develop among the young a sense of social and civic responsibility towards preparedness and also
    104. 104. To build capacities to meet emergencies to develop into responsible citizens of the future. </li></ul>NDMA took initiatives of Introducing DM into Educational Curricula.<br /><ul><li>Already done in Schools.
    105. 105. For Higher/ Technical Education – </li></ul> For Medical Education <br />Modalities worked out with HRD Ministry. <br />Work already started with MoH&FW separately. <br />
    106. 106. KERALA STATE DISASTER MANAGEMENT POLICY<br />Need for Paradigm shift in perceptions<br />Disaster Mitigation and preparedness: Built into the development process<br />Multidisciplinary spanning across all sectors of development.<br />57<br />
    107. 107. Disaster Management policy<br />Guiding principle for the state <br />Vision of the state for disaster management<br />58<br />
    108. 108. A STITCH IN TIME<br />Investments in prevention, mitigation and preparedness are much more cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation.<br />1 $ IN MITIGATION= 7 $ IN RELIEF<br />59<br />
    109. 109. ALIGNMENT<br />The Disaster Management Policy calls for mechanism for coherence and alignment with existing policies of the government and future legislations.<br />strengthen the capacities and resilience of vulnerable community<br />60<br />
    110. 110. Earthquake, Oct, 2005<br />MAJOR DISASTERS (1980-2009)<br />Earthquake Uttarkashi, 20 Oct 1991, Chamoli, 23 April 1999<br />Avalanche Feb 2005<br />Bhuj, Earthquake, 26 January, 2001<br />Flood, Assam 2004 & Bihar 2008<br />Earthquake, Latur, 30 Sept 1993<br />Bhopal Gas Disaster, Dec 1982<br />S Cyclone 29 Oct 1999<br />Floods 26 July 2005<br />Tsunami 26 Dec 2004<br />Flood, Karnataka, A.P., and Maharashtra 2009<br />Tsunami 26 Dec 2004<br />Tsunami 26 Dec 2004<br />61<br />
    111. 111. 62<br />
    112. 112. 63<br />LIST OF KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTIONS<br />
    113. 113. 64<br />LIST OF KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTIONS<br />
    114. 114. 65<br />

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