Ecce 1106-014-review-of-potential-of-inland-waterway-hybrid-transportation

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  • 1. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011 Review of Potential of Inland Waterway Hybrid Transportation for Sustainable Transportation Capability Building Terengganu O. O. Sulaiman , A.H. Saharuddin A. S.A. KaderAbstract — Civilization has brought us to a speed like never I. INTRODUCTIONbefore, we live in a world where we have so much to finish In today’s transportation congestion and air pollutionand the time remain the same, where there is call for need to problem on shore infrastructure is causing more to moderatereview the way we have been doing things and adopt more concern and increasingly damaging growth in the size of theassociative, sensitivity philosophy. Likewise, human ingenuity problem cal for need for formulation of policy for air- road tohas provided this age with formidable technology including sea integration. By placing focus on waterborne transport, andthe information that can help us deal with the question of the integrating to road and air issue place a higher demandtime. There is no doubt that all what is left of human to cope multimodal transport which in turn give leverage for need towith the require pace of technology and demand of the time is put focus on a number of shortcomings related to the use ofto reduce the time and improve on what we have by ships for community and freight transport in conjunction withconsidering unitization and integration of our systems, while other mode of transportation. To aid the implementation ofbeing sensitive to everything that concern the environment. policy for the use of inland water transportation, high numberTransportation industry should not be left out in this. This of community research and technical development actions,paper will discuss hybridization of transportation system by relevant to waterborne transport is require. Some of whichconsidering comparative advantage and use of benefit could include concerted action on short sea shipping, designedprovided by the two seas of information and environmental to identify some of the structural or generic problems in thetechnology that is currently dynamically transforming our use of ships for relatively short-haul transport and other thatworld in order to maximized use to improve our target environmental impacts as well as issue of safe andtransportation system, incorporating new Inland Water efficient increase of reliability intermodal transportation.Transportation system that will efficiently in an innovative Furthermore, hybrid use of transportation will require themanner link our cities with existing transportation by intelligent transportation system that incorporates use ofproviding quality facilities and services for people at advanced Integrated Ship Control Systems, AIS and extensiveaffordable rate through system hybridization and integration. use of information technology needed to provide a solution toThis will include infrastructure that will link logistics modern transportation problem.equipment together for a better management, control and thereality of putting concept of togetherness into practice to Inland water transportation either in moving people andachieve greater things that will solve transportation problem. freight in a sustainable manner is increasingly becomingProduction associated with linking the land, the sea, and air important, will be one of the biggest challenges for the 21sttransportation together according comparative advantage, Century, an age where environmental pressure is calling forprovision of transfer equipment, information and sensitive reactions, adoption of new proactive innovativeenvironmental technology solution consideration as needed, behavior to relate factors associated with design, constructioncost saving associated with the merging, arrangement of new and operations and utilize them to deal with inherent needssystems, enhancement derived from transportation response. Action associated with human life mitigation hasinformation and control system to transportation problem always been part of concern of decision making, but to a lessrelating to congestion and environment will be discussed will extent. In a world where warning of nature regarding need ofbe discussed. awareness and sensitivity as well facts to how substantial . nature is to the support of life and how much damage reckless human activities has cause imbalance in our planet. A situationKey Words — At least four key words or phrases, commas that is vividly threatening our plant today and striping hope forshould be separating each keyword. our future generation survival in this planet, A situation that is equally calling for all of us to adopt new philosophy of doing things, and giving insight in inevitable return to nature earlier ways of doing things – from use of sun, water and clean energy 73
  • 2. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011store in earth crust to use of inland water transportation. Past beneficial reward to reciprocal development of waterfrontengineer work on inland have been dominated with reactive, areas that provide multiuse activities; improve socialand today s world has reach a toll whereby there is no chance interaction and a sense of community. Hybrid concept requiresto wait for accidents whose consequence is environmental facilities to be strategically placed in close proximity to otherdegradation at its point form or instantaneous calamity. [1]. modal transportation system. The design need to pay attention to historic, current and future development patterns. There is a surmountable barrier to achieving a sustainablemultimodal inland water transportation where environmental Inland navigation offers important opportunities toimpacts and risk will be mitigated and integrative components move cargos on river, estuarine and associated tributary in anof water recourses will be utilized. However, incorporating energy-efficient manner, reduced cost of good transportationholistic systems framework and system engineering tools back per tone - kilometer compare to other mode of transportationwith analysis and identification leading to alternative path to in. It remain one of the best option available to mitigatingshort and long term solutions to the problem can facilitate problem associated with global warming, climate change,achieving quality management of the evolving new philosophy noise pollution as well as congestion. Capacity building,of sustainability [2]. Such alternative solutions after environmentally and socially friendly, taking advantage ofdiscounting environmental concern could accommodate nonstructural measures (such as fleet innovation) [3] as well asincreasing inland waterway integration for shipping cargo infrastructure investments, and multimodal corridorcontainers including lock development, intermodal, incorporation become increasingly a matter of dire need todayinformation technology solution, provision of incentives to [4]. Malaysia has 7,200 km of waterways, most of them riversalleviate congestion during seasonal congestion hybrid of of this, 3200 km are in Peninsular Malaysia, while 1,500 kmtransportation mode based on best option selection [3]. are in Sabah and Sarawak has 2,500 km.Sustainable Inland water system contains physical elementsthat include waterways, ports, and intermodal network of Inland water transportation has substantially shapedrailroads, roadways, and pipelines, that connect the waterborne the growth and development of nations in Europe and Northportions of the system as required. The physical elements also America, however, previous work on transportation are muchinclude the vessels and vehicles that move goods and people more based on proactive method, Recent study made bywithin the system. The physical network is supported by a European Union indicated potential for augmentation ofseries of systems that facilitate the movement of goods and percentage of shipping in total transport volume in the Danubepeople, and provide access for recreation and to natural region, this lead to agreement for inland navigationresources. Also associated with development of inland water improvement in an integrated manner by the ten Danubetransportation is dredging work to meet size of vessels, riparian states there is indication that climate change will havemaintenance dredging and containment technologies for will bring potential development of on the furtherdredge material disposal or reuse of dredged material may be a development of IWT and this make navigation management,feasible alternative that provides an economic benefit. planning and development of IWT to take the issue of climate change and ozone depletion into account.[5] O.O. Sulaiman is with the University Malaysia Terengganu, Faculty of Maritime Studies and Marine Science, 21030, Kuala The important of transportation and utilizing full Terengganu,Terengganu, Malaysia (e-mail: o.sulaiman@umt.edu.my). A.H. Saharuddin is with the University Malaysia Terengganu, advantage of new and emerging transportation technologies Faculty of Maritime Studies and Marine Science, 21030, Kuala remain engine of tomorrows growth and prosperities as well as Terengganu,Terengganu, Malaysia (e-mail: sdin@umt.edu.my. supports for safety, security, conservation of energy and A.S.A Kader is with the University Technology Malaysia, Faculty of environmental quality. Since, Inland transportation cannot Mechanicak Engineering, Johor Bahru, Skudai, Malaysia (e-mail: absaman@fkm.utm.my. stand alone and its efficiency, strength can only be maximized through integrative intermodalism and diversity, this provide opportunity for cooperative climate for intermodal systems, II. INLAND WATER TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM cooperative climate requires the coordination of more than one (IWTS) mode of transportation. With each mode having its own system-specific advantages: motor carriers have the ability to Civilization has ground up along rivers, lakes, ocean, provide door-to-door service; water carriers that can handlethe great rivers of the world, like Amazon, Mississippi, Ganges bulk commodities safely at very low cost; and rails that canRhine Danube Niger, and Nile influences the lives of millions, transport a broad range of commodities over long distances.not only their very existence but also their political, art, and Retaining sustainability principle that public good is bestscience. People are inherently drawn to water, this make use of served by the most efficient use of transport resources,water resources an important part of human development. regardless of mode, and implementing the new philosophy ofProperly managed river basin can augment food water its sustainability equally requires `incorporation of use ofsupplies, improve transportation, provide energy and develop water resources for other use as required by the environmentindustry. Development of water resources also carry the good [6]. 74
  • 3. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011 Couple with this, recent issue of today especially the two. Likewise environmental laws are all over at the vergefrom environmental domain called for need to adopt new of established a legal framework aimed at keepingsustainability philosophy, a healthy and responsive transportation decisions consistent with that goal [10].transportation system. And method that can yield vitality andgrowth, and the productivity of commerce, the nation needs[8]. Focusing on efficiency and complementation rather than III. THREAT AND CHALLENGE OF GREEN HOUSEcompetition between different transportation systems is a key GAS, AND IMPACT ON TRIO OF GLOBAL WARMING,economic growth, sustainability and productivity of a nation. OZONE DEPLETION, IMPACT ON CLIMATEEfficient freight transportation systems play a positive role CHANGEboth in the economic life of industrialized countries and thedaily lives of their citizens. These countries realize theimportance of the relationship between good systems, services Recent time has seen environmental calamity andand their economy. However, while these transportation abnormal environmental behavior which today the consensussystems are essential to a modern society, and there are of scientist have agreed to be linked to human activities. Thesubstantial economic benefits to be realized from them, there world of man is madE up of the biosphere and the technoare also significant negative environmental impacts, including sphere, human inherited the earlier and it give all supportpreemption of land, disruption of topography, use of energy needed for human to live, however, we neglect to know andand other resources, and noise and air pollution [7]. even take care of it and we created the later whose buy product are claimed to be responsible for effect of ozone depletion that In making choice of transportation modes, limit sunlight reaching our planet and consequentially warm upconsideration should be given to the mode that does not our planet and cause other chain reaction that leads tocontribute to