Verb TenseVerb TenseTense denotes the time of the action indicatedTense denotes the time of the action indicatedby a verb. The time is not always the sameby a verb. The time is not always the sameas that indicated by the name of the tense.as that indicated by the name of the tense.
6 Types6 TypesVerb TensesPresent Past FutureFuturePerfectPastPerfectPresentPerfect
Present TensePresent Tense Present tense may expressPresent tense may expressaction which is going on at theaction which is going on at thepresent time or which occurspresent time or which occursalways, repeatedly, or habitually.always, repeatedly, or habitually. Examples: HeExamples: He seessees the train.the train.HeHe eatseats cereal for breakfastcereal for breakfastevery day.every day.
Past TensePast Tense Past tense expresses actionPast tense expresses actioncompleted at acompleted at a definitedefinite time intime inthe past.the past. Examples: HeExamples: He wrotewrote the letterthe letteryesterday. Sheyesterday. She livedlived to be 90to be 90years old.years old.
Future TenseFuture Tense Future tense expresses actionFuture tense expresses actionwhich will take place in thewhich will take place in thefuture.future. It uses the helping verbsIt uses the helping verbs willwill ororshall*shall* and the present tenseand the present tenseform of the verb).form of the verb). Examples: HeExamples: He will sendwill send thetheletter tomorrow. Iletter tomorrow. I shall waitshall wait herehereuntil you return.until you return. * Traditionally,* Traditionally, shallshall is used foris used for11ststperson andperson and willwill for 2for 2ndndand 3and 3rdrdpersons.persons.
Present Perfect TensePresent Perfect Tense Present perfect tense expresses actionPresent perfect tense expresses actioncompleted at the present time (perfectcompleted at the present time (perfectmeans complete) or begun in the past andmeans complete) or begun in the past andcontinuing into the present.continuing into the present. This tense uses the helping verbsThis tense uses the helping verbs hashas andandhavehave and the past participle of the verb.and the past participle of the verb. Examples:Examples: HeHe has writtenhas written a letter to his uncle. (completeda letter to his uncle. (completedaction)action) The WaltonsThe Waltons have livedhave lived here for seven years.here for seven years.(continuing)(continuing)
Past Perfect TensePast Perfect Tense Past perfect tense expressesPast perfect tense expressesaction completedaction completed beforebefore certaincertaintime in the past. (This is thetime in the past. (This is thebeforebefore-past tense.)-past tense.) It uses the helping verbIt uses the helping verb hadhad andandthe past participle of the verb.the past participle of the verb. Example: SheExample: She had writtenhad written thetheletter before I saw her.letter before I saw her.
Future Perfect TenseFuture Perfect Tense Future perfect tense expressesFuture perfect tense expressesaction which will be completedaction which will be completedbefore a certain time in thebefore a certain time in thefuture. (This is thefuture. (This is the beforebefore-future-futuretense)tense) It uses the helping verbsIt uses the helping verbs willwillhavehave oror shall haveshall have and the pastand the pastparticiple of the verb.participle of the verb. Example: HeExample: He will have finishedwill have finishedthe paper before next Friday.the paper before next Friday.
Regular VerbsRegular Verbs Regular verbs form their pastRegular verbs form their pasttense and past participle bytense and past participle byadding –ed or –d to theiradding –ed or –d to theirpresent tense form.present tense form. More than 95% of all EnglishMore than 95% of all Englishverbs are regular.verbs are regular. Regular verbs cause fewRegular verbs cause fewproblems in speaking andproblems in speaking andwriting.writing.
Regular verbs and theirRegular verbs and theirPrincipal PartsPrincipal PartsPrincipalPrincipalParts:Parts:Verb:Verb:PresentPresentTenseTensePresentPresentParticipleParticiplePastPastTenseTensePastPastParticipleParticipleTo callTo call call,call,callscallscallingcalling calledcalled (have)(have)calledcalledTo dustTo dust dust,dust,dustsdustsdustingdusting dusteddusted (have)(have)dusteddusted
Irregular VerbsIrregular Verbs Irregular verbs can form theirIrregular verbs can form theirpast tense and past participlepast tense and past participleforms in various way.forms in various way. These forms cause even nativeThese forms cause even nativespeakers innumerablespeakers innumerableproblems.problems. The most irregular verb of all isThe most irregular verb of all isthe verbthe verb to beto be.. Another irregular verb that isAnother irregular verb that isimportant for its use with otherimportant for its use with otherverbs is the verbverbs is the verb to haveto have..
Four Principal/Main PartsFour Principal/Main PartsPrincipalPrincipalParts:Parts:Verb:Verb:PresentPresentTenseTensePresentPresentParticipleParticiplePastPastTenseTensePastPastParticipleParticipleTo BeTo Be be, am,be, am,are, isare, isbeingbeing was,was,werewere(have)(have)beenbeenTo HaveTo Have have,have,hashashavinghaving hadhad (have)(have)hadhad
Other Common IrregularOther Common IrregularVerbs and their Principal PartsVerbs and their Principal PartsPrincipalPrincipalPartPartVerbVerbPresentPresentTenseTensePresentPresentParticipleParticiplePast TensePast Tense PastPastParticipleParticipleTo seeTo see see,see,seesseesseeingseeing sawsaw (have)(have)seenseenTo doTo do do, doesdo, does doingdoing diddid (have)(have)donedoneTo flyTo fly fly, fliesfly, flies flyingflying flewflew (have)(have)flownflownTo runTo run run, runsrun, runs runningrunning ranran (have)(have)runrun
ConjugationConjugation A conjugation of a verb is theA conjugation of a verb is thecorrect arrangement of its formcorrect arrangement of its formthrough its tenses, persons, andthrough its tenses, persons, andnumbers.numbers. PersonPerson means the speaker, themeans the speaker, theperson spoken to, and theperson spoken to, and theperson or thing spoken of.person or thing spoken of. NumberNumber means singular ormeans singular orplural.plural.
Conjugation of the verb:Conjugation of the verb: to beto beTenseTense SingularSingular PluralPluralPresentPresent I amI amYou areYou areHe, she, it isHe, she, it isWe areWe areYou areYou areThey areThey arePastPast I wasI wasYou wereYou wereHe wasHe wasWe wereWe wereYou wereYou wereThey wereThey wereFutureFuture I shall beI shall beYou will beYou will beHe will beHe will beWe shall beWe shall beYou will beYou will beThey will beThey will bePresent PerfectPresent Perfect I have beenI have beenYou have beenYou have beenHe has beenHe has beenWe have beenWe have beenYou have beenYou have beenThey have beenThey have beenPast PerfectPast Perfect I had beenI had beenYou had beenYou had beenHe had beenHe had beenWe had beenWe had beenYou had beenYou had beenThey had beenThey had beenFuture PerfectFuture Perfect I shall have beenI shall have beenYou will have beenYou will have beenHe will have beenHe will have beenWe shall have beenWe shall have beenYou will have beenYou will have beenThey will have beenThey will have been