Wavelength of light is much larger than an individual machine .
Electrical control typically requires wire connections .
The force/torque and energy characteristics have not been investigated in detail.
Motor run by Mycoplasma mobile Image credit: Yuichi Hiratsuka, et al.
Bacterium moves in search of protein rich regions.
The bacteria bind to and pull the rotor.
Move at speeds of up to 5 micrometers per second.
Tracks are designed to coax the bacteria into moving in a uniform direction around the circular tracks.
Motion of a Mycoplasma mobile -driven rotor . Image credit: Yuichi Hiratsuka, et al.
Some Other Types:
Chlamyodomonas : Swim toward light (phototaxis)
Dictyostelium amoeba crawl toward a specific chemical substance (chemotaxis).
Each rotor is 20 micrometers in diameter
Cantilever Sensors Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University, St. John’s, Newfoundland,Canada θ=Angle of incidence Φ=Azimuthal angle Nc is the surface normal to cantilever ξ = Angle of inclination of PSD
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K.W. Markus, D. A.Koester, A. Cowen, R. Mahadevan,V. R. Dhuler,D.Roberson, and L. Smith, “MEMS infrastructure: The multi-user MEMSprocesses (MUMPS),” in Proc. SPIE—The Int. Soc. Opt. Eng., Micromach.,Microfabr. Process Technol., vol. 2639, 1995, pp. 54–63.