Project-based and Problem-based learning


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This presentation describes these two instructional models and discusses their similarities and differences.

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  • physical model• theory• multimedia project• Web site• video or radio program• lesson for younger learners• computer program• robot• hypermediaThe artifact, then, is an observable and discussable object or process that reflects the knowledge and understanding the learner is designing.McGrath (2003). Learning and Leading with Technology 30(5)
  • Peers parents, panel of engineers9th grade physicsTesting wing structures wing design portfolioLearning that results in demonstration of performanceBe able to be functioning adultsLearn this when you need it Put the kids in a position where you’re going to use the knowledge that they get (Seymour Pappert)ExpertsLearning from errorsPresentation to experts
  • ----- Meeting Notes (7/12/13 11:36) -----high school videowhat they know and what they don't knowSelf-guidedAuthenticApply learning to an actual case scenarioExploring areas of their own interestGo down avenues of their choiceExtend their knowledgeSelf-guidedHow they started and at the endEnlightened that they were able to make itMaking it realEmpowering
  • ----- Meeting Notes (7/12/13 11:36) -----authenticityProblem-based
  • Sources
  • Modeling: providing examples, showing the reasoning process. (of an expert )Coaching: motivate, provide feedback, provoke reflectionScaffolding: adjust task difficulty to support learning, guide, facilitate, help them overcome obstacles ,help them build on prior knowledge, provide feedback through individual or group meetingsWebsitesBooks, book titlesList of experts or sources of experts
  • Project-based and Problem-based learning

    1. 1. Project-based & Problem-based Learning Suha R. Tamim, EdD Michael M. Grant, PhD
    2. 2. What are they? Instructional models Provide guidelines and methods To facilitate the learning process To design instruction
    3. 3. What is their outcome? Project-based learning Artifact Problem-based learning Solution
    4. 4. Project-based Learning How To
    5. 5. Set the stage - Anchor the activity Trafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad. Almost every country in the world is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination for victims. Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime at Human Trafficking
    6. 6. Task or guiding question Create a “artifact” to create awareness on the seriousness of the human trafficking problem in the world in your community.
    7. 7. Process or investigation • Search the library • Search the Web • Ask experts • Analyze, evaluate, synthesize Research, prediction, explanation, synthesis, evaluation
    8. 8. Discussion with peers and/or experts Brainstorming, negotiating, collaborating, resolving conflicts, etc.
    9. 9. Creation of artifact Source:
    10. 10. Presentation of Artifact Source: Source: introduction-video
    11. 11. Project-based learning example Source:
    12. 12. Problem-based Learning How To
    13. 13. Students are presented with a problem Source:
    14. 14. Groups of 5-8 students reason through a problem Source:
    15. 15. Generate hypotheses • El Niño is (not) the cause of weather anomalies • The anomalies do cause strange weather patterns • The anomalies will have a negative effect on fishing yields. • Educating fishermen about it can help alleviate the negative impacts in fishing
    16. 16. Identify what they know and what they need to know Source:
    17. 17. Search for the information needed (self- directed study) Source:
    18. 18. Share what they have learned with the group Source:
    19. 19. Assess their progress until they resolve the problem Source:
    20. 20. Summarize their learning Source:
    21. 21. Students present their solution and their learning Source:
    22. 22. Problem-based learning example Source:
    23. 23. Problem-based learning example Source:
    24. 24. Characteristics of the project or problem
    25. 25. Authenticity • Resembles real-life problems or tasks • Ill-structured versus well-structured • Engages the student in the same thinking process as experts and professionals • Personally relevant and meaningful to the learner • Multiple perspectives • Multiple outcomes • Social
    26. 26. Collaboration • Group work • Peer reviews • Collaboration with experts • Negotiations • Conflict resolution • Giving and receiving help • Building communication and management skills
    27. 27. Reflection • Journal • Blog • Debriefing • Verbalize and articulate their thinking • Assess their learning • Identify mistakes and make corrections
    28. 28. Facilitation • Modeling • Coaching • Scaffolding • Providing resources • How much? • Prior knowledge of subject-matter • Skill level with PBLs
    29. 29. Assessment Project-based leaning • Formative and Summative • Individual and group • Multiple products • Assess critical thinking, planning, organizing the activity, and artifact Problem-based learning • Formative and Summative • Individual and group • Multiple forms • Assessing the solution and the analytic and investigative process
    30. 30. Assessment tools Informal conversations Debriefing sessions Progress reports Student reflections Journal entries Self-assessment Peer assessment Rubrics Portfolios
    31. 31. Constructivism Role of Students • Construct their own knowledge • Self-directed • Work on meaningful tasks • Actively think about their learning • Learn in a social setting Role of Teacher • Select authentic tasks • Structure the lesson/activity • Model • Coach • Scaffold • Provide feedback • Move learner from novice to expert
    32. 32. Orchestration Image courtesy of Iamnee at Constructivis m Selection of topic Design Assessment Management Collaboration
    33. 33. Planning • Start with the end in mind: Learning Objectives Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Knowledge
    34. 34. Planning • Start with the end in mind • Select the problem or task • Select and design assessment (methods and content) • Plan the activity • Set guidelines for students • Provide resources for students
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    41. 41. Main Course, Not Dessert (Larmer & Mergendoller , 2010) Project-based Learning Problem-based Learning
    42. 42. References • Grant, M.M. (2002). Getting a grip on project-based learning: theory, cases, and recommendations. Meridian: A Middle School Computer Technologies Journal, 5(1). Retrieved May 15, 2002 from • Hmelo-Silver, C.E. (2004). Problem-Based Learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235-266 • Hung, W., Jonassen, D. H., & Liu, R. (2007). Problem-based learning. In J.M. Spector, D. Merrill, J.V. Merrienboer, & M.P. Driscoll (Eds). Handbook of research on educational communication and technology (3rd ed.,pp. 485-506). New York: Taylor & Francis Group. • Jonassen, D. H. (2011). Learning to solve problems: a handbook for designing problem-solving learning environments. New York: Routledge. • Kim, D., & Lee, S. (2002). Designing Collaborative Reflection Supporting Tools in e-Project –Based Learning Environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 13(4), 375-392. • Larmer, J., & Mergendoller, J.R. (2010). The main course, not dessert: how are students reaching 21st century goals? With 21st century project based learning. Retrieved from • Tamim, S. R. , & Grant, M. M. (2013). Definitions and Uses: Case Study of Teachers Implementing Project-based Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 7(2). 
Available at: 5015.1323