unnecessary increases in fuel use, exhaust environmental revolt.emissions, accidents, spill incidents, and congestion. It seemsthat not a day goes by without some new evidence of the An analysis of temperature records in Malaysia showsincreasing pollution of our environment and its consequences. a warming trend. For the assessment of the impacts of climateThere are indications everywhere those environmental rights change on agriculture, forests, water resources, coastal(breathable air, drinkable water, fertile soil), which have been resources, health and energy sectors, temperature changesregarded as inexhaustible or renewable, are becoming scarce ranging from +0.3°C to +4.5°C and rainfall changes ranging[8]. from –30% to +30% were used. Several fixed sea level rise scenarios within the range of 20–90 cm in 100 years were Today, with much more environmental awareness and adopted for the assessment of impacts on coastal resources. Asa greater understanding of the consequences of pollution, both much as 6% of land planted with oil palm and 4% of landgovernment and society are much less tolerant of pollution. On under rubber may be flooded and abandoned as a result of seaa global scale, pollution is a growing threat to both human level rise. Forests, however, are more vulnerable to land usehealth and the environment. Commercial freight transportation, change than to climate change. Upland forest can be expectedwith its almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuels, to expand by 5% to 8%, but this could be nullified by a loss ofcontributes significantly to pollution levels. Therefore, each between 15% and 20% of mangrove forests located along theform of transportation, as a major energy user, needs to be coast as a result of sea level rise [11].evaluated both as to the scarceness and future availability ofthe energy resources that it uses and to its impact on the The impact on coastal resources can be classified intoenvironment. With each transport mode having its own four broad categories. The first is tidal inundation, wherespecific energy-use and environmental characteristics, about 1200 km2 in Peninsular Malaysia alone will bedecisions on transport issues, whether short or long term, have submerged subsequent to bund failure, and mangroves will beinevitable impacts on the environment, which should be clearly lost if sea level rises at a rate of 0.9 cm/year. The second isweighed before a final decision is made[9]. shoreline erosion, which will account for another few hundred metres of shoreline retreat. The third is increased wave action, Both the environment and the quality of life are which can affect the structural integrity of coastal facilities andreceiving greater attention, resulting in a growing demand for installations such as power plants. The last is saline intrusion,not only an environmentally sound transportation system, but which can pose a potential threat of water contamination atalso for policies where environmental goals are given greater water abstraction points. Examples of other impacts includeweight in transportation decisions. The result of this concern submergence of corals, coral bleaching due to increasing levelsover the impact of transportation systems on the environment of CO2 in the water, and depletion of fisheries resources dueis reflected in how those systems are now being planned for to loss of mangrove habitats.the future. Transportation designers and environmentalists,both of whom recognize the interdependence between Due to uncertainty attached to knowledge experience,transportation systems and the environment, are increasingly and baseline data available of GHG, it is advisable to use theconcerned about maintaining an appropriate balance between 75
  • 4. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011worst possible scenario in terms of GHG emissions inventory.Such approached has been used to estimate Malaysia greenhouse gas emission which is given bellow Alexia’s greenhousegas (GHG) emissions totalled 144 million tonnes in terms ofcarbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent in 1994. Net emissions, afteraccounting for sinks of 68 million tonnes, amounted to 76million tonnes CO2 equivalent. On a per capita basis, netemissions amounted to 3.7 tonnes CO2 equivalent. In terms ofGHGs, CO2 accounted for 67.5%, methane (CH4) 32.4% andnitrous oxide (N2O) 0.1% of total CO2 equivalent emissions.The fuel combustion energy sector accounted for 86.7% oftotal CO2 emissions, landfills (46.8%) and fugitive emissionsfrom oil and gas (26.6%) accounted for 73.4% of total CH4 Terengganu has reserves of natural gas estimated atemissions, and traditional biomass fuels accounted for 86.4% 31.2 trillion cubic feet and crude oil reserves of about 1.63of total N2O emissions [11]. billion barrels and her agriculture production land cover about 300,000 hectares Considering trend going towards use of Natural gas (LNG, LPG CNG), Terengganu need multimodal transportation as a generic system to fill capacity building gap IV. THE CASE OF TERENGGANU needed in the petrochemical corridor that will serve oil-and gas value chain, starting with upstream exploration [12]Terengganu is coastal state strategically located on the easternseaboard of Peninsula Malaysia; Terengganu enjoys easy The state strategy nature of state of Terengganu placeaccess to both emerging markets and rich resources by land, in a best position to consider planned strategy to implementsea and air. Terengganu has coastlines of 244 km offer access hybrid concept for transportation. Table 1 show the case ofto seas rich in marine life. Figure 1 show the transportation Terengganu and the thematic resources areas that will benefitnetwork for Terengganu. from hybrid based design transportation system. The table below shows the GDP share of sector of various sectors. TABLE 2 GDP (Source- http://www.terengganu.gov.my/v5/bm/)Figure 1 – Terengganu transportation network TABLE 1 RESOURCES, Terengganu also bleesed with rich natural beauties (http://www.terengganu.gov.my/v5/bm/) and wealth of culture and heritage that place it high among tourist destination it is estimated that Over 1.3 million visitors arrived in the first 10 months of 2004, and the state Predicts 15% growth in annual visitor numbers with highlight on building capacity in eco-tourism, agro-tourism, Cultural- tourism, edu-tourism, histrotourism, and homestays which require sound transportation that can be offered through multimodalism and intelligent transportation. Figure 2 show that there is rise in people visiting Terengganu. 76
