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Women Empowerment

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  • 1. Empowerment of Women
  • 2. Definition, Need, National Laws & Policies Facts and Issues & Trends Recommendations and Conclusion
  • 3. ++++++++++  The empowerment of a person or group of people is the process of giving them power and status in a particular situation (Collins Dictionary).  Holistic (Political, Social and Economic); Universal (equal opportunity and level playing field); Participative and Inclusive (Anjali Goyal 2005)  Awareness/consciousness, choice/alternatives, resources, voice, agency and participation (Charmes & Wieringa 2003).  Power implies ability to make choices (Kabeer 2001:08)
  • 4. Economical Social Women Development Political Educational
  • 5.  The principle of gender equality or equal right for women is enshrined in the Indian Constitution  The Constitution empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women.  One-third reservation for Women in the urban and Local SelfGovernment.  Free and compulsory education- a justifiable right for all children between the age group of 6-14 years.  The National Commission for Women ,1990  National Policy for Women Empowerment (2001)advancement, development and empowerment of women
  • 6.  The Global Gender Gap Index 2012 (World Economic Forum2012) indicate that the current situation of gender gaps as alarming Economic Participation and Opportunity Educational Attainment (Rank 123) (Rank 121) Details of Gender Gap Index- 2012 (Out of 135 countries) Political Empowerment Health and Survival (Rank 17) (Rank 134) Source: World Economic Forum (2012) Global Gender gap Index- 2012. p10-11)
  • 7.  33% Reservation for Women - The Women's Reservation Bill, passed by Rajya Sabha in March 2010, is currently pending in Lok Sabha.  The disproportionate sex ratio at birth has not changed over the past years (WEF,2012).  Women comprise 48.3% of India’s population but only 26.1% of employed persons (Indian Census 2011;)  80% of rural women are engaged in agricultural production but only 9% own land (Ministry of Rural Development; 4b: Indian National Sample Survey 2002) On equal economic opportunities and women’s participation in the labour force, India ranked 127th and 122nd respectively (WEF 2012)  Only 10% of ministerial positions and 11% of seats in the Parliament are occupied by women (UN Women’s Progress of the World’s Women, 2011-2012)
  • 8.  Trapped in Social & Cultural Practices • Powerless to make essential life-choices, dominant behaviours and mindsets , inequalities within households (deep-rooted patriarchy, early marriage and pregnancy, household chores, elderly care, son preference, violence against women, discriminatory attitudes, compromised general and reproductive health, years of suppression and deprivation borne by women across communities.  Education• Poor infrastructure; lack of non-formal educational systems  Economic Participation and Opportunity • Denied autonomy, mobility, informal sector, low skill, double burden of labour, risk of exploitation, labour intensive, invisible, unrecognised, unremunerated.  Inequalities in Political power • Access to decision-making, representation, governance, differences in legal status and entitlements etc.
  • 9.  Others • Inclusiveness - measure/assess and absence of latest as well as sex/gender disaggregated data. • Significant gaps In spite of the effective implementation of all the above schemes and programmes, between policy achievements and actual practice at the community level. understanding the needs of the women- evidence based, context specific effective practices. • Lack of coordination- Between different government bodies (Dasra report)
  • 10.  Economic Inclusion: increasing income generating potential; vocational training, financial literacy  Social Achievement: delayed marriage and pregnancy; encompass reproductive and general health,  Increasing access to Education: for e.g.: the Zomba cash transfer scheme in Malawi for increasing girl’s attendance at school (World Bank)  Changes in institutions and legal frameworks,  Changes in political decision-making structures.  Promoting girl’s agency: a sense of self worth or self-efficacy  Engaging youth- appropriate information and support  Mobilizing communities: Kenya, ChildFund international program to book girls for school  Training Public workers: teacher and public health workers  Enhancing access to existing government support: increasing awareness of support programs, promoting co-ordination between ministries and departments; creating a referral system; generating demand for services.  Strong tracking mechanism: foundation for effective policies; further developing a long term impact for e.g.: MAMTA, Pathfinder.  Building network and consortia: spread best practices among geographies, account specific needs of the community, develop & strengthen network with relevant partner
  • 11.  Ministries/Departments, Commissions, and Civil Society Organizations to facilitate convergence at different levels.  Institutional development/capacity-building  Creating an enabling environment.  Behavioral change communication  Changes in attitudes and relationships: redefine gender roles and relational issue.
  • 12.  Gender equality and women’s empowerment: two sides of the same coin.  Institutional changes: Needed in civil society, the media, political parties, legislatures and the judicial system in order to support women’s policy agendas and to make the transition from policy to practice.  Honour constitutional commitments.  Long term process: We have to accept the fact that things are not going to change overnight; we cannot stop taking action.  A wide gap: between the goals enunciated in development measures and related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status of women in India, on the other.  Need for society changes its attitude: instigate a behavioural and attitudinal change in the larger society towards women.  Stringent Execution: No doubt the government of India has many weapons to fight for women empowerment, the prompt and strict implementation is quite essential. Unless the Acts, Policies, Rules, Regulations etc, are strictly implemented the idea of women empowerment remains unachieved. Hence the efforts of the government are still inadequate and the process of empowering women in India is long way to go.  Awareness, Understanding and Action: The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking