Discover the Muslim
    Heritage in our World...
    1001 Inventions Teachers’ Pack




    Science Activities for        ...
Acknowledgements
chief editor                                     teacher writers
Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani, Universi...
Contents
  Title                       Curriculum Area                         Page
  Introduction                •       ...
© University Library, Istanbul; Muslim Heritage Consulting, Dubai.
Introduction
T
         he main aim of this pack is to help science
         teachers teach the science content of the Nat...
Activity 1
                      Seeing in The Dark
                      T
                              he camera is not...
Activity 1
Running the activity
Starting the activity
A really exciting way to start this lesson would be to set the whole...
Activity 1
             How to make your classroom into a camera obscura
             This will work best if:
            ...
Activity 1




9
Seeing   in the dark              What a shot!
                                  Cameras must be one          www.1001inve...
Ibn al-Haitham invented the pinhole camera in Egypt, 1000 years ago.
                                    1
               ...
3


     Make your own pinhole camera
                                                                                    ...
Pinhole vs digital – comparing cameras
                                                                                   ...
Activity 2
                   Coffee
                   W
                               hen was the world’s favourite dri...
Activity 2
Running the activity
Starting the activity                                                             Distance...
Café Costabucks
                                                                                                       www...
What they don't tell you in Café Costabucks
        Coffee was                                Should I
      invented more...
Does caffeine increase alertness? If so, by how much?
                                                                    ...
Does caffeine increase alertness? If so, by how much?
                                                                    ...
Activity 3
                       Perfume
                       P
                                eople have enjoyed perf...
s scents – research
Try making a fragrance yourself. You need to extract the oil with the smell, from its
                ...
Activity 3a
              Running the activity continued...

               Column 2:
               •	 Make a hole throug...
www.1001inventions.com



                           Great scent!

                                    Mmmm – gorgeous
   ...
� People have enjoyed perfume
        for centuries.                                                                      ...
Imagine that
     It's the year 850 in      you have only                                    � an
                        ...
Sensational scent: creation
     1                                2                                 3                     ...
Sensational scent: testing
     Have you produced a popular perfume? Will it sell? Place a few drops on filter paper or a ...
Activity 4
                  Raising Water
                  N
                            ext time you’re sucking up your...
Activity 4
Running the activity continued...

 •	 With the help of the students, show how gentle sucking on one side of
  ...
1001 inventions
              Let's travel back in time 800 years                                              www.1001inv...
Handle
     You have come up with a design                  Plunger
                                                      ...
Raising water
                                                                                                            ...
33
Activity 5
                   Puzzling Plants
                   M
                               any hundreds of years be...
Activity 5
Running the activity
Starting the activity
Display Activity 5a (either projected or as an OHT). Point out the
d...
Activity 5
             Running the activity continued...

              Possible extension
              Ask students to ...
37
Puzzling plants
     13th Century, Islamic World                                                   500 – 1500,            ...
Coconut Palm           Peppermint             Jojoba                   Banana                 Ginger
                     ...
1 In the 21st century, would you still choose herbal medicine?
              Herbal medicine                     My commen...
2 In the 21st century, would you still choose herbal medicine?
              Herbal medicine                   My comments...
3   In the 21st century, would you still choose herbal medicine?
              Herbal medicine                      My com...
The EU is debating new laws to control herbal medicines
       Plan to play a part in the debate.   and food supplements.
...
Activity 6
                      Pharmacy
                      E
                              ight hundred years ago, th...
Activity 6
Running the activity
Starting the activity
Display Activity 6a (either projected or as an OHT). Ask small group...
Activity 6
             Running the activity continued...

              A very effective way of doing this investigation ...
47
Which would you buy?
                                                                                                     ...
There's a rumour that one of the market
     pharmacists has mixed a cheap and useless                                    ...
Testing stomach powders
                                                                                                  ...
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
1001iTeachersPacksHiRes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

1001iTeachersPacksHiRes

5,653 views
5,572 views

Published on

1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • 1001iTeachersPacksHiResView more documents from Sulcalibur.<br /><object type="application/x-shockwave-flash" data="http://static.slidesharecdn.com/swf/doc_player.swf?doc=1001iteacherspackshires4376&stripped_title=1001iteacherspackshires&userName=Sulcalibur" width="350" height="288"><param name="movie" value="http://static.slidesharecdn.com/swf/doc_player.swf?doc=1001iteacherspackshires4376&stripped_title=1001iteacherspackshires&userName=Sulcalibur"></param><embed src="http://static.slidesharecdn.com/swf/doc_player.swf?doc=1001iteacherspackshires4376&stripped_title=1001iteacherspackshires&userName=Sulcalibur" width="350" height="288" type="application/x-shockwave-flash"></embed></object>
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,653
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
47
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1001iTeachersPacksHiRes

  1. 1. Discover the Muslim Heritage in our World... 1001 Inventions Teachers’ Pack Science Activities for This pack contains: 11-16 year olds 9 full colour activities Teachers’ notes for each activity For the Science National Curriculum Production Supporters Associate El-Rahma Trust
  2. 2. Acknowledgements chief editor teacher writers Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani, University Nigel Heslop of Manchester, Chairman of Foundation for Anne Cassell Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) Christopher Clark editors Jane Vellacott Tony Sherborne, Centre for Science Julie Smith Education, Sheffield Hallam University teachers and trial schools Philippa Hulme, Educational Consultant Bilkish Mohamed of Al-Hijrah School, production manager Birmingham Samia Khan, Muslim Heritage Consulting Shukla Kulkarni of Moseley School, Birmingham Lavkesh Lal of Moseley School, Birmingham communications co-ordinator Deane Narayn-Lee of The Grange School, Yasmin Khan, Foundation for Science, Bradford Technology and Civilisation Mark Simpkins of Levenshulme High School design and layout for Girls, Manchester Linda Knight (Activities) Dennis Ashpole of Burnage Media Arts College, Mukhtar Sanders, Inspiral Design Manchester (Pack Layout and Design) Caroline Wright of South Chadderton School, consultants Oldham Dr Anne-Maria Brennan, Bilgis Hassan of Manchester Islamic High School London South Bank University for Girls, Manchester Professor Mohammad El-Gomati, Monwara Begum of Grange School, Oldham University of York Jenny Gow of Burnage Media Arts College, Martin Bazley, ICT4learning Manchester Tony Sherborne, Centre for Science Shilpa Karavadra of Saltley School, Birmingham Education, Sheffield Hallam University Tahira Shabbir of Small Heath School, Birmingham Special thanks are due to Marianne Cutler, the Director of Curriculum Development for the Association of Science Education for her work on the complementary set of posters, Cameron Buxton on the poster design, Yasmin Khan for her kind assistance in the development of the pack, Elizabeth Woodcock and Dr Rabah Saoud for reviewing the text. Special thanks and gratitude to Yaqub Yousuf, CEO International Holdings Group (UAE), for championing the development of this teachers’ pack and supporting the teams that worked to publish it. Special thanks for financial support to International Holdings Group (UAE), The Home Office: Cohesion & Faiths Unit (UK), The Office of Science and Technology DTI (UK), the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (UK), El-Rahma Trust (UK) and the Bin Hamoodah Group (UAE). Thanks are also due to the British Association for the Advancement of Science (UK) for their continued encouragement and endorsement of the project. Produced by Muslim Heritage Consulting (MHC) for the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), UK. Published by the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), UK. 27 Turner Street Manchester, M4 1DY Great Britain Copyright © 2006 by the Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), UK All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed stored in a retrieval system in any form or by any means except for downloading and printing for personal or classroom use only. isbn-13: 978-0-9552426-1-8 isbn-10: 0-9552426-1-4 2
  3. 3. Contents Title Curriculum Area Page Introduction • 5 Activity 1 Ages 11-14 6 • Energy Seeing in the Dark Ages 14-16 • How science works Activity 2 Ages 11-14 14 • Behaviour, health and drugs Coffee Activity 3 Ages 11-14 20 • Particles Perfume Activity 4 Ages 11-14 28 • Forces Raising Water Activity 5 Ages 11-14 34 • Classification Puzzling Plants Activity 6 Ages 11-14 44 • Chemical patterns Pharmacy Activity 7 Ages 11-14 Design and Technology 56 • Knowledge and understanding of Build it Strong structures Activity 8 Ages 11-14 62 • Earth, Space and beyond Figuring out Phenomena Ages 14-16 • How science works Activity 9 Ages 11-14 72 • Forces Bird Man Teachers’ Guide to the • 78 1001 Book Notes: 1. All activities address the Key Stage 3 Programme of Study statement 1.3a: Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 2. Detailed curriculum links are given in the teachers’ guide for each activity. 3
  4. 4. © University Library, Istanbul; Muslim Heritage Consulting, Dubai.
  5. 5. Introduction T he main aim of this pack is to help science teachers teach the science content of the National Curriculum in a fun and engaging manner while highlighting contributions by Muslim scientific scholars. By offering easily digestible historical facts and simple experiments to demonstrate key scientific and technological principles this resource offers an exciting opportunity to promote understanding and contributions of the Muslim civilisation in a hands-on and minds-on fashion that is accessible to younger audiences between the ages of 11 and 16. How to use this Pack The activities are a result of collaboration between Foundation of Science, Technology and Civilisation, science teachers and consultants. It is structured around the Science National Curriculum requirements at Key Stages 3 and 4 and contains one activity for the Design and Technology curriculum. Each activity is ready to photocopy and is accompanied by teacher notes including the areas of the curriculum which are covered, instructions on how to run the activity and relevant background material. The 1001 Inventions Project The 1001 Inventions Teachers’ Pack is part of unique UK based project which aims to convey 1,000 years of Muslim contributions to science, technology and modern civilisation. 1001 Inventions is a non-religious and non-political project and encompasses a highly interactive mobile exhibition, a richly illustrated overview book, a website and several poster sets, all dedicated towards promoting Muslim heritage. The posters have been designed intertwining science concepts with the relevant Muslim contributions and are available separately for use in classrooms. Also, for teachers who are interested in further reading, the 1001 Inventions Book provides the facts in a wider context and to facilitate the use of the book to teachers, a teachers’ guide to the articles in the book has been produced with links to the science content of the National Curriculum and some links to the Design and Technology curriculum. 5
  6. 6. Activity 1 Seeing in The Dark T he camera is not a modern invention! It was invented around a thousand years ago by Muslim scientist Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham. Ibn al- Haitham did a great deal of revolutionary and influential work on optics through meticulous experimentation and evidence Book Reference: collection, creative explaining and thorough recording. He was Vision and Cameras, almost certainly the first to prove that light travels in straight page 26. lines, and that we see things when light reflects off an object and enters the eye. Ibn al-Haitham’s ‘Book of Optics’ had a profound impact on the work of Bacon (13th century) and da Vinci (15th century). In this activity, students re-create some of Ibn al-Haitham’s experiences through constructing pinhole cameras. They reinforce their knowledge of light by examining some of Ibn al-Haitham’s work and comparing digital to pinhole cameras. Curriculum link 11-14 Programme of study 1.3a Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 3.1a Energy can be transferred usefully, stored or dissipated, but cannot be created or destroyed. Framework for progression in science 1.1b Applications, implications and cultural understanding (years 8 and 9) 4.1 Energy transfer and electricity (year 9) 14-16 How Science Works • Interpreting data, using creative thought, to provide evidence for testing ideas and developing theories • Many phenomena can be explained by developing and using scientific theories, models and ideas • How scientific ideas change over time Learning objectives Students will learn: • How Ibn al-Haitham changed ideas about important optical phenomena • How to construct and use a pinhole camera • About the similarities and differences of pinhole and digital cameras 6
  7. 7. Activity 1 Running the activity Starting the activity A really exciting way to start this lesson would be to set the whole teaching room up as a camera obscura (instructions on how to do this later). Then set the scene by displaying Activity 1a (either projected or as an OHT) and getting groups of students to do the two short tasks on this page. Running the main part of the activity Display Activity 1b, and take students through the work and findings of Ibn al-Haitham. Stress the way he worked – very like modern scientists – through making observations, collecting evidence and creating explanations. Emphasise box 4 – Ibn al-Haitham’s room, with its hole in the window shutter – it was his camera obscura. Then ask students to follow the instructions in Activity 1c to construct pinhole cameras. Each group needs: • An A4 sheet of black card • A piece of black card about 12 cm × 12 cm • A piece of tracing paper about 12 cm × 12 cm • Scissors • Sellotape • A drawing pin • Access to a lighted candle The cameras work best in a dark room, looking towards a candle. Warn students not to look directly at the Sun. Running the plenary Give each group a copy of Activity 1d. Ask them to compare their pinhole camera to the mobile phone one on the sheet by completing the table. Finally, display Activity 1a again to remind students just how long cameras have been around, and to emphasise the contributions of the work of Ibn al-Haitham to our knowledge and understanding of optics. 7
  8. 8. Activity 1 How to make your classroom into a camera obscura This will work best if: • Your classroom has an interesting view – particularly if there is something moving outside • The Sun shines on a window • The students can become part of the picture by standing in the view outside If you can meet all of these prerequisites then go ahead by: 1. Make the room completely blacked out. 2. Cover all of the windows with something opaque like thick cardboard boxes or aluminium foil. Tape together small sections to make it more manageable using something like masking or parcel tape. Use black electricians’ tape to plug any holes. 3. Make an opening in the centre of a window covering in which to trial different apertures. This needs to be a square of about 5 cm across. If you wish, make more than one pilot hole, so that several groups of students can work at the same time. 4. Make apertures out of black paper, or thick aluminium foil. The shapes and sizes of the apertures can vary, but a small, round hole will give the sharpest image. Any jagged edges produced when making the aperture need to be sanded off for safety and to prevent a blurred image. The apertures can be stuck across the hole made in the window blackout. Light must only come through the aperture, so it needs to be sealed carefully when placing it across the hole. It is better to mount the aperture onto some thick card with a hole cut in the centre for placing and fixing across the pilot hole. 5. Images can be projected onto opposite walls, or onto viewing screens. If the screen is made out of translucent material, then the images produced can be seen from both sides. Web links http://www.paintcancamera.com/pages/616184/ A very detailed website on how to construct a camera obscura and further pinhole camera designs from empty film containers (only for more deft students)! There is a good downloadable PDF file on this, and video clips of how to construct both items. The video of the camera obscura demonstrates many different effects and how they are caused. http://www.exploratorium.edu/science explorer/pringles pinhole.html A good Pringles pinhole camera site with explanations of how the images are formed. http://www.charlesdisonfund.org/Experiments/HTMLexperiments/ Chapter5/5-Expt6/p1.html Really nice, simple pinhole camera instructions. http://www.kodak.com/global/en/consumer/education/lessonPlans/ pinholeCamera/pinholeCanBox.shtml A more sophisticated pinhole camera from Kodak that uses real film! http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic figures/alhazen.shtml Nice, concise pieces about the life of Ibn al-Haitham. 8
  9. 9. Activity 1 9
  10. 10. Seeing in the dark What a shot! Cameras must be one www.1001inventions.com Activity 1a of the greatest modern inventions. � How many years ago do you think the 10 first pinhole camera was invented? a 100 b 150 c 500 d 1000 � Can you show how this first pinhole camera – the camera obscura – made an image of a tree? (draw 2 lines) Not that modern for years!
  11. 11. Ibn al-Haitham invented the pinhole camera in Egypt, 1000 years ago. 1 One day, as the Here's how… sunlight streamed www.1001inventions.com through a small 2 hole in the shutter Light rays from the Sun of his room. I think travel in straight lines I can explain my There's a tiny observations like They hit the tree image of a tree on this my wall. The tree reflects the light rays 11 3 4 The reflected rays travel in straight lines and go through the small hole. This explains how our eyes work too! Light is reflected When they hit the wall they make an from objects. It travels into image of a tree. This room is our eyes. my camera! Activity 1b 8 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  12. 12. 3 Make your own pinhole camera www.1001inventions.com Activity 1c sellotape Making your camera ... Using your camera ... 1 black tube Roll your black card into a tube. 1 Look down the tube Stick Sellotape round each end. towards the tracing paper. Secure the straight edge with a long piece of Sellotape. This is the screen. 2 Point the pinhole at a black tube Stand the tube on a small piece of black card. 2 brightly lit object – d Gently draw round the end of the tube. car perhaps a candle flame. k Draw a circle about 1 cm bigger all round your first circle. lac b 12 3 Cut out the bigger circle. Cut tabs in the bigger circle. Place this circle on top of the end of the tube that you drew round. Stick it on firmly with Sellotape. � What do you notice Look down inside the tube to see if any light is about the image? be leaking in around the join. If it is, use Sellotape b lack tu or black card to cover the hole. � What happens if you make Make a pinhole in the middle of this circle. the hole bigger, or a different shape, or if you tracing paper Cut a circle from tracing paper that is 2 cm 4 make several holes? k card blac bigger all round than the other end of the tube. � How could you improve be Hold the tracing paper tightly over the empty bla ck tu your camera? end of the tube and stick it down with Sellotape. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  13. 13. Pinhole vs digital – comparing cameras www.1001inventions.com Pinhole camera ... Mobile phone camera ... lenses Image on screen Screen 13 � Light sensitive receptors capture the image Image on screen � A removable storage device stores the image Answers for pinhole camera Answers for mobile phone camera � Light enters the camera through… � The image is formed on the… � Are light rays from the Sun reflected off the tree and into the camera? � Are light rays refracted by lenses to sharpen the image? � How is the image stored: digitally (electronic 1s and 0s) or in analogue form (different shades of light)? � How small could this type of camera be? Activity 1d © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  14. 14. Activity 2 Coffee W hen was the world’s favourite drink first discovered? About a thousand-years-ago by an observant Ethiopian goat-herd, who wondered why his goats became livelier after eating berries from a certain plant. In this activity, students learn about coffee’s Book Reference: discovery before devising and doing an investigation to test the Coffee, page 12. hypothesis “does caffeine increase alertness, and if so, by how much?” Curriculum link 11-14 Programme of study 1.3a Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 2.1b Assess risk and work safely in the laboratory. 2.1c Plan and carry out investigative activities. 2.2a Obtain, record and analyse data and use their findings to provide evidence for scientific explanations. 2.2b Evaluate scientific evidence and working methods. 3.3c Behaviour and health can be affected by drugs. Framework for progression in science 1.1b Applications, implications and cultural understanding (years 8 and 9) 1.2a Using investigative approaches: planning an approach (year 7). 1.2b Using investigative approaches: selecting and managing variables (year 7). 1.2c Using investigative approaches: assessing risk and working safely (years 7, 8 and 9). 1.2d Using investigative approaches: obtaining and presenting primary evidence (years 7 and 8). 2.1 Life processes (year 9). Learning objectives Students will learn: • How an Ethiopian Arab – Khalid – discovered coffee more than 1000 years ago • To devise and do an investigation to test the hypothesis that caffeine increases alertness 14
