Impact of climate change on food security


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Impact of climate change on food security

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Food security is defined as availability of food and one’s access to it.  A food system contains the multiple food chains operating at the national, local and global levels.  Climate is a particular change in global or regional climate patterns of earth’s lower surface.  The causes of change in Earth’s climate are due to both natural and human factors.
  3. 3. DIMENTIONS OF FOOD SECURITY  Food availability  Food accessibility  Food utilization  Food system stability
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF THE TOPIC  Pakistan is an agrarian country, climate change largely explored in relation to impacts on agriculture sector.  The interaction between them are complex and vary from each other.  The relative importance to climate change for food security differs between regions.
  5. 5. PROBLEMS/CRISES  Pakistan has faced heavy and disasters floods due to which the production level of food was move towards the backward.  Pakistan has faced water crises which indicate that we have a problem related to climate change.
  6. 6. EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE  Acidic rains are the cause of reduction in rainfalls and harmful for agriculture sector.  Owing to heat stress, livestock losses suffered in previous years, some times in the form of disasters.  Drought impacts on the agriculture sector are lower the yields in both livestock and crop production, increase in the death of livestock, crop losses, land degradation and soil erosion.
  7. 7. PROBLEM STATEMENT  Increase in the production of greenhouse gases, bad schedule of rainfall patterns and drought are the indicators of the backward of the food security.  Sometimes, Pakistan faced disasters floods due to absence of proper plan and economic instability.  Pakistan has faced water crises, cause of the backwardness of the agriculture sector.
  8. 8. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  The impact of climate change on agriculture sector in Pakistan is very alarming, which can leads to multi faceted problem.  Climate change has adverse effect on agriculture sector, major source of livelihoods and food. People have to keep themselves safe.
  9. 9. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  How the climate change affecting the food security of Pakistan, ineffectively?  How the rainfall and temperature have impacts on the food production of Pakistan?
  10. 10. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY  The basic purpose of this research paper is to study the impact of climate change on the food security of Pakistan.  The level at which climate change is affecting on the food security of Pakistan, by keeping in view greenhouse gases, rainfall patterns and increasing temperature,
  11. 11. REVIEW OF THE LITRATURE  Stephen Devereux, 2007  Ali, et al., 2013 Discussed Continues sequence of the change in weather can result in the food shortage while public actions interrupt to reduce these impacts. Estimated the effects of livestock ownership guaranteed rural household food security. They suggested that the livestock ownership needed to be encouraged so that it could be helpful in ensuring the rural household food security.
  12. 12. REVIEW OF THE LITRATURE  Munir Ahmed, 2010  Felix, et al., 2012 Found the possible ways and different dimensions to achieve better food and nutritional security for population of Pakistan. Pointed that the rainfall instability is a reason of food insecurity in less developing countries. Adverse effects are vulnerable to the shocks of food prices.
  13. 13. HYPOTHESIS 1. Ho: There is no relationship between rainfall and food production. H1: There is a relationship between rainfall and food production. 2. Ho: There is no relationship between temperature and food production. H1: There is a relationship between temperature and food production.
  14. 14. METHODOLOGOY  Dependent Variable: Food Security in Pakistan  Independent Variable: Rainfall, Temperature Data Source: The data has been collected from World Bank Indicator in this study. This data has been taken from 1960 -1990.
  15. 15. MODEL SPECIFICATION  The efficient form of the model is multiple regression analysis, given below:  Ŷ= α + β1(X1) + β2(X2)  Ŷ= 9.559+ 0.539(Rainfall) – 0.269(Temperature) β1: one unit increase in rainfall causes 0.539 unit increase in food production, while, temperature held as constant . Β2 : one unit decrease in temperature causes 0.269 unit increase in food production while, rainfall held as constant. R= 0.63 R square = 0.400
  16. 16. CONCLUSION  P value which is 0.002 less than 0.05. So, we reject Ho which shows there’s relationship between rainfall and food production.  P value which is 0.091 greater than 0.05. S0, we accept Ho which shows that there’s no relationship between temperature and food production.  According to ANOVA, the p value of this table is 0.001 that is less than 0.05, so, the model is insignificant. There’s an impact of climate change on food security.
  17. 17. ANALYSIS  Here, it has to be determined the effect of dependent variable such as food security of Pakistan whose proxy variable is food production and its unit in metric tons. So, according to this regression line, rainfall has a positive impact on the Food production and temperature has a negative impact on the Food production of Pakistan.
  18. 18. RECOMMENDATIONS  Water crises needed serious attention of the government of Pakistan for the improvement of food security.  Farmers should be provided by farming training programs, to improving agriculture sector.  Increased investments in the agriculture sector zone to motivate its development.  Government of Pakistan should make the cohesive plans to deal with the natural hazards such as floods, drought etc in appropriate manner.