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  1. 1. Generally,   in   large   organization   various   project   management   activities   are   carried   out  approximately   at   the   same   time.   There   are   thousands   of   products.   There   are   also  geographical,   language,   custom   and   many   more   issues   to   take   into   account.   In   such   an  environment   each   project   will   make   different   demands   on   management:   for   example,                          “  some  might  be  more  technically  challenging,  might  affect  particularly  critical  areas  of  the  business  or  might  involve  larger  numbers  of  different  types  of  users  ”[1].  So  it  is  evident  that  if   the   procedures   by   which   each   project   is   run   are   standardized   rather   than   having   to   be  continually  reinvented  it  would  be  much  more  helpful  for  the  organizations.  In  this  regard  PRINCE   (PRojects   IN   Controlled   Environments)   was   first   developed   by   CCTA,   now   part   of  OGC,  in  1989  as  a  UK  Government  standard  for  IT  project  management.  Although,  initially  developed  only  for  the  need  of  IT  projects,  the  latest  version,  PRINCE2,  which  was  released  in  1996,  is  a  generic  project  management  method.    An   overview:   “PRINCE2  is  a  structured  approach  to  project  management.  It  provides  a  Method   for   managing   projects   within   a   clearly   defined   framework.   Prince2   describes  procedures  to  coordinate  people  and  activities  in  a  project,  how  to  design  and  supervise  the  project,   and   what   to   do   if   the   project   has   to   be   adjusted   if   it   doesn’t   develop   as   planned.   In  the   method   each   process   is   specified   with   its   key   inputs   and   outputs   and   with   specific   goals  and  activities  to  be  carried  out,  which  gives  an  automatic  control  of  any  deviations  from  the  plan”[2].  A  PRINCE2  project  is  divided  into  a  number  of  Management  Stages,  each  forming  a  distinct   unit   for   management   purposes.   Like   the   project,   a   Stage   is   driven   by   a   series   of  Processes,  has  a  defined  set  of  products  and  activities,  a  finite  life-­‐span,  control  elements,  and   an   organisational   structure.   It   identifies   roles   rather   than   jobs.   Depending   on   the  circumstances,   a   role   could,   in   fact,   be   carried   out   by   more   than   one   person,   or   a   single  person  could  assume  more  than  one  role.    The   PRINCE2   methodology   applies   three   key   elements   to   each   project   and   to   the  Management  Stages  within  a  project.  The  three  elements  can  be  the  Processes  which  drive  the   project   management,   Components   and   Techniques,   which   are   used   by   each   of   the  Processes  to  effect  the  management  of  the  project.        “PRINCE2   defines   45   separate   sub-­‐processes   and   organizes   these   into   eight   processes  as  follows:  ”  [2]    Starting   Up   A   Project   (SU)   -­‐   Establishes  the  Objectives  and  Approach  to  the  Project;  Sets  up  the  Project  Management  Team;  Plans  for  the  Initiation  Process.  This  is  a  pre-­‐project  Process,  which  looks  to  answer  the  question  “do  we  have  a  worthwhile  and  viable  project?”  before  asking  for  commitment  of  resources  to  set  up  a  project  environment.    Initiating   A   Project   (IP)   -­‐   Plans   the   whole   Project   in   terms   of   its   Products,   Activities,  Resource  Usage  and  Quality;  Sets  the  baseline  for  the  Business  Benefits  &  Risks.  Directing  A  Project  (DP)  -­‐  Provides  authorisation  for  work  to  be  carried  out  and  Resources  to  be  committed.  Authorisation  for  Project  Initiation  and  Project  Closure  and,  in  some  cases,  
  2. 2. its   premature   termination.   The   Process   is   “owned”   by   the   Project   Board   –   the   overall  authority   for   the   Project   –   the   Executive   member   is   accountable   for   the   overall   business  success  of  the  project.    Controlling   A   Stage   (CS)   -­‐   The  basic  day-­‐to-­‐day  project  management  Process  -­‐  authorising  work  to  create  or  change  Products,  collecting  and  reflecting  actual,  assessing  progress  and  reporting   to   senior   management.   Capturing   proposed   changes   and   errors   and   escalating  these,  where  appropriate  to  the  Project  Board.    Managing   Product   Delivery   (MP)   -­‐   The  main  “workshop”  for  the  project  where  the  majority  of  resources  are  consumed.  This  Process  is  where  the  Products  of  the  Project  are  created.  Progress   reports   (Checkpoint   Reports)   are   provided   to   the   Project   Manager.   Quality   Review  and  Delivery  of  Products  occurs  here.    Managing   Stage   Boundaries   (SB)   -­‐   Reporting   on   the   achievements   of   the   Current  Management  Stage  and  the  impact  on  the  overall  Project  Plan  and  Business  Case.  