  15. 15. Activity 2 Running the activity Starting the activity Distance Reaction Display Activity 2a (either projected or as an OHT). Ask small groups of the ruler time/ students to discuss these questions: How do you like your coffee? How do falls be- millisec- caffeine drinks make you feel? Then get students to guess when and where fore it is onds coffee was first discovered. caught/ cm Running the main part of the activity 5 107 Display Activity 2b, and take students through the story of how Khalid discovered the stimulant properties of coffee. Emphasise the scientific skills 6 108 he used: careful observation; wondering why; devising an investigation to 7 114 find out more. 8 121 Then give each group copies of Activity 2c and 2d, which set the main 9 128 investigation task and give an outline to guide students through the process. A failsafe alertness test is to get one student to drop a metre ruler 10 135 and another to catch it. Use the data in the table on the right to calculate 11 142 reaction times. 12 149 You may need to demonstrate the alertness test: 13 156 • Student A holds the top of a vertical ruler, with the 100 cm mark at the top. 14 163 • Student B places their finger and thumb over (but not touching) the zero 15 170 at the bottom of the ruler. 16 177 • Student B lets go of the ruler. • Student A catches the ruler between their finger and thumb. The 17 184 reading under their finger and thumb is the distance the ruler has fallen. 18 191 Some groups may well need help with considering how to make their investigation fair and reliable, and with working out what data to collect for strong evidence. Some groups will need help in designing a suitable results Current research suggests table, too. that caffeine definitely helps to keep you awake Once students have completed their plans, ask them to carry out their and that it also may investigation. Each group will need: increase your reaction time. However, it probably • A metre ruler hinders performance on • Caffeine drinks (cola is a good alternative to coffee, as it can be served complex analytical tasks. cold!) Caffeine also speeds up • Clean cups the heart and raises blood pressure, so interfering • Clean measuring jugs/cylinders – perhaps borrowed from food with sleeping. It can also technology be addictive. Running the plenary Discuss students’ investigation results and evaluations, and come to a class conclusion about whether caffeine increases alertness. Web links http://www.ase.org.uk/htm/teacher_zone/upd8/upd8_26/upd8_wired.php This Red Hot Science activity on the ASE website gives further details about ways of investigating other effects of caffeine, such as concentration, mood, memory and coordination. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=378 More information on the history of coffee. 15
  16. 16. Café Costabucks www.1001inventions.com Activity 2a What can � How do you like your I get you? coffee? � How do caffeine drinks Iced latte (coffee, cola, tea, chocolate) make you feel? Should you limit your intake of caffeine?* 16 Who Cappuccino discovered Fair the world's trade favourite Double expresso – I need Frappuccino, drink? to be alert for my please! When? driving test! Strong – I've got an exam later! * WARNING: Caffeine speeds up the heart and raises blood pressure, interfering with sleeping. It can also be addictive. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  17. 17. What they don't tell you in Café Costabucks Coffee was Should I invented more give up my day than 1000 years job to grow and ago, by an sell coffee beans? Ethiopian goat-herder and How can I be his goats. sure that coffee 17 makes humans Khalid noticed his more alert? animals becoming more lively after eating berries I need some from a certain plant. He wanted to know if the scientific berries had the same evidence! effect on humans. So he boiled some up with sugar and water to create the world's first cup of coffee. Activity 2b © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  18. 18. Does caffeine increase alertness? If so, by how much? www.1001inventions.com Activity 2c Plan a scientific Our alertness test: investigation to find out. To start with, make up an alertness test. 18 We will collect this data so that our evidence is strong and reliable: To make our test fair we will: © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  19. 19. Does caffeine increase alertness? If so, by how much? www.1001inventions.com Results: 19 Evaluation � Did our tests measure what they were supposed to? � How could we make our results more reliable? Conclusion: message to Khalid Activity 2d © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  20. 20. Activity 3 Perfume P eople have enjoyed perfume for centuries. More than a thousand years ago, Muslims chose from a wide range of scents, thanks to the hard work of two talented chemists: al-Kindi (born 801, Iraq) and Jabir ibn Hayyan (born 722, Iraq). Al-Kindi created a vast number of ‘recipes’ Book References: for a wide range of perfumes, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Cleanliness, page Jabir ibn Hayyan – often known as the ‘father of chemistry’ 20; Chemistry, page – devised many techniques, including sublimation, 72; Commercial crystallization, distillation, oxidation, evaporation and Chemistry, page 130. filtration, some of which were used to prepare the perfumes. This activity introduces students to the Muslim world’s perfume expertise before getting them to plan – and (optionally) produce – their own perfume from orange peel, using steam distillation. Also included are suggestions for testing their finished products. Curriculum link 11-14 Programme of study 1.2a Exploring how the creative application of scientific ideas can bring about technological developments and consequent changes in the way people think and behave. 1.3a Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 2.1c Plan and carry out investigative activities. 3.2a The particle model provides explanations for the different physical properties and behaviour of matter. Framework for progression in science 1.1b Applications, implications and cultural understanding (years 8 and 9) 3.1 Particle model – separating techniques (years 8 and 9) Learning objectives Students will learn: • How Muslim scientists developed the techniques to make – and the recipes for – a wide range of perfumes • To devise a method to extract perfumed oil from orange peel 20
