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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 System Integration for Smart Paperless Ship A.S.A. Kaderc O. O. Sulaiman a, A.H. Saharuddinb Faculty of Maritime Studies and Marine Science Faculty of Mechanical -Marine Technology Univeristy Malaysia Terengganu University Technology Malaysia Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia o.sulaiman@umt. firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract — Sea Transportation provides a safe and paper offer conceptual design architecture for prototypingreliable source for moving people and cargo across the ocean. smart ship towards paperless technologyfor ships andThe government and private sector provide these services, solutions for barriers that might stand as problem towhile the Government moves personnel and cargo to support implementation, innovation and development. This paperglobal peacekeeping activities the civilian sea transportation focus on building complete macro control system integrationactivities focus on providing leisure cruises and the shipment between computers, software, hardware electrical, mechanicalof consumer goods. These safe and efficient services are and other systems as necessary as well as wireless computerobtained through the cooperative efforts of the government network and sensor gateway. The principle that can be use inand civilian sea carriers, and seaports throughout the world smart ship shore operations as well redundancy for other smartrequired connectivity raging from within ship system systems for ship and offshore could target:integration and ship shore operation, which has been muchfacilitated by evolution of computer age. The use of newinformation technology and interfacing all the associated i. Shore base operation : Safe transportation ofservice areas of maritime industry- sea and shore can lead to passengers and cargo through the oceansreducing papers and hence cutting of trees and beneficial ii. Ship based operations : Loading, unloading,environmental benefit that facilitate excess water absorption maintenance and servicing of shipsand greater capture of carbon dioxide. Human race has iii. Management based operations : Cooperativeachieved much civilization and development in recent years scheduling and controlling of the worlds oceansuntil it seem as development is closed to the peak. However, iv. Activities for connectivity of the above threenew philosophy under are being promoted in recent yearsinclude proactive behaviors, recycling, system integration and According to the united nation, a typical ICT componentconservation to make all what has been built meaningful and consist of the components described in Table and most ofefficient. This paper discusses how system integration undersmart ship concept within ship and shore can benefit humanfor climate change control.Keywords-sytem integration, paperless, ship, elecronics waste I. INTRODUCTION Technological age has always depends on the concept ofspeed, reliability, cost, mobility, miniaturization andnetworking. Not until recently concerned about theenvironment that has been supporting human and thetechnocrat that have been built has become the major drive fortechnology sustainable and efficient system development.Smart ship shore operations focus on building smart systemusing new information technology and interfacing all theassociated service areas of maritime industry - sea and shore.The interconnectivity of control system, computers, software,hardware, electrical, mechanical and other work supportsystem by using in wireless computer network, radio them ends their journeys as shown in Figure 1.frequency sensor gateway, and the internet for data FIGURE I. E-WASTE DESTINATION [UNEP, 2008]management activities and operations on board ship. The
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 through fiber optics and blue tooth -this for easy data TABLE I. COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER transfer and control needed. Building of a dynamic intelligent system that will Material % - Ferrous 32 - provide easy synchronization to automated metal computation in shipping industry. Plastic `23 - Building of scalable and efficient system that will Non ferrous 18 Lead reduce transportation cost, ease system management metal cadmium antimony and upgrade beryllium, mercury Glass 15 Other benefits that can be derived from such system are: Electronics 12 Gold silver board platinum Production of potential manpower savings while improving readiness and quality of life through assessing policy changes, innovative cultural and In the contrary, the computer help us to reduce solid waste tradition modifications and integration of advancedof papers, and a thorough cost benefit analysis is required to technology to come up with the need of cyberneticjustify use make balance between use of computer and the ships.computers disposalat the end of t heir life. How nice it will be Reduction of annual operating costs by million, andto have semi conductor industry to recycle the use of the developed long-term benefits in terms of improvedmaterial. Another problem is the effects of the trace metals on morale and retention of quality personnel.human health and ecology. Tailoring IT utilization list for a Multimedia digital system on board ship, creation ofspecific ship application and associated seaport facility, more space from recreation and training of crews thatpassenger and cargo carrier, or sea traffic management can will improve efficiency, reduce homesickness ofsystems require reference, networking interfacing and the crew and improve quality of life for the crew.integration of infrastructure worksheet of the list of core Increase in efficiency of the shore infrastructure,technology elements associated with system support resources QOL increases for operational forces through betterassociated services in ship shore operations like : customer service and for installation personnelAdministration, Finance, Building, including Access, through reduced workload.Environmental, Inspection, Security and Safety as well as Increases in efficiency and subsequent increases inCommunications, Office Equipment, Computer Network QOL and increase operational readinessResources, Food Storage and Distribution, Interface, Public Contribution to absolute safe monitoring andWorks, Software, Emergency Medical Systems, Marine management of utility power plant for highSystems, Rail and land intermodal system linked with the port reliability, black out detection, and emergency cut outoperations and door to door services. Necessary interface and efficiencyintegration software could be adapted to facilitate this Low operating cost and reduced human power as wellintelligent transportation work as required. as -E-billing facilitation and e- interface capability Stand alone and remote control capability from a long range. II. REQUIREMENT FOR SHIPBOARD PAPERLESS SMART SYSTEM Today things that have been developed by human are III. SCOPE OF SUSTAINABLE SMART PAPERLESS SHIPbecoming faster and the time to do many, to finish or do more PROJECT COULD LIE WITHIN THE FOLLOWINGthings is not enough, give rise to today’s need for systemsintegration. In other to further build capacity for use of ICT, Shipboard operations - Alarm Data loggers, Bridgeand boost its contribution to mitigation of climate change it is Movement Recorders, Compass/Internal Navigation,important to implement the efficient and sustainable smart Commercial Radar, Doppler Speed Logs andsystem for ship this include: accessories, Electronic chart systems, - electronic charts, bridge systems and equipment, automatic Design of universal control server for shipboard identification systems, shipboard alert systems, also power control systems. changing role of class societies, regulation and policy Building of artificial intelligent development program thematic areas . for the system - With a result to reduce man power, Port terminal - Elevators, Escalators, Fire Detection, simplify management process and cost reduction. Heating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Electric Connection of the central monitoring station to Power, Safety, Security, Telecommunications, Water wireless node, sensor network including the internet
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 and Sewer systems, as well as Leasing and Financial Management Software to support the Building i. Main devices: PDA, A/D converter, microcontroller Infrastructure that required to support the various device, pc aspects of the Sea Transportation activities. ii. Network sensors-infrared remote control, water level Integration- Integration and interface through smart controller, RS 232 interfaces for A/D converter, and wireless network. digital automation temperature control smoke Software - Word Processing software ,Spread Sheet detector fire alarm controller. software for various reporting system ,Briefing iii. Testing equipment: digital voltmeter, 5volt power software , Scheduling software, Data base software supply, digital logic probe, 4 channel digital scope or Electronic Mail software to exchange informal universal Tektronix logic scope and analyzer. correspondence, Network Browser software, shipboard e-mail software, maintenance management, 2 Software computer based training, simulators, web services, shipping company software, communications with i. Initial design and simulation software: CAD, brokers, charterers and agents, shipping agent MathCAD, electronics workbench will be use for systems . initial design, Simulation software, Atic-transmission Hardware - Computer Hardware used to run the line simulation, Aviprog-microcontroler device in software to satisfy the Sea Transportation sectors parallel programming ,Digitemp-read temperature daily automated IT requirements, Hardware used to data from USB or wire, Eep- read and EPROM manage, monitor, and control radar and other ship devices management aids, ii. Computer language: assembly language for Communication - Communications systems, both microprocessor communication voice and data, used to coordinate and facilitate the iii. Network integration softwares java and c++ for flow of ships, on-ground vehicle traffic, and requests wireless LAN communication between the PDA, the for seaport services. Inmarsat Fleet, shipboard device and the sensor and visual basic for auxiliary information services, ship tracking, ship-shore Communication need and solution communications by e-mail, data and voice, Iridium, sending weather, chart updates, training materials to V. GENERAL SSIPS ARCHITECTURE ship, sending ship operations information back to shore, Fax, photocopiers, telephones, mobile telephones and radios, vehicles, etc. Global Wireless device with capability to use LAN and sensor Positioning System (GPS), Radar, Periscope network need to be established as needed. Analogue to digital Personnel computers and associated software converter will be wired to a computer .The PC could be the Steering Vessel Measuring System (VMS) and main control center that will be loaded with hardware and Vessel Traffic System (VTS) software interface program needed. This will be the main Security – The facilitation of the of the use smart control station through with features can be changed and cards to replace our various conventional security tested on the devices. Network sensor and Bluetooth and systems. Practical application of the ISPS code, connection to various systems can be established to the training and monitoring the ISPS code, seafarer ID various computers, wireless device and sensor and the internet. cards, reducing shipboard piracy, container shipping The layers of the architectures include[3,4]: security, port security, Smart and Secure Trade lanes, and container security initiatives. Server layer: Micro servers are used to host local content and may be embedded in various devices to make them network-aware and remotely controllable. IV. PROCESS FOR SHORE SENSOR INFORMATION Can be used TINI embedded microcontroller to build PROCESSING SYSTEM (SSIPS) the micro server TINI is the size of a 72-pin memory SIMM module, has a hybrid 8/32 CPU (DS80C390 -To put the SSPS system together, the process could target the backwards compatible with 8051), 512K/1M non-following three phase viz: volatile (battery-backed) RAM, 512K flash ROM, 2x serial, 2x CAN, 1-wire, parallel, real-time clock, and i. Equipments and testing, runs Slush (with a command shell similar to Unix), a ii. Arrangement, connection, networking and testing Java virtual machine (JVM) and Java API. Software iii. Coding and testing. includes FTP server, TELNET server, TTY server and HTTP server. A micro server may have interfacesA Description of Equipment such as CF (mainly for networking), SD (mainly for storage), USB, infrared, and DSP and Clock speed in1 Hardwires the order of 300- 500 MHz.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 Wireless layer: For a user can interact with the cyber- assisted environment through an agent device like PDA’s or mobile phone.Wireless network with inter- operability being one of the most important aspects, the standard 802.11b and 802.11 will be used according to nature of the system. Sensor network layer: networks are used to get real world data, her there is need for gateway to IP sensor, The main module has a microprocessor and an RF chip; the sensor module has the sensors for light, temperature, magnetism, acceleration, and sound. As the role of sensor networks is constant monitoring, radio communication is usually in use. Therefore, gateways between sensor networks and computer networks will be needed; their task is to monitor incoming sensor data and invoke hook operations FIGURE II. SYSTEM ARRANGEMENT AND DIAGRAM when trigger events are detected. Middleware layer: To have applications working over heterogeneous embedded networks requires VI SUBSYSTEM OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK lightweight mechanisms of service directory and remote procedure invocation. Multicast This system can be tested on different subsystem and (DNS)domain name service discovery is a good system, technology could be applies on various part of the pick for the former functionality and the web based ship: Most ship systems are design to run on analogue built technologies for the latter, as JAVA for simple system, in this new digital time, today there are many server-side processing and SOAP (simple object commercial and ship built on digital system. Integrated Ship access protocol) for network wide distributed Control System (ISCS or ISC) is replacing obsolete analog processing. ship’s control systems with a state-of-the-art, commercial off- Real world user interface: Implementation of smart the-shelf (COTS) system with a Windows NT operating ship will allow user to interact with the real world system or Linux that communicates via dual-honed single and environment, user interface on the agent device will multi-mode fiber optics. The air-blown fiber optic network, be a good in thing in addition to the standard web programmable logic controllers (PLCs), data acquisition units browser interface. Infrared communication will be (DAUs), Intergraph computers, and Henshel hardware used for the physical reference, where the IP address components are the backbone of the equipment equipments in of the agent device and the URL of the service on the this category . micro server is pointed at by the user are exchanged. Voice recognition will useful for specifying services, where the users voice is sampled on the agent device VII BEST PRACTICE FOR SHIPBOARD SYSTEM and then transmitted to the voice recognition server by the VoIP (voice over IP) technology. The result may be used with the multicast DNS service A. Typical example for on board integrated Bridge System discovery. Another interesting method is location- (IBS) based service lookup. Other location infrastructures that can be used are 3D video tracking and based This include provision of navigation assurance via station id of wireless will be used for short distance. automated piloting and ship’s course and track analysis with Switch arrangement to GPS should be provided for radar and digital nautical chart overlay, as well as collision ship-shore needs. avoidance, on possible required integration needed from on Security layer: the security and privacy issues are board ships systems are: ever prominent yet potential difficult and problems in smart system design. It is not acceptable for the ship 1. Actuators or operations to fail. And since the whole idea is about opening the network to the net, securing the i. 4 rpm controlled azimuth thrusters with indecently network is important; security measure will include controllable azimuth angles that can control ID encryptions and using location authentication. commands are transferred from the control room to Using internet security for protection against long the ship by a radio link. distance intruder. 2. Computer system
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 ii. Micro PC onboard the ship running QNX real-time controls. There is need to prepare a micro server with an operating system ( target PC) infrared port, run a web server with a java script that has iii. The control system is developed on a PC in the information about the remote control signals for the target control room (host PC) Simulink/Opal can be use on device, and placed it in an appropriate position. The remote target PC using automatic C-code generation and control procedure will be according following steps could wireless ethernet. follow: iv. Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) that provides condition-based maintenance recording for i. The user transmits the agent devices IP address in the main propulsion, electric plant, and auxiliary infrared beam by pressing a designated button. The equipment micro server receives the beam and sends back the v. Wireless Communication System that provides hand- URL of the remote control java page on its web held communications for ship’s key personnel in or server to the decoded address of the sender over the near the ship. wireless network. ii. A web browser is started with the returned of URL on the agent device; the user then sees a remote controlB Typical example - for a on board power plant and fuel page for which he/she presses one button. A requestcontrol system is sent to the micro server’s web server; next, the corresponding JAVA script is executed and the Machinery Control System (MCS) could provides main control signal is transmitted to the device. The userpropulsion and electrical plant control, also fuel Control sees his request granted. Voice IP technology will beSystem (FCS) provides an automated control of a ship’s fuel incorporated as necessarilyfill and transfer operations. D. Typical example for ship shore communication and data sharing i. Determination of power capacity of a particular utility plant and how many substations it can be This involve we will device application to open and divided into. integrate ship shore network and communication system to the ii. Number of equipment will be derivative of 1 internet .this way, communication will be cheaper, but the iii. Number of substations according power need with thing here is that main security satellite transmission and step up and step down transformers will be ideal for a reception dish will be used here. prototype design. With nominal 220v input and output voltage. iv. 4-Auto transformer can be use to determine input and VIII WHAT CAN BUILDING THE ABOVE DESCRIBE impedance can be used to simulate the load and filters SYSTEMS ACHIEVE will be connected for PF control station, substation central station connected through LAN and Bluetooth A. Paperless desktop to the various computers, wireless device and sensor and the Internet. v. Number of computer- aided system can be connected i. Regional information/data repository to the switches and controller and various network ii. Single interface for all Web-accessible devices , but whenever it cannot find a solution it will information/applications send alarm or message through the network to human iii. Automatic routing and storage of correspondence and and will learn how the solution was provides. instructions vi. 3-phase transformer Current transformer Potential iv. Reduction in labor associated with copying and transformer Autotransformer Impedance, Circuit mailing paperwork breaker, Computers fixed filter and Control filters v. Faster access to more accurate information increases Switch software simulation. worker satisfaction vi. Reduced workload for admin workers provides more Focal areas for this model are intelligent routing of the time for other essential taskssystem and Power distribution and control. The use ofexisting power line to build the network physical and control ** Naval Air Station (NAS) Brunswick: saves 36,000 sheetscould enter e-recycling regime. of paper annually on instruction distribution aloneC. Typical example for smart terminal operations B. Smart terminal This will include capability for short range sensingapplication ashore and on board where the system allows the i. Automated port operations management systemuser to control any device that has ordinary IR remote
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 ii. Vessel/Berth/Tug Scheduling & Web Enabled Provides increased security status visibility System Reduces manpower requirements while increasing iii. Provides improved efficiencies by providing security level improved communications and near ―real-time‖ Increased security means safer working environment monitoring of Port Ops assets iv. Reduces preventive and corrective maintenance on all H. Lifeline port operations equipment, which means less overtime required for already-busy sailors and Delivers QOL services and programs via the Internet, civilians teleconferencing, satellite broadcasting and cable TV Web site uses "expert systems‖ to deliver a comprehensive range of human services andD. Smart Procurement Electronic Data Interchange (SPEDI) has assistance to the total forcebeen implemented in the US NAVY ship Assurance of supplements does not replace traditional QOL community-based service delivery systems Total e-commerce solution for negotiated procurement Provides greater access to "high touch" human services using "high tech" modern technologies Automated back office processing capability and interface to DFAS Maritime multimedia super-corridor-including training video conferencing Completely eliminates unmatched disbursements Joint maritime services partnership Just-in-Time/optimized inventory management Reduces labor associated with order, receipt and bill I. Smart base direction paying procedures (customers, vendors Near Term:E. Activity-Based Costing/Management (ABC-ABM) o Installation and Region Interoperability o Local Operational Unit Integration into Benefit derived here will be Shore Business Process Provides tools to facilitate management decisions in Mid-Term: allocating resources efficiently and maximizing o Multi-Region Interoperability operational efficiencies Long Term: Operational efficiencies gained reduce maintenance o Installation, Region, Headquarters Staff requirements, which in turn reduce workload Interoperability Savings gained through process reengineering can be Continuous: used to better serve the sailor o Leverage existing investments, infrastructure, policies and practices to assist in reducing the cost of daily shore-basedF. Intransit material bar-coding operations Automated inventory tracking and notification system XI COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE Distribution Center automatically notifies customers via email of supply shipments Theoretical knowledge based on digital electronics, More accurate tracking of supplies LAN, microprocessor, c++ and other electrical, electronics, Faster delivery of supplies from distribution center to computer and communication engineering and ship systems operational units areas could be applied as needed. Installations of systems that Supplies directly or indirectly affect QOL of sailor perform voyage management, digital damage control (operational readiness) information management, wireless internal voice communications, equipment condition assessment, digital machinery control, a Learning Resource Center and a fiber-G. Electronics Security optic LAN is recommended for the Smart Ship System Assessment report. This is required utilize the advantage of the Automated electronic access control via Smart Card synergy between technology and policy and procedural using contactless card technology (proximity card) changes and to enable manpower reductions with less risk. Monitors general base access and special access areas Central secure surveillance of interiors, exteriors and Risk solutions and recommendation –the military has property parameters always been the first institution that invest a lot to try new Records management system/access audit/ event things, the US Navy’s has been involved in smart ship recording program geared towards reduced cost and man power, while also increasing efficiency. Installation and integration of the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010latest technologies now provides the fleet with automatic infrastructure are necessary to implement moderndigital control and status monitoring for its vital operational technologies. Table II shows potential ship board impact areas.systems thus this has always been the trend of research work,adapting current system developed smart system on war ship TABLE 11. SPACE WHERE SIMILAR POLICY CHANGEand smart terminal operations to commercial fleet is a COULD IMPACTpresently needed for the level of technology in shipping. The cost of establishing this system and the networkis high - however; suggestion will be made on upgrade ofexisting facility to lower cost to a greater degree. The aboveproposed describe system is a complex task, since two headsare better than one combine industry, military, academic andprofessional in this field has been useful and this couldfacilitate the other work including building the prototypes ,system and equipment installation. Survey and analysis of existing wireless and networksystem and modification to requirement is a good tool toidentify various goal and necessary upgrade, which willequally reduce the cost requirement of connection andequipment that will be employed for hybrid facility Selectionand building the program tool to execute the control,operation, and research will be made on existing relatedprogram in other field as well as code elaboration will bedeveloped.X Cost and benefit analysis Information and initiatives will be freely exchanged The cost of analysis to complete the control and and shared to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of bothnetwork system requires critical analysis accordingly. The programs could augment the following:long term objective of these projects is to identify the mostpromising labor saving technologies available today for back i. Technology transfer prospect: in a world that is goingfit, or projected the future for forward fit. This will potentially through a wireless revolution, product reduction,save the industry significant manpower funds, in the long reliability, scalability and speed, the above described.term. Figure III shows cost saving from Smart system will be very marketable and its patents will allow technology and transfer and cooperation DESIGN 10 within electronics and marine industry. Same LABOR redundant technology can be use for smart hem and 8 smart industry and facility management. SHPYARD 6 LABOR 4 CONSUMPTIO ii. The advantages of the proposed design would N reduced manpower, reduced capital investment, 2 MAINTAINACE reduced demand for hot/fresh water, improved 0 PERSONAL sanitation, individualized menu selection, no TERMINAL inventory requirement, and reduced storage space. FIGURE III. TOTAL OWNERSHIP COST OPERATIONS Issue of Intelligent electric power resource COMPONENTS FOR A SHIP [SOURCE: NAS, 2009] management and other electrical or electronic power management are ample areas for improvement. This Traditional ships need a lot personal, and cutting out technology, application to other platforms, willthis number has always been a priority for many managers in shown savings in operational and maintenance time.the transportation industry and the answer to this isapplications of information technology challenge. It will iii. Potential Improvement: Independent of definitiveavoid Duplication or overlap with Smart Ship endeavors by billet reduction, impacts on design may be measured.working with other industry and merge ideas together to come Obviously, spaces should be designed to workup with the best aim system to control our devices., except in efficiently, whether manned to historical levels orthose cases where the initiative is an element of the core revised to reflect improvements in technology or
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 policy revision. Equipments would be multi- flow management, and personnel/facilities functional or accessible to more than one operator. scheduling. Physical area may be reduced as appropriate to facilitate access by fewer personnel. Efficiencies in Sustainability through manning and shipbuilding design: stowage are also examples of where design can be modified to best serve the crew regardless of size. On Smart Ship, the majority of the workload savings can i. Manning through constant care can only be maintain be attributed to policy and procedure changes. A new through training of personal, establishment ICT mind-set to review business as usual and develop department to focus on improving ship’s performance methods to utilize only those personnel required to on board, this project will be beneficial to the guide this effort [6, 7]. improvement of work on ship and shore. First, shore- based training is transitioning to shipboard responsibility - and secondly, there will need forXI RISK AREAS FOR SSIPS embedded on board training program with emphasize on expanded computer skills for both operator and maintainer and average sailor’s tenth gradeMajor Potential Risk Areas : for everything the is always the educational level has to be supplemented bybad side, smart system development for ship has no exemption extensive onboard training., therefore extensive work on security for necessary ii. Shipbuilding design based on the above will be aprotection. good guide for ship designer, their space work and partition. Other recommendations are: i. Potential Area(s) of Automation Risk: building infrastructure, office and Network systems, and the a. Fleet Modernization and conversion - Full build core seaport/terminal, ship carrier, and ship traffic integrated design, logistical and planning and management Infrastructure could affect the sea management support for modernize old fleet. transportation sectors ability to conduct critical, b. Upgrading fleet with Advanced Planar Antennae - essential, and non-essential business. The inability to use of Integrated VHF/UHF/L-Band Antenna utilize mobile radios, mobile telephones, telephones, (IVUL), Advanced Multifunction Radar Frequency and utility vehicles including support systems e.g., Concept (AMRF-C). maintenance, etc., and non-essential systems impact c. Radar upgrade - Ship systems to use near field radar would include the inability to utilize basic office reflectivity range that provides the capability to support resources measure the radar reflectivity of large structures accurately and with high resolution. Individual ii. Operational: Loss of failure of the vessels component contributions. navigation, steering, speed logs, military and d. Remote Source Lighting - remote source lighting commercial radar, Vessel Measuring System (VMS), technology in marine applications that allows full Vessel Traffic System (VTS), communications and spectrum effective lighting in hazardous atmosphere Periscope, control systems, e.g., engine and cargo environments without the expensive, heavy weight systems, failure or corruption of the seaport, sea explosion. carrier, or sea traffic management systems. Data e. Fiber optics cable technology promised weight Bases that support the fundamental sector operations reduction and lowered interference susceptibility for such as passenger and cargo reservations and communications applications. booking, sea planning and traffic flow management, and personnel/facilities scheduling, Mobile Radios XII MITIGATION OPTIONS ON IMPACTS and