Indian remote sensing

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  • 1. Satellite and Their SpecificationINDIAN REMOTE SENSINGIndian Remote Sensing satellites (IRS) are a series of Earth Observation satellites, built,launched and maintained by Indian Space Research Organisation. The IRS series providesmany remote sensing services to India.Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system was commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A, in 1988. With twelve satellites in operation, IRS is the largest civilian remote sensingsatellite constellation in the world providing imageries in a variety of spatial resolutions,spectral bands and swaths. The data is used for several applications covering agriculture,water resources, urban development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry,drought and flood forecasting, ocean resources and disaster management.Following are the list of remote sensing satellite launched by ISRO:- 1) IRS-1A Launch Date: March 17, 1988 IRS-1A, the first of the series of indigenous state-of-art remote sensing satellites, was successfully launched into a polar sun- synchronous orbit on March 17, 1988 from the Soviet Cosmodrome at Baikonur. IRS-1A carries two cameras, LISS-I and LISS-II with resolutions of 73 metres and 36.25 metres respectively with a swath width of about 140 km during each pass over the country. IRS-1A Specification Mission Operational Remote Sensing Weight 975 kg Onboard power 600 Watts S-band, X-band and VHF(commanding Communication only) Three axis body stabilized (zero Stabilization momentum)Sumant Diwakar
  • 2. Satellite and Their Specification with 4 Reactions Wheels, Magnetic torquers Monopropellant Hydrazine based with RCS sixteen 1 Newton thrusters Three solid state Push Broom Cameras: LISS-1(72.5 metre resolution), Payload LISS-2A and LISS-2B (36.25 metre resolution) Launch date March 17, 1988 Launch site Baikanur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan Launch vehicle Vostok Orbit 904 km Polar Sun-synchronous Inclination 99.08o Repetivity 22 days (307 orbits) Local time 10.30 a.m. (descending node) Mission completed July 1996 duringSumant Diwakar
  • 3. Satellite and Their Specification 2) IRS-1B Launch Date: 29.08.1991 Improved features compared to its predecessor: gyro referencing for better orientation sensing, time tagged commanding (IRS-1A) for more flexilibility in camera faciity l operation and line count information for better data product generation. Mission completed on December 20, 2003 after serving for 12 years and 4 months. IRS-1B Specification Mission Operational Remote Sensing Weight 975 kg Onboard power 600 Watts Communication S-band, X-band and VHF (commanding only) Three axis body stabilized (zero momentum) Stabilization with 4 Reactions Wheels, Magnetic torquers Monopropellant Hydrazine based with RCS sixteen 1 Newton thrusters Three solid state Push Broom Cameras LlSS-1 Payload (72.5 metre resolution), LlSS-2A and LlSS-2B (36.25 metre resolution) Launch date August 29, 1991 Launch site Baikanur Cosmodrome KazakhstanSumant Diwakar
  • 4. Satellite and Their Specification Launch vehicle Vostok Orbit 904 km Polar Sun Synchronous Inclination 99.08o Repetivity 22 days Local time 10.30 a.m. (descending node) Mission Completed On December 20, 2003 3) IRS-1C Launch Date: 28.12.1995 IRS-1C is Indias second generation operational Remote Sensing Satellite. The satellite carries Payloads with enhanced capabilities like better Spatial resolution additional spectral band, improved repeitivity and augment the Remote Sensing capability of the existing IRS-1A and IRS-1B. Mission completed on September 21, 2007 after serving for 11 years and 8 months. IRS-1C Specification Mission Operational Remote Sensing Weight 1250 kg 809 Watts (generated by 9.6 sq.metres onboard power Solar Panels) Communication S-band, X-band Stabilization Three axis body stabilized (zero momentum)Sumant Diwakar
