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  • 1. Micro Robots Sumit Tripathi Saket Kansara
  • 2. Outline
    • Introduction
    • Challenges
      • Fabrication
      • Sensors
      • Actuators
    • MEMS Micro robot
    • Applications
    • Future scope
  • 3. Introduction
    • Programmable assembly of nm-scale (~ 1-100 nm){μm-scale (~ 100 nm-100 μm)} components either by manipulation with larger devices, or by directed self-assembly.
    • Design and fabrication of robots with overall dimensions at or below the μm range and made of nm-scale {μm-scale} components.
    • Programming and coordination of large numbers (swarms) of such nanorobots.
    • Materials:
      • Polymer actuators( Polypyrrole (PPy) actuators):
            • Can be actuated in wet conditions or even in aqueous solution.
            • Have reasonable energy consumption.
            • Easily deposited by electrochemical methods
      • Titanium-Platinum alloy
            • Used to manufacture electrodes
            • Corrosion resistant
            • Titanium adhesive alloy, high fracture energy(4500 J/m2 or more)
      • Silicon substrate: capability of bonding between two surfaces of same or different material
      • Carbon nanotubes:
            • Assembly of aligned high density magnetic nanocores
            • Flexible characteristics along the normal to the tube’s axis
            • Extremely strong
      • Biological proteins, bacteria etc.
    Image: Berkeley University
  • 5. Actuator-Rotary Nanomachine. The central part of a rotary nanomachine.(Figure courtesy of Prof. B. L. Feringa’s group (Univ of Groningen.)
    • Power is supplied to these machines electrically, optically, or chemically by feeding them with some given compound.
    • Rotation due to orientation in favorable conformation
    • Subject to continuous rotation
  • 6. Drawbacks of molecular machines of This Kind
    • Moving back and forth or rotating continuously
    • Molecules used in these machines are not rigid
    • Wavelength of light is much larger than an individual machine .
    • Electrical control typically requires wire connections .
    • The force/torque and energy characteristics have not been investigated in detail.
    Rotary Nanomachine.
  • 7. Motor run by Mycoplasma mobile Image credit: Yuichi Hiratsuka, et al.
    • Bacterium moves in search of protein rich regions.
    • The bacteria bind to and pull the rotor.
    • Move at speeds of up to 5 micrometers per second.
    • Tracks are designed to coax the bacteria into moving in a uniform direction around the circular tracks.
  • 8. Motion of a Mycoplasma mobile -driven rotor . Image credit: Yuichi Hiratsuka, et al.
    • Some Other Types:
    • Chlamyodomonas : Swim toward light (phototaxis)
    • Dictyostelium amoeba crawl toward a specific chemical substance (chemotaxis).
    Each rotor is 20 micrometers in diameter
  • 9. Cantilever Sensors Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University, St. John’s, Newfoundland,Canada θ=Angle of incidence Φ=Azimuthal angle Nc is the surface normal to cantilever ξ = Angle of inclination of PSD
  • 10. Cantilever Sensors
    • Detection Mechanisms
    • Detect the deflection of a cantilever caused by surface stresses
    • Measure the shift in the resonance frequency of a vibrating cantilever
    • Drawbacks
    • Inherent elastic instabilities at microscopic level
    • Difficult to fabricate nanoscale cantilevers
    Image: L. Nicu, M. Guirardel, Y. Tauran, and C. Bergaud (a) cantilevers (b) bridges. Optical microscope images of SiNx:
  • 11. Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System
    • 60 μm by 250 μm by 10 μm
    • Turning radius 160 μm
    • Speed over 200 μm/s
    • Average step size 12 nm
    • Ability to navigate complex paths
  • 12. The state transition diagram of USDA Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 13. Configuration Space Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 14. Steering Arm subsystem
    • Dimple dimension .75 μm
    • Disk radius 18 μm
    • Cantilever beam 133 μm long
    • Controls direction by raising and lowering the arm
    • Simultaneous operation with scratch drive
    • Control in the form of oscillating voltages
    Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 15. Control Waveforms
    • Drive waveform actuates the robot
    • Forward waveform lowers the device voltage
    • Turning waveform increases the device voltage
    Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 16. Power delivery mechanism
    • Uses insulated electrodes on the silicon substrate
    • Forms a capacitive circuit with scratch drive
    • Actuator can receive consistent power in any direction and position
    • No need of position restricting wires
    Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 17. Device Fabrication
    • Surface micromachining process:
        • Consists of three layers of polycrystalline silicon, separated by two layers of phosphosilicate glass.