  • 5. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011 Coastal strategic location of Terengganu provide easyTABLE 2 access to the region’s key shipping lanes via the port ofTOURISM, (Source-http://www.terengganu.gov.my/v5/bm/) Kemaman and the Kerteh Port, while kemaman port is an multipurpose port that ranging from general cargo and dry bulk to liquid bulk., kerteh is a dedicated facility for the petrochemical industry. i. Kemaman - Port strategic location offers easy access to the South China Sea and Asia-Pacific rim, Kemaman’s provides fast fast-growing markets and secure passageto users, it has 850m breakwater that acts as a buffer against the seasonal northeast winds. It has can accept vessels as largeas 150,000Multimodal integrated intelligent transportation require robust dwt all year long, maintenance of the navigation channel makeand networks on land, sea and air and ITC to simplify logistics Kemaman Port’s to maintain leading port status in the regionsimplify. Table 3 Table 4 shows cargo projection for port seaports. The Kemaman Port also enjoys high productivity andKlang. Table 5 shows potential GHG emission release. cargo turnaround rates due to its automated processes and the experience and expertise of a highly-skilled workforce. Currently, the port has 11 berths with a total length of 2,078 TABLE 3 metres providing a total berth capacity of 14.94 million CARGO TYPES (`000 FWT) tonnes. It has five major terminals: i. The East Wharf (with a berth capacity of 5.57 million Year Dry Liquid General Container TOTAL tonnes)- equipped with special handly facilty to 2001 7,103 4,686 5,523 52,837 70,149 handle hazardous and non azadrous cargo range from 2002 8,093 5,280 5,629 63,269 82,271 logs, timber, plywood and steel product 2003 8,175 5,628 6,546 68,539 88,888 2004 7,707 5,733 8,179 78,292 99,911 ii. The LPG export terminal (1.04 million tonnes) – 2005 8,649 5,291 7,989 87,729 109,659 equipped with pipeline network support base – 2006 8,499 5,652 7,879 99,974 122,005 kemaman supply based for transportation of 2007 7,651 5,443 9,048 113,372 135,514 compressed gases. iii. The Kemaman Supply Base (832,000 tonnes), which is a facility specially geared towards the demands of the oil and gas industry, TABLE 5 iv. The West Wharf (6.46 million tonnes), PROJECTED THROUGHPUT FOR BULK AND v. A liquid chemical berth (1.04 million tonnes) CONTAINER AT KLANG PORT ii. Kerteh Port - located right in the middle of the Year (tonnes 000`) Bulk cargo (TEUs 000`(Container 3297 105932 433637 939 198063 295124 2101 980944 3852753 462 7887 1234395 198 8940 354672 TABLE 4 ANNUAL EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY Emission source Tow boat Other transportatio n Other mode NOx 3297 105932 433637 HC 939 198063 295124 CO 2101 980944 3852753 SOx 462 7887 1234395 Particulate 198 8940 354672 PETRONAS Petroleum Industrial Complex in Kerteh, about 30km to the north of Kemaman Port. Fully managed by aC. Terengganu Transportation PETRONAS subsidiary company, the dedicated Kerteh Port Fig. 3- Infract structure 77
  • 6. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011specializes in the shipping of liquid petrochemical products The first case apply to Terengganu, the first caseand has six berths that can accept vessels as large as 40,000 apply, and significant, sustainable balancing of economic,dwt, that carry pressurized LPG, propane, and butane gases. environmental development, community involvementB. Air transportation - Currently, the bulk of cargo in maximize benefits of the planning and implementation strategyTerengganu passes through the busy seaports, while airports that could result to dramatically improved public access,are used primarily for passenger transport. Competitively- provision of new open spaces, improved quality of life,priced and frequent flights from Terengganu’s two airports strengthened city and image and community pride.located in Kuala Terengganu and Kerteh make flying aconvenient mode of transport.C. Roads transportation - Terengganu has about 1,071 km of V. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK OF IWTSfederal roads and about 1,660 km of state roads. The maintrunk roads are a coastal road that runs from Kuantan in The environmental impacts of water transportationneighbouring Pahang to Kampung Raja in the extreme north, vary from river to river and project to project, but in manyand an inner-state road that cuts across the industrial cases, the environment is not noticeably affected by waterwayhinterland. freight transport. Where it does have a negative impact, theD. Rail transportation -A dedicated industrial railroad meets effect is usually minimal. Because of the concern over thethe needs of companies in the petrochemical corridor in the impacts that the different transportation modes have on thesouthern half of Terengganu. Built and operated by environment, there has been a more concerted effort to identifyPETRONAS, this 77km line runs between Kerteh and those impacts. Recent time have studies that are similar inKuantan. One of this railroad’s principal roles is to transport nature analyzed the types and levels of impacts of a modalcargo back-and-forth between the key seaports in Kuantan and shift on the environment; viz. what happens if cargoKerteh, with planned extensions later on to Paka and movements are shifted from one mode to another. What wouldKemaman Port. be the increases in fuel usage, Issues related exhaustE. ICT – Terengganu currently has integrated fixed line, emissions, probable accidents, traffic congestion, etc. All threemobile and satellite communications infrastructure that studies compared the same cargoes shipped by differentsupports domestic and international services encompassing modes, and concluded that, ton for ton, produce vessels havevoice, video, wireless, fiber optics, data and other advanced fewer accidents, consume less energy, fewer harmfulcommunications services. Optimum of ICT will be required emissions, society in general and are less disruptive. Thesefor hybrid transportation. studies findings show that transporting of bulk commodities byF Industrial Estates - Industrial estates in Terengganu have water are environmentally compatible, provides a means tobeen strategically designed with comprehensive infrastructural sustainable development, and that the use of thisfacilities to enable businesses and projects to get off the environmentally-friendly mode should be encouraged. [13].ground swiftly. Currently, there are 23 industrial estates inTerengganu, occupying slightly more