  21. 21. s scents – research Try making a fragrance yourself. You need to extract the oil with the smell, from its Activity 3 raw material.Running found two di erent methods see below. We've the activity Starting the activity Display Activity 3a (either projected or as an OHT). Ask small groups of students to discuss these questions: What’s you favourite perfume? How does it make you feel? Why do people wear perfume? Then get students to speculate how long perfume-making has been around. Running the main part of the activity Display Activity 3b, and take students through the story of how al-Kindi and Jabir ibn Hayyan developed recipes for – and techniques to make – a wide range of different perfumes more than a thousand years ago. Display Activity 3c, which sets the task – ‘Can you work out how to make a perfume using only the materials shown on the page?’ Tell small groups to use the chart on Activity 3d to help them plan their method (each group will need a copy of this page). Many students will need guidance with this task – you might like to set up and show students the steam distillation set- up below, and ask students to imagine replacing each part of the apparatus with one piece of the equipment shown. If you wish, ask students to make perfume from orange or lemon peel. The set-up for steam distillation shown below works well – it is obviously not safe to use the equipment pictured on Activity 3c! Make sure the room is well-ventilated, as the perfume has a strong smell. Warn students to be very careful not to spill any of their perfume, as it is very slippery and difficult to clean up. thread test tube gauze bucket containing water the orange peel ice Activity 3e describes optional tests to help students evaluate their perfumes, and includes space to record judgements and – if you wish – particle explanations for some of their findings. Suggested answers to Activity 3d: Column 1: • Use the string and straight sticks to make a tripod-like contraption. • Rest one of the cups on the tripod and half fill it with water. • Place the candles under the tripod. • Rub some sticks together to make a flame. • Use the flame to light the candles. 21
  22. 22. Activity 3a Running the activity continued... Column 2: • Make a hole through the centre of the cork. The bent end of the wooden tube should fit snugly in the top of the hole. • Wrap some orange peel in part of the fabric. • Use string to attach the fabric-wrapped orange peel to the cork. • Push the cork into the top of the cup, so the fabric-wrapped orange peel hangs above the surface of the water. Column 3: • Insert the bent end of the wooden tube into the hole in the cork, so the tube slopes down to the side. • Surround the tube with ice – hold it there by tying cloth round the ice and tube. Column 4: • Collect the liquid in a cup placed under the lower end of the wooden tube. • The oil will float on the water. Collect the scented oil by skimming it off the surface using the small flat piece of wood. Running the plenary Discuss students’ plans, products and tests. Emphasise that – in the Muslim world – chemists working twelve centuries ago had sophisticated techniques for making a wide range of perfumes and pharmaceuticals. Web links http://www.healthy.net/scr/article.asp?id=1712 More information on the history of perfume and al-Kindi www.parfumsraffy.com/faqs.html Commonly asked questions about perfumes. www.guerlain.com Discover your ideal fragrance. 22
  23. 23. www.1001inventions.com Great scent! Mmmm – gorgeous ... what's that perfume? 23 � What's your favourite perfume? � How does it make you feel? � Why do people wear perfume? Making perfume is big business. But is it a new or ancient science? Activity 3b © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  24. 24. � People have enjoyed perfume for centuries. www.1001inventions.com Activity 3c � More than a thousand years ago, Jabir ibn Hayyan Islamic women chose from an (722 – 815, Iran). enormous range of scents, thanks Also called Geber – the mainly to two talented 'founder of modern chemistry'. chemists. My book has 107 recipes for making perfume. I've included instructions for making medicines 24 and fragrant oils, too. al-Kindi (801 – 873, Iraq). But he couldn't have Chemist, philosopher, made them without the pharmacist, physicist, purification and distillation mathematician, geographer and techniques that I astronomer. devised! © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  25. 25. Imagine that It's the year 850 in you have only � an www.1001inventions.com the Islamic world. these materials: orange There's money to be � a cork � a bent made in perfume. wooden tube Use the chart to plan � pieces of stick how to create a � a flask 25 sensational scent. � small pieces of � small flat piece � 2 candles of wood fabric � 2 cups � ice � thread or string � water Activity 3d © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  26. 26. Sensational scent: creation 1 2 3 4 We need Next we Let's surround OK. We need to Let's draw cool it down We've got to www.1001inventions.com to heat water to need to separate the the orange Activity 3e So we'll get a collect the liquid make steam. how to use the scented oil from the peel with mixture of steam so it equipment to condenses into somehow. orange peel. steam. That and orange oil Right. And we do that. a liquid How can should make vapour. need to separate the oil mixture. the liquid oil from we stop the peel falling into the evaporate. the water. water? 26 © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  27. 27. Sensational scent: testing Have you produced a popular perfume? Will it sell? Place a few drops on filter paper or a tissue and try these tests. www.1001inventions.com Name of perfume: Classification Judgement Particle explanation Is the scent: � Floral – like flowers? � Citrus – like oranges/lemons? � Herby – like leaves? � Fruity? � Woody? � Animal ? 27 Strength – how far away can Why do particles from some perfumes travel further than others? someone else detect the scent? Volatility – how quickly Why do particles of some perfumes evaporate quicker than others? does one drop evaporate? The quicker it evaporates, the more volatile it is. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  28. 28. Activity 4 Raising Water N ext time you’re sucking up your milkshake in the local takeaway, spare a thought for al-Jazari. Over 800 years ago, in South East Turkey, he invented a double-acting reciprocating suction pump with a clever sliding crank to convert circular motion of a water wheel into a linear Book Reference: motion to drive the piston. Pulling up water using a plunger Raising water, in a tube was probably a Roman invention. In this activity, page 114. students will figure out how this early pump worked, in order to learn about hydraulics and simple machines. Curriculum links 11-14 Programme of study 1.3a Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 3.1b Forces are interactions between objects and can affect their shape and motion. 3.2a The particle model provides explanations for the different physical properties and behaviour of matter. Framework for progression in science 1.1a1 Scientific thinking: developing explanations using ideas and models (years 8 and 9) 1.1b Applications, implications and cultural understanding (years 8 and 9) 3.1 Particle models (year 9) 4.2 Forces (years 8 and 9) Learning Objectives Students will: • Explain how difference in air pressure can move liquids • Apply this idea to construct an argument for how a water pump works Running the activity Starting the activity Display Activity 4a (either projected or as an OHT). The context for the activity is related to a simple form of al-Jazari’s invention 800 years ago for drawing water from rivers to irrigate the fields above, using a suction pump. Get students to brainstorm ways they can think of moving liquids. Lead them to the idea of using the force of air pressure to move a liquid. You can demonstrate this using a manometer. • Set up a manometer (U-tube) filled with liquid and made visible with ink. Attach a piece of flexible clear plastic tubing to it, to allow water to be sucked up (Get the technician to soak the end in sterilising solution) 28
