Digestive glands

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Digestive glands

  1. 1. DIGESTIVE GLANDS Salivary glands Liver Pancreas
  2. 2. DIGESTIVE GLANDS Pats of GIT ASSOCIATED GLANDSEctoderm •Anterior ORAL CAVITY Salivary glandsEndoderm •Middle DUODENUM Liver, Pancreas •Posterior
  3. 3. DIGESTIVE GLANDS GENERAL CHARACTERISTICSType of structure – parenchymal lobulated organsParenchyma – specialised epithlium: Epithlium forms: - Secretory part - Duct systemStroma – Connective tissue - Capsule (DCT) - Interlobular septae (LCT) with triades - Intralobular LCT (with calillaries)
  4. 4. SALIVARY GLANDS End- pieces: 1 - Serous - Mixed - Mucous2 3 Duct system -Intercalated 4 -Striated -Interlobular -Common FUNCIONS OF SALIVA 1. Digection (enzymes) – serous end-pieces 2. Protection of oral mucosa (mucines) – mucous end-pieces 3. Defence (immunoglobulines,microbicidic proteins) – serous end-pieces, plasmocytes in stroma 4. Regeneration of oral mucosa (growth factors) - ducts 5. Teeth homostasis (pH, pellicula proteins) – striated duct
  5. 5. LIVER1. Parenchymal lobulated organs2. Stroma – capsule + LCT (weak)3. Parenchyma – specialised epithlium:4. Structural unit – lobule5. Lobule – polyhedral with central vein in ceter BLOOD CIRCULATION IN LIVER Befor lobule Hepatic artery - - - - - - - - interlobular artery Portal vein - - - - - - - - - - - -interlobular vein Inside lobule Sinusoidal capillaries - - - - central vein (venule) After lobule - Collecting vein - - - - - - - - hepatic veins
  6. 6. HOW TO FIND HEPATIC LOBULE???1. Central vein in center of lobule2. Boundaries of lobule are triades- Interlobular artery- Interlobular vein- Interlobular bile duct3. Epithelium forms plates.4. Plates are arrenged radially – to centre5. Between plates the sinusoidal capillaries are located
  7. 7. HOW TO FIND HEPATIC LOBULE? DIAGNOSTICS
  8. 8. HEPATIC LOBULE ZONES1. Central – is ALTERED UNDER HEART FAILURE2. Peripheral - is ALTERED UNDER INTOXICATIONBlood flow - to centre (pO2)At periphery – terminal plate – immature cells (regeneration) HEPATIC FUNCTIONS 1. Metabolism of Ch and Lipids 2. Production of plasma proteins (albumins, transporters, blood cloting factors) 3. Pigment metabolism (bilerubine) 4. Bile production 5. Detoxication
  9. 9. HEPATOCYTES -Cuboidal cell -Round N -Oxyphilic cytoplasm (LM) -RER, SER, GA -Lysosomes, Peroisomes -Mch, Inclusions -Between Hc – bile capillar1. LIGHT (Smooth ER, Peroxisomes – Ch/L metabolism, detoxication)2. DARK (RER, Golgi apparatus – protein synthesis) Poles of hepatocyte
  10. 10. STROMAL CELLS IN LIVER PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY Disse`s space cells-Enfotheium (no BM, gaps)-Kupffer cells – macrophges – defence (induce inflammation, fibrosis)- Big granulated lymphocytes (NK) – antitumor defence- Lipocytes - accumulation of vitA, E, D; production of reticular fibres
  11. 11. PANCREAS1. Parenchymal lobulated organs2. Stroma - capsule - interlobular septae + Triade - intralobular LCT + capillaries3. Parenchyma – specialised epithlium:4. Two pats: - exocrine (97%) – acini + ducts - endocrine (3%) – islets
  12. 12. EXOCRINE PANCREAS - SOURCE OF ENZYMES 1. Strucutral unit - acinus 2. Acinus includes - acinicytes – secretory cells - centroacinar cells – beginning of intercalated duct 3. Two zones in acinoctes - homogenic - zymogenic 4. Ducts produce fluid with bicarbonatesDIGESTION IN GUT ALWAYSACCOMPANIED WITHPANCREATIC JUICEPRODUCTION
  13. 13. PANCREAS REGULATION1. Autonomic NS – n. vagus – Ach2. Gut endocrine cells- I-cells- S-cells- D- cells- D1- cells- EC- cells3. Pancreatic islets- D-cells- PP-cells4. Glucose level in blood- Food uptake- Liver function- Muscles work
  14. 14. ENDOCRINE ISLETSEndocrine cells- A-cells – GLUCAGONE- B-cells - INSULINE- D- cells – SOMATOSTATINE- D1- cells – VIP- PP- cells – PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE

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