than 10,000 ha or 45% Wide variety of human activities can affect the coastal andof available land for industrial development. Thus they are marine environment. Population pressure, increasing demandsbuilt at strategic sites near transportation hubs, use of water for space, competition over resources, and poor economicinland water to transport the produce has not been maximized. performances can all undermine the sustainable use of our oceans and coastal areas. The most serious problems affectingWater management follows three stages: the quality and use of these ecosystems surrounding coastal water encompass release to: i. Unregulated river water become supply – oriented , it remain so as long as water is abundant and the demand can be satisfied i. Water – pollution release directly or washed downed without modifying hydrological regime. through ground water ii. Scarcity of water-with increase pressure of ii. Air : air pollution, noise population, vibration demand for water and water related services, iii. Soil : dredge disposal and contaminated sediments water management become resources iv. Flood risk: biochemical reaction of pollution oriented and the basis for multipurpose elements with water. development. v. Collision : operational iii. Regulated natural regime-as Limit of vi. Biodiversification : endangered and threatened acceptable stream flow regulation and species, habitat development are reached, marginal cost of water supply radically increases, and here Risk management should involve alternative risk development management becomes reduction measures and the implementation of those that important. [1] appear cost effective .where Zero discharge = zero risk, but the challenge is to bring the risk to be at acceptable level and at 78
  • 7. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011the same time, derive the max Benefit. Simulate extremecondition and model – using combination mathematical The use of energy by the different modes of freightmodeling and stochastic techniques while considering all transportation has become of increasing concern in settingfactors in holistic manner. transportation policy. Energy efficiency is the measure of performance of our system is it structure or mobile Energy Uncertainty is part of risk, but it’s and abstract nature and efficiency is usually measured in one of two ways: bylimitation of knowledge of unseen in real world settings make comparing how many miles each mode of transportation canit s quantification a complex work. associated with uncertainty carry a ton of freight per gallon of fuel, or by how many BTUsare normally reflect issue of influences on recovery process, are expended per ton mile. In considering the choice ofTest of new advancements, Influence on policy, Address alternative transportation modes, it is imperative to considersystem changes over time, services & resources. The “sources” energy that will be spent in shifting from one mode to anotherof a “lack of certainty” can be several. Moreover, the methods will result in greater energy consumption by the less fuel-of measurement may be uncertain, or the models used efficient mode. For cargo carriage, vessels is required to moveinaccurate. Furthermore, uncertainty can arise from profound one ton of cargo none mile, with energy efficiency which is themisunderstandings of the phenomena that are observed or are inverse of energy intensiveness Propulsion energy includingattempted to be assessed, perhaps because there is no adequate refinery losses. -Combines operating energy with maintenancetheoretical knowledge yet. energy, vehicle manufacturing energy, and construction energy. Table 6 shows energy model comparison, and Table 7 show emission for energy sources. VI. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF IWTS The commodities on which our lives and livelihood TABLE 6depend have to be transported by one mode or another ENERGY MODAL COMPARISON Mode Operating energy LNE – haule Energy Modal Energyhowever; the aadvantage of using Inland water transportation Rail 412.5 706.3 1075system over other mode of transportation has been described Truck 1312.5 1312.5 2137.5 Barge 262.5 262.5 618.8by various comparative studies. Advantage range from issuesof concerned in of human modern world. As highlighted abovethere are inherent risks in shipping by barge, but yet statistics,water transport is the safest and most regulated form of TABLE 7transportation and has fewer accidental spills or collisions than MODAL ENERGY COMPARISON Nox PM FC COx Soxany other mode. This excellent record is directly attributable to % % % % %both exacting operational safeguards imposed by the carriers After treatment SCR (Selected catalytic reduction) -81 -35 -7.5 -7.5 -7.5themselves as well as strict federally-mandated inspection PMF (Particulate matter filter) None -85 2 2 2 Drive management systemsstandards. There is little public awareness of the water ATM (Advising tempomaat) -10 -10 -10 -10 -10transport industry outside the river communities that it serves. Diesel fuel quality / substitutes (BD) Bio - Diesel -10 -30 15 65 ~-100This can be attributed primarily to the non-intrusive nature of BDB (Biodiesel blend , 20%BD) 2 -6 3 -13 ~-20 LSF (Low sulfur fuel) None -1.7 none none ~-100the industrys operations and its impressive safety record. One New engine technologyof the primary reasons for this lack of intrusiveness is the NGE(Natural Gas Engine) -98.5 -97.5 4.5 -10 -100width of most of the rivers, their location in relation to Numerous studies of fuel efficiency have been done showspopulation centers, as well as levees and floodwalls. that shallow-draft water transportation is the most fuel efficient mode of transportation for moving bulkraw materials, is the According to the United Nations, human benefit from least energy intensive method of freight transportation whenmarine and coastal ecosystem and activities: Coastal tourism moving equivalent amounts of cargo, and consumes less=161 billion American dollars, Trade and shipping =155 energy than alternative modes [14]billion American dollars, Offshore oil and gas = 132 billionAmerican dollars, Fisheries = 80 billion American dollars. B. SafetyTherefore, it is important to be careful and maintain balance in Since the consequence of not being safe is environmentaldealing our activities. The popular media attention is catastrophic, modal comparison of transportation system hasconcentrated on loss of life and property. There is little revealed that water transport has the fewest numbers ofprospect for preventing many of the disasters from occurring incidents, fatalities, and injuries compare to other surfacealthough much could be done to reduce their severity. Many mode. The inland water transportation environment, with itsimpacts could be mitigated through better vulnerability and slow transit speeds, is relatively mild, and shock and vibrationrisk assessment, predictive modeling, information levels, which are dampened out by the cushioning effect of thedissemination, and policy development [13]. waterway itself, are not normally considered a problem. Land based including road and rail cars are susceptible to accidents,A. Energy efficiency often times resulting in a loss of cargo, especially rail 79