  29. 29. Activity 4 Running the activity continued... • With the help of the students, show how gentle sucking on one side of a manometer changes the levels. On the sucked side the level goes up, while it goes down on the other side that is exposed to atmospheric pressure. Take care to make sure water is not sucked all the way up or blown out! • Ask pupils to see if they can find similarities between the U-tube being sucked on one side and sucking up liquid out of a glass. You can get pupils to demonstrate the latter in two ways: one, sucking water out of a glass with a straw and two, by using a syringe to suck water up a piece of clear tubing. Give pupils a few moments to discuss in pairs their explanations of why the levels change. Direct the discussion towards the idea that ‘sucking’ is actually atmospheric pressure that is pushing the water up. Discussion can bring in the particle model and/or the weight of air to explain where atmospheric pressure comes from. Running the main part of the activity Display Activity 4b, which shows a simpler form of al-Jazari’s water pump invention. Instead of his double-acting reciprocating pump, this activity relates to a single piston pump. Set them the task of constructing an argument of how it works, using air pressure. Students can work in groups and are supported by the statement cards on Activity 4c. They can cut these out, select the most relevant ones, and re-order them to build their explanation. Less able students will need help with this activity. You might like to ask more able students to work out and explain how the pump works without giving them the statement cards. One possible correct answer is: Cards G, F, I, E, A, B, C, H, J, D 1. Animals or people pull up the handle. 2. The plunger moves up the copper cylinder. 3. Air pressure drops inside the tube, making the flap of the inlet valve open. 4. Water starts to rise from the river, and into the cylinder. 5. The cylinder becomes full of water. 6. Animals or people push down the handle. 7. Water begins to flow out of the cylinder. 8. The flap of the outlet flap is pushed open. The flap of the inlet valve falls closed. 9. Water goes through the pipe and watering heads, over the fields. 10. The cylinder empties and the flap of the outlet valve falls closed. Web Links http://www.muslimheritage.com/day_life/default. cfm?ArticleID=188&Oldpage=1 More information about al-Jazari’s inventions, including an animation of ‘al-Jazari’s water pump’ which you can download http://www.gabarin.com/ayh/Notes/Notes%202.htm Details of the invention of the suction pump 29
  30. 30. 1001 inventions Let's travel back in time 800 years www.1001inventions.com Activity 4a You are a famous engineer called Al-Jazari, living in Turkey. The king has set you a difficult task. He needs more water on his fields so they can produce more food. 30 But the farmers are breaking their backs by carrying it from the river below. C Can you invent a device that will irrigate the fields automatically? © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  31. 31. Handle You have come up with a design Plunger www.1001inventions.com for the world's most efficient One-way water pump yet. outlet valve Copper piston Pipe to take water to fields Thin Thick hinge leather C Can you strap Watering heads persuade the 31 caliph it will One-way inlet valve work? Fields Sucked open C Construct a scientific argument using the statement River Squashed closed cards. Activity 4b © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  32. 32. Raising water www.1001inventions.com Activity 4c A B C D C The cylinder C Animals or C Water begins to C The cylinder becomes full of people push flow out of the empties and the water. down the cylinder. flap of the outlet handle. valve falls closed. E F G C Water starts to C The plunger C Animals or 32 rise from the river, moves up the people pull up and into the copper the handle. cylinder. cylinder. H I J C The flap of the C Air pressure C Water goes outlet flap is drops inside the through the pipe pushed open. tube, making the and watering The flap of the inlet flap of the inlet heads, over the valve falls closed. valve open. fields. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Activity 5 Puzzling Plants M any hundreds of years before Linnaeus developed our current system of classification (back in 1753), Muslim scientists were collecting vast numbers of plant species and sorting them according to their uses. Their knowledge of herbal medicines was extensive Book Reference: and impressive, and coupled with access to information on Herbal Medicine, earlier attempts to classify plants, they developed sophisticated page 180. methods of classifying the living world. One Muslim scientist – Ibn al-Baytar of Malaga, Muslim Spain – studied 3000 plant species and their medical properties, and recorded his findings in a vast encyclopedia. The scientific skill of ‘try it and write what it does’ goes back a long way! In this activity, students classify useful plants before exploring the pros and cons of herbal medicine in today’s world. Curriculum links 11-14 Programme of study 1.2a Exploring how the creative application of scientific ideas can bring about technological developments and consequent changes in the way people think and behave. 1.3a Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 2.2b Evaluate scientific evidence and working methods. 3.3d All living things…can be classified. Framework for progression in science 1.1b Applications, implications and cultural understanding (years 8 and 9) 2.2 Variation and interdependence (year 7) Learning objectives Students will: • Learn about the pioneering work of Muslim scientists on plant classification • Explore the pros and cons of herbal medicine in today’s world 34
  35. 35. Activity 5 Running the activity Starting the activity Display Activity 5a (either projected or as an OHT). Point out the differences in plant knowledge between pre-Enlightenment Europeans and scientists from the Muslim world. Ask students, in small groups, to • discuss the three questions at the bottom of the page • classify the plants on cards made from Activity 5b into sensible groups. Ideally, make the cards before the lesson. Encourage students to draw out these points in their discussions: plants were used as remedies, for food, clothing and building; Muslim scientists were particularly interested in recording the medicinal properties of plants; they used the skills of collecting, observing, recording data and classifying. Ideally, make the cards before the lesson. Encourage students to try different methods of classifying the plants on the cards; part way through this activity, reveal that Muslim scientists were particularly interested in classifying plants according to remedy, and get students to try doing this themselves. Running the main part of the activity Ask students – either individually or in small groups – to read the information ‘from the packets’ of herbal and conventional remedies (Activity 5c, 5d, 5e), decide which ones they would choose if required, and justify their choices. Their answers can be used to discuss issues such as: 1. How do we know the remedies are effective (what evidence is there)? 2. Perceptions about herbal remedies being more natural or ‘better’ than artificial ones, especially with the sleeping pills example where the active chemicals in both the herbal and the conventional medicine are essentially the same (alkaloids) 3. Should we always use drugs (natural or artificial) anyway? 4. Whether there is enough information on the sheets to make informed decisions. Ask students to prepare for the debate, as described on Activity 5f. Make sure you have some students planning to speak for each ‘side’! Then run one large debate or get students debating in small groups. Running the plenary Lead a discussion to bring out the following points: • Much of what scientists do today involves trial and error • Hundreds of years ago Muslim medics and plant scientists gathered vast amounts of knowledge about plants. Many of their findings are still useful in today’s world 35