  • 5. Satellite and Their Specification with 4 Reaction Wheels, Magnetic torquer Monopropellant Hydrazine based with RCS sixteen 1 N thrusters & one 11N thrusters Three solid state Push Broom Cameras: Payload PAN (<6 metre solution )LlSS-3(23.6 metre resolution) and WiFS (189 metre resolution) Onboard tape recorder Storage Capacity : 62 G bits Launch date December 28, 1995 Launch site Baikanur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan Launch vehicle Molniya Orbit 817 km Polar Sun-synchronous Inclination 98.69o Repetivity 24 days Local time 10.30 a.m Mission completed on September 21, 2007 4) IRS-P3 Launch Date: 21.03.1996 IRS-P3 was launched by PSLV-D3 on March 21, 1996 from SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India. IRS-P3 carries two remote sensing payloads - Wide Field Sensor (WiFS) similar to that of IRS-1C, with an additional Short Wave Infrared Band (SWIR) and a Modular Opto-electronic Scanner (MOS). It also carries anSumant Diwakar
  • 6. Satellite and Their Specification X-ray astronomy payload and a C-band transponder for radar calibration. Mission completed during January 2006 after serving 9 years and 10 months. IRS-P3 Specification Remote sensing of earths natural resources. Study of X-ray Mission Astronomy. Periodic calibration of PSLV tracking radar located at tracking stations. Weight 920 kg onboard power 817 Watts Communication S-band Stabilization Three axis body stabilized Combinations of bladder type and surface tension type RCS mass expulsion monopropellant hydrazine system WideField Sensor (WiFS), Modular Opto - electronic Scanner (MOS), Payload Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment (IXAE), C-band transponder(CBT) Launch date March 21, 1996 Launch site SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India Launch vehicle PSLV-D3 817 km. Circular polar sun-synchronous with Orbit equatorial crossing at 10.30 am (descending node) Inclination 98.68o Repetivity WiFS : 5 days Mission January 2006 completed duringSumant Diwakar
  • 7. Satellite and Their Specification 5) IRS-1D Launch Date: 27.09.1997 IRS – 1D was launched on September 27, 1997 by PSLV – C1. IRS – 1D, a follow on satellite to IRS – 1C belongs to the second generation of IRS series of Satellites. It has 3 payloads viz., PAN, LISS 3 & WiFS. It has similar capabilities as IRC – 1C in terms of spatial resolution, spectral bands, stereoscopic imaging, wide field coverage and revisit capability. The improvements carried out in the IRS – 1D satellite taking into account the IRS – 1C experiences have resulted in better quality imageries. Mission completed during January 2010 after serving for 12 years and 3 months. IRS-1D Specification Mission Operational Remote Sensing Weight 1250kg 809 Watts (generated by 9.6 sq.metres onboard power Solar Panels) Communication S-band, X-band Three axis body stabilized (zero momentum) Stabilization with 4 Reaction Wheels, Magnetic torquer Monopropellant Hydrazine based with sixteen RCS 1 Newton thrusters & one 11 N thrusters Three solid state Push Broom Cameras: PAN (6 metre solution ) Payload LlSS-3 (23.6 metre resolution) and WiFS (189 metre resolution)Sumant Diwakar
  • 8. Satellite and Their Specification Onboard tape recorder Storage Capacity : 62 G bits Launch date 27 September 1997 Launch site SHAR Centre Sriharikota India Launch vehicle PSLV-C1 Orbit (nomial) 817 km Polar Sun-synchronous Achieved orbit 740 x 817 km Inclination 98.6 o Local time 10.30 a.m. (descending node) Mission completed on January 2010 6) IRS-P4/ OCEANSAT Launch Date: 26.05.1999 IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT) is the first satellite primarily built for Ocean applications, weighing 1050 kg placed in a Polar Sun Synchronous orbit of 720 km, launched by PSLV-C2 from SHAR Centre, Sriharikota on May 26, 1999. This satellite carries Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a Multi - frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer (MSMR) for oceanographic studies. IRS-P4 thus vastly augment the IRS satellite system of ISRO comprising four satellites, IRS-1B, IRS-1C, IRS-P3 and IRS-1D and extend remote sensing applications to several newer areas. Mission completed on August 8, 2010 after serving for 11 years and 2 months.Sumant Diwakar