  • 8. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011transportation are more vulnerable because shipments typically serious disruptions of police, fire, and medical services, asinvolving a large number of massive units traveling at high well as periodic isolation of parts of communitiesspeed in a single line. River barges with navigation aidinfrastructure ensure right-of-way mostly with pleasure craft F. Cargo capacity - In terms of capacity a study done by COBthat operate primarily both in warmer weather and during came up with the following conclusion, which gives inlanddaylight hours an intermodal comparison work recently water a good advantage over other mode of transportation.conducted by waterway foundation G. Economic of IWTS - The political and economic changes ofC. Congestion nation is a big factor that maneuvered and created dynamic Pressure relating to technological; change needs and emerging economy in and generated needs and perspectivespopulation has led to high demand for road transportation for more trade and transport along the river in Europe and thevehicle that has led to un convenient congestion problems and United States. Such economy analysis and environmentalcones, traffic growth in most city of the world is currently analysis which is being dealt with in this research cold bringoutstripped any increase in increase of green house gas release assurance to drive the Transport policies that promote modalincrease, currently hurting our planet. There is currently shift. The making of inland transportation requires economicfringing in infrastructure capacity, where traffic demand analyses that identify trade growth consequential rapid rise inexceeds supply leading to delays and safety problems. the amount of traffic. Commercial transport in Malaysia corridor has soared growing more than 100% in the lastD. Air, noise and vibration pollution decade, with by far the largest increase registered in road transit. It is expected that Malaysia will continue this dynamicRise in traffic volumes due to urban population, increase economic development in the coming years (with minimummobility has been identified by recent studies to be main average GDP/capita growth rates of 3-4% per year until 2015)contributors to Noise levels rise and contamination of air and traffic flows could grow correspondingly [15].Compare toquality. Comparative studies has revealed that road other mode of transportation, Inland water Transportation is intransportation is the major offender Road transportation is the comparison to air and road transport, seen as moremajor offender more than other mode of transportation. environmentally friendly and energy efficient, and canCurrently there is limited data exists on noise levels of barge therefore contribute to sustainable socio-economicoperations, mainly because they are not considered problem. development of the region. Multimodal use of availableTable 8 shows share of GHG sources. transport possibilities (road, rail and IWT) has to be ensured. TABLE 8 H. Regulation requirement - Due to international implication MALAYSIA GREEN HOUSE GAS RELEASE of maritime industry, the required to be implemented are finalized by UN agencies following tacit proceedure, while theGHG Amount Industrial contribution state decide on formulating local legislation towardsCO2 67.5%, Combustion energy sector accounted for 86.7% of total CO2 implementation through marine administration and port state emissions, landfills (46.8%) and fugitive emissions from oil and gas contol. Under above described legal framework for guide to (26.6%) drafting legislation, in the context of maritime transportation, 3CH4 32.4% landfills (46.8%) and fugitive emissions from oil and gas (26.6%) main purposes of legislation under legal framework are: accounted for 73.4% of total CH4 emissions i. To provide legal framework for maritimeN2O 0.1% Traditional biomass fuels accounted for 86.4% of total N2O emissions transportation – effective legal framework is expected to cover all parties involved in maritimeE Social impacts transportation ii. For implementation of basic objectives of states- Trucks and trains operate much closer to populated areas to prevent coalition, accident and consequence ofand release large amount of pollution and noise to the pollution that may arise from them- legislationresidence, barges quietly make their way along isolated involved monitoring that focus on manning,waterways for most of their trip. By contrast, river barges have safety, prevention of collision, salvage.little impact on densely-populated areas. Barge transits are iii. To achievement of certain economic purpose-relatively infrequent because of the large tonnage moved at policy objective under economics from aim toone time. River operations take place in channels away from expand national fleet, boosting of employment ofthe shore, and the engines of a towboat are usually below the national on board foreign ship.water line, which muffles the sound. Surface traffic, both roadand rail, near residential neighborhoods contributes to visual, VII TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT /physical, and psychological barriers that can lead to the CLASSIFICATION OF IWTSfragmentation of those neighborhoods. Reduced socialinteraction, reduced access to other neighborhoods, and River Classification System is n necessary to ensureincreased traffic congestion Traffic congestion can lead to the orderly and efficient control and maintenance of waterways 80