  36. 36. Activity 5 Running the activity continued... Possible extension Ask students to carry out research to investigate how people of different cultures use plants in their everyday lives. You could ask student to focus on just one plant, and to produce some or all of the following: • A fact file about the plant, including a description of its properties and uses. • A map showing where the plant grows and how different cultures use it. • A timeline showing how the uses of the plant have changed. • An modern advertisement for a remedy containing extracts from the plant. • A giant model of the plant for display, incorporating information about how and why the plant is used today. Web links http://observer.guardian.co.uk/magazine/story/0,11913,1157031,00.html This is an article discussing the new EU regulations (from a particular viewpoint!) http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=525 More details about the work of the Muslim scientists in this activity http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=515 An article about agricultural developments in the Muslim world 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. Puzzling plants 13th Century, Islamic World 500 – 1500, www.1001inventions.com Activity 5a We know loads about Europe plants. They're amazing! We're only interested in plants we can eat. There aren't many of them. 38 I've observed and classified thousands of plant species. It's taken years! Look – here's the plant encyclopaedia I wrote – it's massive! Why did Muslim Discuss Classify the 12 scientists collect � What do you think people in the Muslim world used plants for? useful plants on so much plant � What do you think scientists wrote down about plants? page 2 into knowledge? � What scientific skills were these early scientists using? sensible groups. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  39. 39. Coconut Palm Peppermint Jojoba Banana Ginger Mentha piperita Simmondsia Musa sp. Zingiber chinensis offincinale www.1001inventions.com Agrimony Agrimonia eupatoria Part used: whole plant – mostly nut Part used: seeds Uses: Part used: fruit and Part used: rhizome and leaves leaves Part used: whole Uses: Part used: whole � lubricant Uses: plant plant Uses: � biofuel � floor polish � helps digestion Uses: Uses: � food � food � cosmetics � reduces nausea � heals wounds and � helps digestion � cooking � thatching � to treat skin � reduces cold and bruises � reduces nausea problems like � roofing material flu symptoms � heals digestion � decongestant burns, sores and � weaving baskets � flavouring � improves bladder 39 Myrrh � flavouring acne control � possible future fuel Commiphora Lady's Mantle Aloe Vera molmol Alchemilla Alo barbadensis Empress Cotton Garlic Allium Gossypium sp. vulgaris Candlestick sativum Senna alata Part used: bulb Part used: sap from Uses: leaves Part used: gum resin from stem � protects against Uses: Part used: leaves Uses: heart disease � speeds wound Uses: � kills fungi and Part used: whole healing � treats fungal � fights gum Part used: seed head plant infections bacteria � laxative diseases Uses: � clears chest Uses: � cleans wounds � treats skin � treats stomach � making fibres for infections � controls bleeding problems like problems � reduces bruising weaving into cloth �controls diarrhoea � flavouring sunburn � making soap Activity 5b © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  40. 40. 1 In the 21st century, would you still choose herbal medicine? Herbal medicine My comments www.1001inventions.com Activity 5c Garlic capsules A traditional remedy for the symptoms Conventional medicine of coughs and colds. Can also benefit the Anadin paracetamol heart and circulatory system. Has anti- If I were suffering from bacterial properties too. cold and flu symptoms, For the effective relief of mild to I would take moderate pain including headache, migraine, toothache, period pains, aches Contains because… and pains, rheumatic pain, feverishness Soya bean oil and garlic oil in a gelatine and symptoms of colds and influenza. capsule. 40 All natural ingredients – no known side Contains effects. Paracetamol and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (E464). Do not take with any other paracetamol-containing products. Immediate medical advice should be sought in the event of an overdose, even if you feel well. Do not take if: � you are suffering from kidney or liver disease. � you are allergic to paracetamol or any of the other ingredients listed. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  41. 41. 2 In the 21st century, would you still choose herbal medicine? Herbal medicine My comments www.1001inventions.com Neem Conventional medicine is a powerful anti-bacterial and anti-fungal herb that is PanOxyl Bar extremely bitter, with powerful Helps clear existing If I were suffering from detoxifying chlorophyll, and acts as acne blemishes and spots, I would take an invaluable skin and blood cleanser. helps prevent the development of new It is very effective for normalising gut because… acne pimples, blackheads and whiteheads. bacteria. Contains 41 10% Benzoyl Peroxide. Cetostearyl Contains alcohol, cocamidopropyl betaine, corn Extract and powder of Neem Leaf. starch, glycerin, hydrogenated castor oil, mineral oil, PEG-14M, silicon dioxide, sodium potassium lauryl sulfate, titanium Do not use if pregnant dioxide, water. Side effects This product may cause irritation, characterized by redness, burning, itching, peeling, or possible swelling. Keep away from eyes, lips, and mouth. Avoid contact with hair and fabrics. Activity 5d © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  42. 42. 3 In the 21st century, would you still choose herbal medicine? Herbal medicine My comments www.1001inventions.com Activity 5e Californian poppy Conventional medicine Contains alkaloids and in particular one called californidine. This plant is a Sleeping pills If I were having natural hypnotic: it prepares difficulty in sleeping, e.g. zopiclone for peaceful sleep and reduces sleeping I would take If they haven't been prescribed to you problems, particularly nightmares, personally then it is illegal to take them. waking during the night and difficulties because… in falling asleep. It is also an anxiolytic 42 and a sedative: it helps anxious people of Contains all ages recover and have a calm life Zopiclone, lactose, hydroxypropyl without stress. methyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose and sodium starch glycollate. Contains Californian poppy aerial flowered, part Side effects powder? Daytime drowsiness and a bitter taste in the mouth. Do not use if pregnant Warnings Dependence can develop after as little as one week of continuous use. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  43. 43. The EU is debating new laws to control herbal medicines Plan to play a part in the debate. and food supplements. www.1001inventions.com Choose one of these roles: Daily News: New laws may hit herbal remedies � are vital to protect citizens New European regulations may soon prevent the sale of many of Britain's favourite food supplements. Opinion about the new � the director of a shop chain that sells regulations is sharply divided. Some believe them to be a vital safety herbal medicines. measure, and say that they will prevent the sale of substances that may be harmful. Others believe the laws are yet another example of the EU I'm convinced I unnecessarily interfering with people's lives. escaped a cold this year as a result of taking those Fighting sickness garlic supplements 43 In the UK, we realise that diet is directly linked to our health. We regard vitamin and mineral supplements as foods, not medicines. Many people buy these supplements – and herbal medicines – as part The products for sale must of their fight against illness. be proven to be safe Restricted list Soon, only those vitamins and minerals listed by the European Union Food Supplements Directive will be able to be sold legally. To start Chemicals are chemicals – with, this will mean the loss of at least 270 nutrient supplements. Later, they can be dangerous all nutritional supplements will be scrutinised. whether herbal or synthetic Herbal medicines hit too The EU plans to restrict the sale of herbal medicines, too. Without laws, some It proposes a register of herbs which have been 'in safe use for manufacturers could make 30 years'. It will not be possible to use newly discovered herbal false claims about products medicines immediately. Activity 5f © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  44. 