Planning  the   Next   Stage   (Products,   Activities,   Resource   Usage).   Putting   together   Exception   Plans  when  the  Management  Stage  has  suffered  a  significant  departure  from  its  approved  plan.    Planning  (PL)  –  “  PRINCE2  advocates  product  based  planning  which  means  that  the  first  task  when   planning   is   to   identify   and   analyze   products.   Once   the   activities   required   to   create  these   products   are   identified   then   it   is   possible   to   estimate   the   effort   required   for   each   and  then      schedule  activities  into  a  plan.  There  is  always  risk  associated  with  any  work  and  this  must  be  analyzed.  Finally,  this  process  suggests  how  the  format  of  plans  can  be  agreed  and  ensures  that  plans  are  completed  to  such  a  format.  ”    PL1  Design  a  Plan  PL2  Define  and  analyze  products  PL3  Identify  activities  and  their  dependencies  PL4  Estimate  effort  and  each  activity  PL5  Schedule  PL6  Analyze  risk  PL7  Complete  plan      Figure  1.1:  Diagram  showing  PRINCE2  processes.  The  arrows  represent  flows  of  information.[2]  
  3. 3. Closing   A   Project   (CP)   -­‐   Preparation  for  closing  the  Project  in  an  orderly  way.  Customer  sign-­‐off,   preparation   of   an   End-­‐   Project   Report   and   identification   of   Lessons   Learned   and   Follow-­‐on  Recommendations.  Planning  for  a  Post-­‐Project  Review.      In  PRINCE2  methodology  these  following  Components  are  used  which  are  as  follows:    Organisation   -­‐   Organisation   Structure   +   Role   Descriptions.   Predominantly   used   in   the  “Starting  Up  A  Project”  Process  where  the  Executive  and  Project  Manager  are  appointed  in  the  first  Process,  and  the  Project  Management  Team  is  designed  and  appointed.  The  Project  Management   Team   is   reviewed   at   the   end   of   each   Management   Stage   within   “Managing  Stage  Boundaries”.    Plans   -­‐   All   Processes   use   the   Plans   Component.   The   Initiation   of   the   project   is   planned  during   “Starting   Up   A   Project”;   the   project   itself   is   planned   in   “Initiating   A   Project”;   Stage  plans  are  prepared  in  “Managing  Stage  Boundaries”;  and  Product  planning  is  carried  out  in  “Controlling   A   Stage”   and   “Managing   Product   Delivery”.   Follow-­‐on   actions,   including  preparation  of  a  Post-­‐Project  Review  Plan  are  put  together  in  “Closing  A  Project”.  “Directing  A  Project”  uses  the  approved  plans  throughout  to  confirm  the  required  progress.    Controls   -­‐   All   the   Processes   use   the   Controls   Component.   The   “control”   Processes   which  make  particular  use  of  this  Component  are  “Initiating  A  Project”(which  sets  up  the  overall  project  control  structure);  “Controlling  A  Stage”  (which  uses  Checkpoint  Reports  to  capture  progress,   and   records   actual   usage   of   resources.   Highlight   Reports   are   used   to   inform   the  Project  Board  of  progress);  “Managing  Product  Delivery”  generates  Checkpoint  Reports  for  control   purposes.   Stage   approval   is   handled   by   “Managing   Stage   Boundaries”   where  Management   Stages   are   approved   via   End   Stage   Assessments.   This   Process   also   uses  Exception  Reporting  and  Planning  to  control  significant  departures  from  plan.  “Directing  A  Project”  is  the  Process  within  which  overall  authorisations  are  made;  this  Process  uses  the  key   controls   of   End   Stage   Assessment,   Exceptions   Assessments,   Tolerance,   Project   Initiation  and  Project  Closure.    Business  Case  -­‐  The  Business  Case  is  viewed  as  the  “driving  force”  of  any  PRINCE2  project.  The  Business  Benefits  are  measured  by  the  Business  Case  which  is  outlined  in  “Starting  Up  A  Project”  and  formally  recorded  in  “Initiating  A  Project”  where  it  forms  an  important  part  of  the   Project   Initiation   Document   (PID).   The   Business   Case   is   up-­‐dated   at   least   during  “Managing   Stage   Boundaries”   when   the   End-­‐Stage   Report   is   created   –   more   often   if  appropriate.  When  Project  Issues  are  being  analysed  the  impact  on  the  Business  case  will  be  reviewed.   During   “Closing   A   Project”   the   Business   Case   will   be   used   in   preparing   the   Post  Project   Review   Plan.   The   Business   Case   has   close   ties   with   the   Management   of   Risk  Component  and  the  two  elements  are  usually  treated  in  unison.    Management   of   Risk   -­‐   Risk  analysis  is  carried  out  initially  in  “Starting  Up  A  Project”  when  the   Project   Brief   is   created   and   a   Risk   Log   established.   The   initially   identified   risks   are  refined  in  “Initiating  A  Project”  where  the  Business  Case  for  the  project  is  established.  The  risk   analysis   is   updated   during   “Managing   Stage   Boundaries”   to   provide   the   basis   for  decision   support   for   the   Project   Board   when   they   review   the   project   at   the   End   Stage  Assessment   in   “Directing   A   Project”.   “No   specific   risk   analysis   tools   or   techniques   are  