        • The base of the steering arm is curled so that the tip of the arm is approximately 7.5 μm higher than the scratch drive plate
        • Layer of tensile chromium is deposited to create curvature
    Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 18. Electrical Grids
    • Consist of an array of metal electrodes on a silicon substrate.
    • Electrodes are insulated from the substrate by a 3 μm thicklayer of thermal silica
    • Coated with 0.5 of zirconium dioxide
      • High-impedance dielectric coupling
    • Silicon wafers: oxidized for 20 h at 1100C in oxygen
    • Wafers are patterned with the “Metal” pattern
    • Three metal layers are evaporated onto the patterned substrates
      • Middle layer consists of gold-Conductive
      • Two layers of chromium-adhesion layers between the gold, the oxidized substrate, and the zirconium dioxide
    Bruce R. Donald , Member, IEEE , Christopher G. Levey , Member, IEEE , Craig D. McGray , Member, IEEE , Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
  • 19. Some Other Kinds
    • Piezoelectric motors for mm Robots
        • Not required to support an air gap
        • Mechanical forces are generated by applying a voltage directly across the piezoelectric film.
        • Ferroelectric thin films (typically 0.3-μm), intense electric fields can be established with fairly low voltages.
        • High torque to speed ratios.
    • μ Robots Driven by external Magnetic fields Include a permanent magnet
        • Can be remotely driven by external magnetic fields
        • Suitable for a mobile micro robot working in a closed space.
        • Pipe line inspection and treatment inside human body.
    Anita M. Flynn, Lee S. Tavrow, Stephen F. Bart and Rodney A. Brooks MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
  • 20. Applications
    • See and monitor things never seen before
    • Medical applications such as cleaning of blood vessels with micro-robots
    • Military application in spying
    • Surface defect detection
    • Building intelligent surfaces with controllable (programmable) structures
    • Tool for research and education
    Micro robot interacting with blood cells
  • 21. Future Scope
  • 22. Future Scope
    • Realization of ‘Microfactories’
    • Self assembling robots
    • Use in hazardous locations for planning resolution strategies
    • Search in unstructured environments, surveillance
    • Search and rescue operations
    • Space application such as the ‘Mars mission’
    • Self configuring robotics (change shape)
    • Micro-machining
  • 23. Acknowledgements
    • B. L. Feringa, “In control of motion: from molecular switches to molecular motors,” Acc. Chem. Res., vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 504–513, June 2001.
    • H. C. Berg, Random Walks in Biology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1993.
    • K.R. Udayakumar, S.F. Bart, A.M. Flynn, J.Chen, L.S. Tavrow, L.E. Cross, R.A. Brooks and D.J.Ehrlich, “Ferroelectric Thin Film Ultrasonic Micromotors”Fourth IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, Nara, Japan, Jan. 30 - Feb. 2, 1991.
    • JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2006 1An Untethered, Electrostatic, Globally Controllable MEMS Micro-Robot Bruce R. Donald, Member, IEEE, Christopher G. Levey, Member, IEEE, Craig D. McGray, Member, IEEE,Igor Paprotny, and Daniela Rus
    • K.W. Markus, D. A.Koester, A. Cowen, R. Mahadevan,V. R. Dhuler,D.Roberson, and L. Smith, “MEMS infrastructure: The multi-user MEMSprocesses (MUMPS),” in Proc. SPIE—The Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., Micromach.,Microfabr. Process Technol., vol. 2639, 1995, pp. 54–63.
  • 24. THANK YOU