Telephones, Utility Vehicles, and Telephone Service i. Officer of the Watch manned only when as necessary, change may not have negative impact on readiness iii. Port Infrastructure: Loss of elevators, escalators, fire and can be implemented at zero cost. Wireless detection, heating and air Conditioning (HVAC), communications provides flexibility to have these electric power, safety, security, telecommunications, personnel roving or on-call rather than remaining in reservation, flight planning, and scheduling systems, concentrated on job. Design sufficient monitoring, as well as Leasing and Financial Management Issue: Shipboard Automated Planned Maintenance Software. Failure or corruption of the seaport, sea System (SAPMS) reduced time to perform PMS carrier, or sea traffic management systems. Also, data checks on UHF equipments Impact. SAPMS or Bases that support the fundamental sector operations similar system would be of more benefit because of such as passenger and cargo reservations and potentially more use of UHF equipments booking, customer billing, sea planning and traffic
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 9, December 2010 ii. Use of High Speed Fleet Broadcast system will smart ship technology will achieve a return on investment in increases the throughput rate of fleet broadcast by future voyage management, LAN/wireless internal 300% to 9600 bps and enhances ship’s HF communication and machinery condition assessment that are capabilities by providing single tone modems with valuable particularly in reduce risk, and increasing speed. interleaving and Forward Error Correction. It replaces Smart new technology applications will supplement or replace existing fleet satellite broadcast modems. Message current shipboard systems and subsequently mitigate increased volumes continue to increase and even, hence higher risk perceived from reducing watch standers. SPS could also speeds will be needed. Modems already achieving reduce present day’s transportation problems in making 56.6K bps a faster system will be beneficial. transportation system safer and more efficient. Setting, iii. High Frequency Radio Group replaces existing program functioning, and staff skills unification of system in shipboard manually tuned/controllable and rigid HF diversity, foster extensive cooperation among professionals, (2-30MHz) systems. HF remains a viable tactical agencies through building integrated information system. It circuit for ship-to-shore operations particularly due to will also improve readiness for change and resources available the always present competition for satellite on pressing issues in marine transportation systems as well bandwidth. Automating tuning and controlling will further great transformation and reciprocating performance increase accuracy and set up speed. contribution to human civilization. iv. Touchpads replace mice and/or track balls facilitate operator interface and have no moving parts. There REFERENCE may be difficult for the operator because the pitch size of the indicator will be too small to see under 1. Sumit Ghosh Tony Lee, 2000. Intelligent transportation. modeling and simulation techniques for ITS Design, future issues of the finger and the sensor areas had to be brightly ITS,CRC ,PP135-165 lighted in order to find - impacting night vision. 2. C.S. Papacostas, P.D. Prevedouuros. Transportation engineering Suggestion: Equipments with Touchpad should be and planning, prentice hall 2001. evaluated by location, requirement for lighting, and 3. Roshini Ratnasingam, Indept study of oxide material for high frequencyapplication ease of using before full scale implementation http://www.sysopt.com/articles/soi/index3.html v. EDI system- Resale Operations Management 4. http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~pal/research/tossim.html, accessed, Electronic Data Interchange (ROM EDI) eliminates may, 2009. various paper-intensive operations such as preparing 5. Dan Houser. Infosecurity magazine, network security for submarines, pp46-57, august 2003. hard copy, monthly transmittals. It improves 6. Geographical information system in transport research. Pergamon accuracy while reducing workload. 2000. vi. Automated Log Keeping, reduce paper work on 7. Mechatronics.W.Bolton. Prentice Hall, 2003. board ship and improve accuracy. vii. Galley maintenance- is a labor intensive function. It AUTHORS PROFILE is possible to modify the bulk of this operation O. O. Sulaiman is currently lecturer and research fellow in Maritime Technology department at University Malaysia Terengganu. He without overburdening the individual Sailor through chattered engineer and chattered marine enegineer. He has 18 years innovative packaging and food preparation. The experience in maritime industry. He has taught various maritime subject. proposed conceptual design would require an He has sailed on board ocean going vessel vessel and work on various automated ID system, a comprehensive data base, marine projects. advanced food processing and packaging, and A.H. Saharuddin is curently the dean of of Faculty of Mraitime Studies and Marine Science. He is a Fellow of IMarEST. He is a policy expert in innovative heating technology. maritime industry. A.B. S. Kader is profesor of Marine Technology, He has worked on variousXIII CONCLUSION maritime projects. Beside environmental benefit of reducing flooding ofland and capturing of green house gases by less tree cutting,