  4. 4. recommended.   Management   of   risk   has   close   ties   with   the   Business   Benefits   which   are  measured  and  presented  as  the  Business  case  for  the  project.”[3]    Quality  In  A  Project  Environment  -­‐  The  Customer’s  Quality  Expectations  are  first  identified  in  “Starting  Up  A  Project”  and  quality  aspects  are  planned  in  “Initiating  A  Project”.  When  the  project  is  approved,  “Controlling  A  Stage”  and  “Managing  Product  Delivery”  enable  specific  Quality   Criteria   to   be   set   for   each   Product   (or   Deliverable)   via   Product   Descriptions  described  in  the  “Planning”  Process.    Configuration   Management   -­‐   Configuration   Management   is   not   optional   in   PRINCE2.   This  Component   addresses   the   proper   safeguarding   and   management   of   Products   or  Deliverables  and  their  associated  documentation.  “Initiating  A  Project”  sets  up  the  Project  Files  and  “Controlling  A  Stage”  and  “Managing  Product  Delivery”  executes  the  Configuration  Management  arrangements.  Project  Files  are  archived  in  “Closing  A  Project”  mainly  for  audit  purposes.    Change   Control   -­‐   Managing   proposals   for   change   is   an   important   aspect   of   project  management  and  the  Process  “Controlling  A  Stage”  is  where  such  proposals  are  captured,  evaluated  and  actions  decided  upon.      PRINCE2  project  organization    “   PRINCE2   identifies   roles   rather   than   jobs   ”[1].   Every   PRINCE2   project   will   have   a   Project  Board  appointed.  The  Project  Board  is  the  overall  authority  for  the  project  and  is  normally  appointed   by   Corporate   or   Programme   Management   to   take   overall   responsibility   and  control  of  a  PRINCE2  project.  The   Project  Board  consists  of  three  senior  management  roles,  each  representing  major  project  interests.     1. Executive   2. User   3. Supplier    “The   senior   staff   carrying   out   the   respective   roles   will   be   responsible   officers   within   their  respective  organizations  and  the  oversight  of  the  project  will  probably  by  only  one  of  many  responsibilities.   Hence,   the   task   of   managing   the   project   on   a   day-­‐   to   –   day   basis   will   be  delegated   by   the   Project   Board   to   a   Project   Manager.   On   a   large   project   it   could   be  necessary   for   the   Project   Manager   to   delegate   the   managing   of   certain   aspects   of   the  project  to  specialist  Team  Managers.  ”  [1]    Similarity   of   PRINCE   2   with   Waterfall   Model   :     The   traditional   waterfall  model  gives  a  high-­‐  level  view  of  the  software  life  cycle.  At  its  most  basic  it  is  effectively  the  tried  and  tested  problem  solving  paradigm:   • Decide  what  to  do   • Decide  how  to  do  it   • Do  it   • Test  it   • Use  it  
  5. 5. The   phases   in   the   waterfall   model   are   represented   a   as   a   cascade.   The   outputs   from   one  phase  become  the  inputs  to  the  next.     Figure  2.1  shows  the  unmodified  waterfall  Model[4]    “The  waterfall  model  is  a  sequential  software  development  model  (a  process  for  the  creation  of  software)   in   which   development   is   seen   as   flowing   steadily   downwards   (like   a   waterfall)  through   the   phases   of   requirements   analysis,   design,   implementation,   testing   (validation),  integration,  and  maintenance.  ”[4]         Communication     Project  initiation   Requirement  gathering   Planning   estimating     scheduling   Modelling   tracking   Construction       analysis   design   code   Deployment     test   delivery       support       feedback  Figure  2.2  [7]      Now,  if  we  watch  closely  from  this  above  figure  2.2  it  is  evident  that  when  used  for  software  projects   how   PRINCE2   maintain   close   similarity   with   Waterfall   Model.   We   can   see   the  similarities   between   stages   “Communication”   with   PRINCE2’s   Starting   up   a   Project(SU),    “Planning”   with   PRINCE2’s   Planning(PL),Controlling   a   Stage(CS),     “Modelling   and  Construction”   with   PRINCE2’s   Initiating   a   Project(IP),   Directing(DP),   Managing   Product  Delivery(MP),  Managing  Stage  Boundaries(SB)  and  “Deployment”  with  PRINCE2’s  Closing  a  Project(CP).  Considering  all  these  facts  and  figures  I  can  define  PRINCE2  is  another  version  of  the  waterfall  model  for  project  managers  when  used  for  software  projects.    References:  1.  Software  Project  Management  -­‐  Bob  Hughes  &  Mike  Cotterell  2.  3.  Google  Books:  Managing  Successful  Projects  with  PRINCE2  4.  5.  Google  Books:  PRINCE2:  A  No  Nonsense  Management  Guide  6.  Software  Engineering  -­‐  Ian  Sommerville  (Fourth  Edition)  7.  Software  Engineering  -­‐  A  Practitioners  Approach  -­‐  Roger  S.  Pressman  (Sixth  Edition)