  • 9. Satellite and Their Specification IRS-1D Specification Launch date May 26, 1999 Launch site SHAR, Sriharikota Launch vehicle PSLV - C2 Orbit Polar Sun Synchronous Altitude 720 km Inclination 98.28 deg Period 99.31 min Local time of Eq. crossing 12 noon Repetitivity cycle 2 days Size 2.8m x 1.98m x 2.57m Mass at lift off 1050 kg Length when fully deployed 11.67 m 3-axis body-stabilised using Reaction Wheels, Attitude and Orbit Control Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine Thrusters 9.6 Sq.m Solar Array generating 750w Two 21 Ah Power Ni-Cd Battries Mission Completed On August 8, 2010Sumant Diwakar
  • 10. Satellite and Their Specification 7) IRS-P6/Resourcesat-1 Launch Date: 17.10.2003 RESOURCESAT-1 is the tenth satellite of ISRO in IRS series, intended to not only continue the remote sensing data services provided by IRS-1C and IRS-1D, both of which have far outlived their designed mission lives, but also to vastly enhance the data quality. RESOURCESAT-1 is the most advanced Remote Sensing Satellite built by ISRO as of 2003. IRS-P6 Specification Launch date October 17, 2003 Launch site SHAR, Sriharikota Launch vehicle PSLV-C5 Payloads LISS-4, LISS-3, AWiFS-A, AWiFS-B Orbit Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit height 817 km Orbit inclination 98.7o Orbit period 101.35 min Number of Orbits Per day 14 Local time of equator crossing 10:30 am Repetivity (LISS-3) 24 days Revisit 5 days Lift-Off mass 1360 kg 3-axis body stabilised using Reaction Wheels, Attitude and orbit control Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine ThrustersSumant Diwakar
  • 11. Satellite and Their Specification Solar Array generating 1250 W, Two 24 Ah Power Ni-Cd batteries Mission Life 5 years 8) CARTOSAT-1 Launch Date: 05.05.2005 CARTOSAT – 1 is the first Indian Remote Sensing Satellite capable of providing in-orbit stereo images. The images are used for Cartographic applications meeting the global requirements. Cameras of this satellite have a resolution of 2.5m (can distinguish a small car). The Cartosat – 1 provides stereo pairs required for generating Digital Elevation Models, Ortho Image products, and Value added products for various applications of Geographical Information System (GIS). CARTOSAT-1 Specification Launch date 5 May 2005 Launch site SHAR Centre Sriharikota India Launch vehicle PSLV- C6 Orbit 618 km Polar Sun Synchronous Payloads PAN FORE, PAN - AFT Orbit Period 97 min Number of Orbits Per day 14 Local time of equator crossing 10:30 amSumant Diwakar
  • 12. Satellite and Their Specification Repetivity 126 days Revisit 5 days Lift-Off mass 1560 kg 3-axis body stabillised using reaction wheels, Attitude and orbit control Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine Thrusters 15 sqm Solar Array generating 1100w, Electrical power Two 24 Ah Ni-Cd batteries Mission life 5 years 9) CARTOSAT-2 Launch Date: 10.01.2007 The 680 kg CARTOSAT-2, launched by PSLV-C7 on January 10,2007 is the twelfth in the Indian Remote Sensing. CARTOSAT-2 Specification Mission Remote Sensing Weight 650 Kg Onboard Orbit 900 Watts 3 - axis body stabilised using high torque Stabilization reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and thrustersSumant Diwakar
  • 13. Satellite and Their Specification Payloads Panchromatic Camera Launch date 10 January 2007 Launch site SHAR Centre Sriharikota India Launch vehicle PSLV- C7 Orbit Polar Sun Synchronous Mission life 5 years 10) CARTOSAT-2A Launch Date: 28.04.2008 CARTOSAT – 2A is the thirteenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite series (IRS). It is a sophisticated and rugged remote sensing satellite that can provide scene specific spot imagery. This satellite carries a Panchromatic Camera (PAN). The spatial resolution of this camera is better than 1m and swath of 9.6 km. Imageries from this satellite are used for cartographic applications like mapping, urban and rural infrastructure development and management, as well as application in Land Information (LIS) and Geographical Information System (GIS). CARTOSAT-2A Specification Mission Remote Sensing Weight 690 Kg (Mass at lift off) Onboard Power 900 WattsSumant Diwakar