  • 9. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011an inventory of existing infrastructure and transport must be ship with drive diesel ships with high installed power toprepared as the base of a sound classification system. This achieve design service speeds can, in some cases, have ainventory should include numerous quantitative aspects (e.g. minimum bare steerage speed of about 8 knots —quite a highminimum depths, width, and vertical clearance of waterways, speed in confined waters, has remain a challenge for terminalmarking and minimum equipment with navigational aids, and operators [16].number of vessels), as well as qualitative aspects (e.g. the stateof infrastructure and the fleet, transport performance). Data Maneuverability of during ship designs focus more ondifficulties can be often quite substantial. Each waterway class: optimum operation of ships in the Open Ocean, and pay lesI, II, … has its standardized vessel (type, length, beam, attention to operations in confined areas. Ship Control isdraught and carrying capacities to loading draught and important when ships slow to turn, docks, or attached to tugs.minimum height under bridges) or limited standardized Factors contributing to loss of control include slow vesselintegrated barge tow (formation and number of barges in tow, speed, following currents, waves, and cross-wind. Sailboatstotal length of barge tow plus pushboat, total beam of barge traveling under sail require extra maneuvering space. A goodtow, draught of most loaded barge in tow and barge tow navigation channel must accommodate the ships using it. Shipscapacity in loaded state and minimum height under bridges) are controlled by propellers and rudders at the stern. Somecorresponding to the waterway conditions. Classification ships are also equipped with bow thrusters or bow and sternadopted by European Conference of Ministers of Transport thrusters, which aid in control, especially at low speeds. Often,(ECMT) is shown in the Table 9 below [16]. one or more tugs are needed to assist ships in some phases of entering and leaving a port. Vessel operations during navigation channel deepening are required to enhance safety, efficiency, and productivity of waterborne commerce in ports and harbors. TABLE 9 Shallow-draft projects embody similar concerns and often IWTS CLASSIFICATION, SOURCE public recreational access as well. The following as related to Vessel operability is important in channel maintenance work: Classification Type Carrying ECMT classification (maximum vessel capacity(ton (dimensions in metres (nes Beam Lenght Air draft Water draft Navigation system- this include the following port harbor I Small barge 300 5 38.5 3.55 2.2 II Campeenar barge 600 6.6 50 4.2 2.5 operations: III Doctmund-Ems 1,200 8.2 67 3.95 2.5 IV Rhine- Hern 1,350 9.5 80 4.4 2.5 V Large Rhine 2000 11.5 95 6.7 2.7 i. Waterway engineering: Navigation channels, environmental factors, dredging and mapping A. IWTS Vessels Requirements services, shore docking facilities. ii. Marine traffic: Operational rules, aids to The Ship is about port and access to port by optimum navigation, pilot and tug service,size of ships and its associated economics implication can be communications, and vessel traffic services.made available through navigable channel where maintenance iii. Vessel hydrodynamics: Vessel design,dredging is needed. Ship production and condition of channel maneuverability and controllability, humanare out of phase. Economic of large scale and demand has factors, navigation equipment.begot big ship to emerge within a short period of time aftersecond world war- however less attention has been given to the B. Inland waterway channels requirementchannels that will continue to accommodate these ships. Largeships typically maneuver with difficulty in confined areas, and Waterway channel involve the sizing of vessels that will transitchannel width is a critical component of deep-draft channels a waterway, Maintenance dredging Capacity - sediments.The requirements for access and protection in harbors and output and estimates with clear objective to reduce channelports often lead to maintenance of channels and engineered delay accepts big ships; need to be done in environmentalstructures, such as jetties and breakwaters. sustainable manner and optimal efficiency (economically). Quantification of channel require quantifying depth that pave Ship characteristics - Thus as ships are getting bigger, wave for dredging requirement to be determined and this leadthere has been signify technological change link to safe to optimal choice of dredger .generic analysis of navigationmaneuvering and controllability. In reference To this design and environmental and sediment , with Iterative process andhas focused on mitigating issues like large windage associated allowance discounting discussed under the case studies inwith container ships, which can complicate ship taking account of impacts to channel during operations andcontrollability in narrow channels as well as during slow speed during construction.maneuvering; also Limiting speed in channel remain a criticalpart of operational maintenance work Direct-technological Navigation, coastal and geotechnical engineers have a very pronounced problem in regards to this - past design in human 81
  • 10. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 2011activities has been based on aftermath assessment of calamity real-time information about water levels, currents, and otherwhere engineers have dealt with the high level of uncertainty oceanographic and meteorological data from bays and harbors,by conservatively assigning or specifying much larger are available.capacities than the projected demand. This ratio of capacity to C. Transportation Hybrid Process Requirement – Makingpredicted demand is the classical safety factor approach, which Transportation Smarterrequires significant experience levels to be doneright.Complementing, sustainable maintenance balancing wok Hybridizing transportation system will involve:is also Aids to Navigation / Navigation Information. Channeldimensioning requires channel depth and width characteristics: i. Development of a conceptual standard for Ship Control Centre (SCC) Design- i. Channel Depth Characteristics - Channel deepening is considered more important by ii. Development of Advanced Information Processing channel designers, economists and mariners that will enhance efficiency, and safety including alike. human performance by integration of information and ii. Channel Width Characteristics - The main improvement of decision support methods. characteristics of a channel width may be grouped into the following general categories: iii. Verification of Conceptual Standard for SCC and risk a. Channel Layout (i.e., plan view path characteristics of solution accountability for Design vs, Efficiency such as straight and curved sections) and Safety in combination with increased