44. Activity 6 Pharmacy E ight hundred years ago, the Muslim world had sophisticated pharmaceuticals and regulated strict rules for their sales. The earliest inspector was a woman appointed by Caliph Umar, 640 CE, in the city of Medina. In this activity, students take on the role of a government Book Reference: inspector (al-Muhtasib) checking pharmacists and their Pharmacy, page 184. medicines in 12th century Baghdad. They are charged to check out a rumour that a local pharmacy is selling a cheap imitation of a stomach medicine, and to use practical techniques to come to an evidenced conclusion. Curriculum link 11-14 Programme of study 1.3a Recognising that modern science has its roots in many different societies and cultures, and draws on a variety of valid approaches to scientific practice. 2.1a Use a range of scientific methods and techniques to develop and test ideas and explanations. 2.1c Plan and carry out investigative activities. 2.2a Obtain, record and analyse data and use their findings to provide evidence for scientific explanations. 2.2b Evaluate scientific evidence and working methods. 3.2c Elements and compounds show characteristic chemical properties and patterns in their behaviour. Framework for progression in science 1.2a Using investigative approaches: planning an approach (years 7 and 8). 1.2d Using investigative approaches: obtaining and presenting primary evidence (years 7 and 8). Learning objectives Students will learn • That the Muslim world had sophisticated pharmaceuticals and strict rules for their sales eight hundred years ago • To evaluate a product using a neutralisation reaction 44
  45. 45. Activity 6 Running the activity Starting the activity Display Activity 6a (either projected or as an OHT). Ask small groups of students to discuss which stomach cure they would buy – and why.. Then get them to discuss what they expect out a visit to the pharmacy. Encourage them to come up with answers such as ‘Nothing that’s going off ’; ‘a pharmacist who knows what s/he is doing’ and ‘to be told the correct dosage’, as well as those already given on Activity 1. Then emphasize the point that shoppers in 12th century Baghdad had the same high standards, and that government inspectors (al-Muhtasib) made sure that regulations were adhered to. Running the main part of the activity Activity pages 6b, 6c and 6d – stomach-ache powders Display Activity 6b. Emphasise the reference books and the wide variety of medicines that were available in the Islamic world more than 1000 years ago. Use this page to set the task – to find out which one of five pharmacists at the market is selling a contaminated stomach-ache cure. Ask small groups to suggest ways of tacking the task. You might like to ask groups to devise – and follow – their own method of identifying the culprit. Alternatively, continue as suggested for Activities 6b and 6c below. Give each group a copy of Activities 6c and 6d. Groups follow the instructions to identify the contaminated sample. It is well worth quickly working through the practical yourself before the lesson. Equipment and materials needed: Per group: • 5 100 cm3 beakers • 0-10 cm3 measuring cylinder • Spatula • 5 containers in which to collect powders A, B, C, D and E • Stirring rod Access to: • Powder samples labelled A, B, C, D, E • There is just one powder that is different from the rest – a 50:50 mixture of baking powder and salt. The other four samples are simply baking powder with a small quantity of salt added so that the difference in powders is not obvious just by looking at them. • 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid • Universal indicator • Balance Activity pages 6e, 6f, 6g and 6h – drug capsules Display Activity pages 6e and 6f to describe blood capsules – ancient and modern – to students. Then display Activity 6g. Ask students to use your school investigation planning sheets to plan how to find out how squashing the ‘drug capsule’ (teabag) affects how quickly the ‘drug’ comes out. 45
  46. 46. Activity 6 Running the activity continued... A very effective way of doing this investigation is to use light sensors with data logging equipment, as pictured on Activity page 6h. If you decide to do this, you will need to demonstrate the use of the light sensors before asking students to plan their investigations. Students will then record the transmission of light on a graph over about 2 minutes. Depending on the type of teabags used, students may need to pierce the teabag and tie a piece of string through the hole so that they can immerse the teabag in hot water, and then move the teabag around so it doesn’t block the light sensor. Running the plenary Ask groups to compare their findings – are their conclusions consistent? Then get small groups to discuss – or lead a class discussion about – other circumstances in which measuring might have been a useful part of Muslim pharmacists’ work to develop and test new medicines. Web links http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=224 More information on Muslim contribution to chemistry http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=226 How drugs were made a thousand years ago 46
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. Which would you buy? www.1001inventions.com Activity 6a Medicines that do what they say they'll do To be given the amount I'm 48 paying for – no less! Safe medicines Muslim shoppers in twelfth century Baghdad, Iraq, expected the same high standards. And, just like in twenty-first century Europe, they sent out quality control inspectors (al-Muhtasib) to check that pharmacists were obeying the regulations. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  49. 49. There's a rumour that one of the market pharmacists has mixed a cheap and useless www.1001inventions.com powder with his stomach-ache cure. Baghdad City Council Your work today, al-Muhtasib, is to test the powders and find the 49 culprit. Then we can think of a suitable punishment… Al-Razi's Headache Ibn Sina's Compound acne ointment Sabur ibn Sahl's cough Herbs syrup Activity 6b © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation
  50. 50. Testing stomach powders www.1001inventions.com Activity 6c � Today, you will test stomach-ache cures from 5 pharmacists. � One stomach-ache cure is contaminated with a useless powder. � Follow the instructions to find out which … 1 Collect a sample of stomach-ache powder from each pharmacy stall. 2 Weigh each sample. Write the 3 Put 5 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric masses in the table (column 2). acid in each beaker. A B C D E 50 4 Add 4 drops of universal indicator to each beaker. 5 Add one spatula-full of stomach-ache powder A to the acid in beaker A. Stir. Keep adding the powder, one spatula at a time, until you see a green colour. The stomach-ache powder has now neutralised the acid. Write down the number of 6 Weigh what is left spatulas you have added. A of your sample of stomach-ache 7 Calculate the mass of stomach- powder A. Write ache powder you added by this mass in the subtracting the mass in column 4 8 Repeat steps 5 to 7 for table (column 4). from the mass in column 2. powders B, C, D and E. © 2008 Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation

×