  • 14. Satellite and Their Specification 3 – axis body stabilised using high torque Stabilization reaction wheels, magnetic torquers and hydrogen thrusters Payloads Panchromatic Camera Launch date 28 April 2008 Launch site SHAR Centre Sriharikota India Launch vehicle PSLV- C9 Orbit 635 kms, Polar Sun Synchronous Inclination 97.94 deg Mission life 5 years 11) RISAT-2 Launch Date: 20.04.2009 RISAT-2 is a Radar Imaging Satellite with all weather capability to take images of the earth. This Satellite will enhance ISROs capability for Disaster Management applications. RISAT-2 Specification Altitude 550 km Inclination 41 deg Orbit Period 90 minutes Mass 300 kgSumant Diwakar
  • 15. Satellite and Their Specification 12) OCEANSAT-2 Launch Date: 23.09.2009 Oceansat-2 satellite mainframe systems derive their heritage from previous IRS missions and launched by PSLV-C14 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota on Sept. 23, 2009. It carries three payloads: • Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) • Ku-band Pencil Beam scatterometer (SCAT) developed by ISRO • Radio Occultation Sounder for Atmosphere (ROSA) developed by the Italian Space Agency. Oceansat-2 is envisaged to provide continuity of operational services of Oceansat-1(IRS-P4) with enhanced application potential. OCEANSAT-2 Specification Launch date Sept 23, 2009 Launch site SHAR, Sriharikota Launch vehicle PSLV - C14 Orbit Polar Sun Synchronous Altitude 720 km Inclination 98.28° Period 99.31 minutes Local time of Eq. crossing 12 noon ± 10 minutes Repetitivity cycle 2 days Payloads OCM, SCAT and ROSASumant Diwakar
  • 16. Satellite and Their Specification Mass at lift off 960 kg 15 Sq.m Solar panels generating 1360W, Two 24 Power Ah Ni-Cd Battries Mission Life 5 years 13) CARTOSAT-2B Launch Date: 12.07.2010 CARTOSAT - 2B is the seventeenth satellite in the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite series (IRS). CARTOSAT-2B carries a Panchromatic camera (PAN) similar to those of its predecessors - CARTOSAT-2 and 2A. It is capable of imaging a swath (geographical strip) of 9.6 km with a resolution of better than 1 metre. The scene specific spot imagery sent by CARTOSAT-2Bs PAN will be useful for cartographic and a host of other applications. The highly agile CARTOSAT-2B is steerable up to ± 26o along as well as across track to obtain stereoscopic imagery and achieve a four to five day revisit capability. CARTOSATSAT-2B Specification Mission Remote Sensing Weight 694 kg (Mass at lift off) Onboard Orbit 930 Watts 3 – axis body stabilised based on inputs from star Stabilization sensors and gyros using Reaction wheels, Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine Thrusters Payloads Panchromatic Camera Launch date July 12, 2010Sumant Diwakar
  • 17. Satellite and Their Specification Launch site SHAR Centre Sriharikota India Launch vehicle PSLV- C15 Orbit 630 kms, Polar Sun Synchronous Inclination 97.71º 14) RESOURCESAT-2 Launch Date: 20.04.2011 RESOURCESAT-2 is a follow on mission to RESOURCESAT-1 and the eighteenth Remote Sensing satellite built by ISRO. RESOURCESAT-2 is intended to continue the remote sensing data services to global users provided by RESOURCESAT-1, and to provide data with enhanced multispectral and spatial coverage as well. Important changes in RESOURCESAT-2 compared to RESOURCESAT-1 are: Enhancement of LISS-4 multispectral swath from 23 km to 70 km and improved Radiometric accuracy from 7 bits to 10 bits for LISS-3 and LISS-4 and 10 bits to 12 bits for AWIFS. Besides, suitable changes, including miniaturisation in payload electronics, have been made in RESOURCESAT-2. RESOURCESAT-2 also carries an additional payload known as AIS (Automatic Identification System) from COMDEV, Canada as an experimental payload for ship surveillance in VHF band to derive position, speed and other information about ships. RESOURCESAT-2 carries two Solid State Recorders with a capacity of 200 Giga Bytes each to store the images taken by its cameras which can be read out later to ground stations.Sumant Diwakar