user b. Channel Cross-Section (hydrodynamic characteristics satisfaction. Safety assessment, the risk of a collision, such as depth, width, and side-slopes) many factors supports interoperability and interconnectivity. feed into the determination of the dimensions and iv. Conceptual Standard for ISC Systems including use specifications of channel characteristics of components for a future standard on ISC systems, including guidelines for the preparation of companionThe quality of aids to navigation, type of channel cross standards and conformance classes.section, and current strength impact the required width,experience with ship simulator studies has indicated that v. Harmonized Human-Machine Interface (HMI),traditional channel width design criteria are overly towards contribution to the safety and efficiencyconservative. Navigation is more difficult when channel cross improvements measured in the project.section (overbank depths, channel depth and width) variessignificantly. Bank effects and currents become less vi. Standardized Process Network including use of toolspredictable and extra care is needed for vessel control. required for network performance prediction,Traditional guidance for channel width is the same as for deep- reliability as expresseddraft channels. 8.0 Conclusion B. Environmental sustainability and IWTS Summing it up, building hybrid integrative transportation system that combines land road-water resources is indeed a Sustainability under UN definition emphasize on 4 tier challenge. To achieve success in such transportation artifact,balancing environment, economics, social and development providing the value and benefits require setting of high goalissue that occupied man, the environment he inherited his objectives that can be achieved within designated time, costsurvival, and reliability on continuity of the planet for the right benefit should be clearly defined and performance problemsof future generation. maritime industry need to adjust to the and lifecycle issues should be well addressed, risk mitigated.ways we do things in a world of sensitivity being characterized Information transparency and information sharing throughby sustainability, capacity building, efficiency, optimization of dissemination forum should be planned. The fact thatdevelopment, practice and operations that meets the needs of environmental issue is of global warming, climate change andthe present generation without compromising the ability of ozone depleting is driving today technology touché inlandfuture generation to meet their need. Environmental water transportation system were discussed. Need to adoptsustainability - “environmental issues” under what surround us, new transportation strategy warranted and incorporating oldAs well as difficulties associated with changes to the transportation system with sustainable Inland Waterbathymetry due to dredging or as a resulted in changes in Transportation that mitigate environmental, technical ,water currents or other oceanographic effects or as result of economic, social, safety , ecological requirement undersediment transport and need maintain n them ,sustain our integrative integrated transportation system will provideliving and existence and purpose associated with them. reliable Inland Water Transportation System aggressivelyRequire historical as well as recent and predictive datasets growing state like Terengganu with coastline advance shouldsystem and “Now casts” and predictions of these parameters adopt smart multimodal planning for sustainablewith the use of numerical calculation models that can provides transportation. 82
  • 11. Canadian Journal on Environmental, Construction and Civil Engineering Vol. 2, No. 5, June 20119.0 References 13. Butts, Thomas A. and Dana B. Shackleford.” Impacts of Commercial Navigation on Water Quality in the 1. Rackwitz, R. “How Safe is Safe enough? An Illinois River Channel”. ISWS RR-122. 1992 Approach by Optimization and Life Quality Index”. Proceeding of ASTRANET Conference , 2002 14. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for Water Resources, Water Resources Support Center, 2. B.M.Abbas. River basin development. National Waterways Study, “Analysis of Tycooly,Dublin,1983 Environmental Aspects of Waterway Navigation”, Review Draft, Fort Beloit, VA, April 1980, p227. 3. “Technology development for Environmentally Sound Ships of the 21st Century”. An International 15. AB. Saman Ab. Kader, “Cost Modeling for Inland Perspective. Journal of Marine Science and Waterway Transportation System”, PhD Thesis, Technology, Vol. 1, No.3, 196. Liverpool, July 1997, Pg 186 4. Pittock, B., D. Wratt et al., Australia and New 16. Broils, J.U., “New European norms for size of Zealand. In “Climate Change 2001: Impacts, waterway urgently needed. Hinterland ports” Adaptations, and Vulnerability”. Contribution of ,Rotterdam Europort Delata,1967 Working Group II to the Thirds Assessment Report of the International Panel on Climate Change. 2001: Chapter 12. BIOGRAPHIES 5. Laurel Gascho, Henrike Peichert, and Sarah Renner O.O.Sulaiman is senior lecturer in faculty of maritime “Malaysia /Referral & Comparative experiences / studies and marine science. He is chattered engineer Inland Waterway Transportation System” under UK engineering council. He is expert in risk based Environment and Poverty Networks, February, 2006 deisgn for safety and environemntal compliance of marin system. 6. Mohd. Zamani b.Ahmad “Multimodalism and the Role of Inland Water System as an infrastructure” A.H. Saharuddin is the Dean of Faculty of Maritime studies and Marine Science. He is expert in marine National Seminar on In land Water Transport, policy. KUCHING , Sarawak, 1999 A.S.A. Kader is professor in the faculty of mechanical 7. Osterreichische Wasserstrassen. “Inland engingineerijng. He is expert in Environmental Performance “ RINA, Pg 49, 2007 Inland Water Transportation. 8. Illinois State Water Survey, Department of Energy and Natural Resources, “Impacts of Commercial Navigation on Water Quality in the Illinois River Channel”, Champaign, IL, 1992. 9. Eastman, S.E. “Fuel Efficiency in Freight Transportation”, The American Waterway Operators, Inc., Arlington, VA, June, 1980, p.7. 10. National Waterways Foundation. “U.S. Waterways Productivity”. A Private and Public Partnership, Huntsville, AL, 1983, PP* 165-167. 11. Malaysian Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. “Malaysia initial national communication“. United nation Framework convention on climate change. July, 2000. 12. http://www.terengganu.gov.my/v5/bm/ 83