  • 18. Satellite and Their Specification RESOURCESAT-2 Specification Mission Remote Sensing Orbit Circular Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit altitude at injection 822 km + 20 km (3 Sigma) Orbit Inclination 98.731º + 0.2º Lift-off Mass 1206 kg Orbit Period 101.35 min Number of Orbits per day 14 Local Time of Equator 10:30 am crossing Repetivity 24 days 3-axis body stabilised using Reaction Wheels, Attitude and Orbit Control Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine Thrusters Solar Array generating 1250 W at End Of Life, Power two 24 AH Ni-Cd batteries Launch date April 20, 2011 Launch site SHAR Centre Sriharikota India Launch vehicle PSLV- C16 Mission life 5 yearsSumant Diwakar
  • 19. Satellite and Their Specification 15) MEGHA- TROPIQUES Launch Date: 12.10.2011 Megha-Tropiques is an Indo-French Joint Satellite Mission for studying the water cycle and energy exchanges in the tropics. The main objective of this mission is to understand the life cycle of convective systems that influence the tropical weather and climate and their role in associated energy and moisture budget of the atmosphere in tropical regions. Megha-Tropiques will provide scientific data on the contribution of the water cycle to the tropical atmosphere, with information on condensed water in clouds, water vapour in the atmosphere, precipitation, and evaporation. With its circular orbit inclined 20 deg to the equator, the Megha- Tropiques is a unique satellite for climate research that should also aid scientists seeking to refine prediction models. Megha-Tropiques carries the following four payloads: • Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures (MADRAS), an Imaging Radiometer developed jointly by CNES and ISRO • Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR), from CNES • Scanner for Radiation Budget (ScaRaB), from CNES • Radio Occultation Sensor for Vertical Profiling of Temperature and Humidity (ROSA), procured from Italy Megha-Tropiques Specification Lift-off Mass 1000 kg Orbit 867 km with an inclination of 20 deg to the equatorSumant Diwakar
  • 20. Satellite and Their Specification Thermal Passive system with IRS heritage 1325 W (at End of Life) Power Two 24 AH NiCd batteries TTC S-band Attitude and Orbit 3-axis stabilised with 4 Reaction Wheels, Gyros and Star Control sensors, Hydrazine based RCS Solid State Recorder 16 Gb Launch date October 12, 2011 Launch site SDSC SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India Launch vehicle PSLV- C18 16) RISAT-1 Launch Date: 26.04.2012 Radar Satellite-1 (RISAT-1) is a state of the art Microwave Remote Sensing Satellite carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Payload operating in C-band (5.35 GHz), which enables imaging of the surface features during both day and night under all weather conditions. Application Active Microwave Remote Sensing provides cloud penetration and day-night imaging capability. These unique characteristics of C-band (5.35GHz) Synthetic Aperture Radar enable applications in agriculture, particularly paddy monitoring in kharif season and management of natural disasters like flood and cyclone.Sumant Diwakar
  • 21. Satellite and Their Specification RISAT-1 Specification Lift-off Mass 1858 kg Orbit Circular Polar Sun Synchronous Orbit Altitude 536 km Orbit Inclination 97.552o Orbit Period 95.49 min Number of Orbits per 14 day Local Time of 6:00 am / 6:00 pm Equator Crossing Solar Array generating 2200 W and one 70 Power AH Ni-H2 battery Repetivity 25 days Attitude and Orbit 3-axis body stabilised using Reaction Wheels, Control Magnetic Torquers and Hydrazine Thrusters Nominal Mission Life 5 years Launch date April 26, 2012 Launch site SDSC SHAR Centre, Sriharikota, India Launch vehicle PSLV- C19Sumant Diwakar