► Catastrophic situation in which the normal pattern of life or ecosystem
has been disrupted and extraordinary emergency interventions are
required to save and preserve lives and or the environment (Ministry of
Home Affairs 2012).
► The occurrence of sudden or major misfortune which disrupts the basic
fabric and normal functioning of the society or community (United
► Preparedness: activities prior to a disaster (long-term; all-hazard, culturally
sensitive and specific; multi-sectoral; part of a larger risk reduction program;
comprehensive application of sustainable development
For Instance- preparedness plan; emergency exercise/ training; warning
► Response: activities during a disaster
For Instance- public warning systems; emergency operations; search
► Recovery: activities following a disaster
For Instance- temporary housing; claims processing and grants; longterms medical care and counseling
► Mitigation: activities that reduces the effects of disasters.
For Instance- building codes and zoning; vulnerability analysis; public
► Community Based
Organization’s (catalysts in their communities and
intermediaries between all stakeholders; the most advantageous and
appropriate position to provide and deliver necessities and services to
communities affected by disaster; sensitivity to and Awareness of Cultural and
Local Contexts )
► Donors (Primary role lies in the provision of funds and resources to carry out
relief, recovery and rehabilitation efforts)
► Local Community (all immediate life-saving actions and initial emergency
support in the first few days are provided by local people, often assisted by the
wider public and national institutions)
► Local Governments
► Others (International aid agencies, private and public foundations)
Water and climate related disasters
(Floods, Cyclones, Cloudburst, Drought, Tsunami, Hurricanes etc.)
Geological related disasters (Landslides and mudflows; Earthquakes; Dam
failures/ Dam bursts; Minor fires)
Chemical, industrial and nuclear related disasters (Chemical and industrial
disasters; Nuclear disasters, industrial accidents)
Accident related disasters (Forest fires, Urban fires, Mine flooding, Oil
spills, Major building collapse, Serial bomb blasts etc.)
Biological related disasters (Biological disasters and epidemics, Pest
attacks, Cattle epidemics, Food poisoning).
(Source: High Powered Committee Report-1999)
► India is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world
► India’s Vulnerability Profile
60% of India’s landmass is susceptible to earthquakes; over 8% prone to
68% of the area is susceptible to drought
Over 70% prone to cyclones
70% of the land under cultivation is prone to drought
2.25% of the Gross Domestic Product has been eroded by disasters
► The need to consider disaster risk as a developmental issue was emphasised for
the first time in our Tenth Five Year Plan which covered the period 2002 to 2007.
► Economic loss is accounted for 2% of the GDP due to disasters as per the study of
the World Bank.
► Mainstreaming of Disaster Risk Reduction in Developmental Strategy –
DRR should be seen as an integral part of environment and development.
► Analysis- The impending risk analysis should be done in the light of disasters
and possible threat of high intensity disasters.
► Plan formulation- Accordingly, mitigation and adaptation programmes
should be developed.
► Mitigation Plan -The mitigation plan should address the issues of structural
and non-structural interventions along with the fiscal and monetary tools (for
DRR & adaptation) for pre and post disaster planning.
Development- If this is main streamed, sustainable
development can be attained and miseries of the people could be minimised.
► Linkages- The top down and bottom up institutional linkages for policy
formulation and programme execution would be interdependent with each
► In sum, development cannot be sustainable without mitigation being built
into the developmental process.
► Lack of Online Inventory of Emergency Resources- early warning system
network and its close monitoring
► Lack of Database- Lack of integrated efforts to collect and compile
data, information and local knowledge on disaster history and traditional
► Cross-sectoral linkages- lacking mechanisms for integrating the
scientific, technological and administrative agencies for effective disaster
Vulnerability of critical infrastructures- power supply, communication, water
supply, transport, health , sanitation etc)
Strategy- Absence of a National Disaster Management Plan, and State level and
district level disaster management plans.
Geographical Planning- Preparedness and Mitigation very often ignored.
► Inadequate emergency medicine, critical care medicine, triage, first aid
► Disaster management is not the priority.
► No clear disaster-management policy
► Disaster Management Cell- neither well-equipped nor has the resources to
combat any untoward situations.
► Economy is considered more important than ecology. But in reality, the
economy depends on the health of the ecology.
► Lessons learnt:
Prevent mushrooming of new development
settlements in environmentally sensitive areas
Be Prepared : Preparedness and Mitigation is bound to yield
more effective returns than distributing relief after a
Create a Culture of Preparedness and Prevention.
Evolve a code of conduct for all stake-holders
► Shifting Paradigm
► Funding Priorities-Primacy of relief as disaster response.
► Invest in Assessment- Investments in Preparedness and Prevention (Mitigation)
will yield sustainable results, rather than spending money on relief after a
► Increased Capacity building - leads to faster vulnerability reduction.
► Mobilize Local Informants and Resource Persons and to refine strategies
► Encourage Sustainability and Independence – Moving Beyond Monetary Benefits
► Utilize and Respect Local Systems- Programs and interventions should not
disturb the local social, political, cultural and economic setup of the affected
reliable information and communication network- Terrestrial
communication links which collapse in the event of a rapid onset disaster.
► Access and Measure data- Need for standardized efforts in compiling and
interpreting geo-spatial data, satellite imagery and early warning signals.
► Sustainability of efforts - Coordinated efforts among stakeholders (different
central ministries, state governments, the corporate sector, academic
institutions, civil societies and citizens at large.)
► Mobilize and train disaster volunteers: NSS, NCC, Scouts and Guides, Civil
► Anticipatory Governance: Simulation exercises, Mock drills and Scenario
► Knowledge Management: Documentation and dissemination of good practices;
encourage information and knowledge sharing.
► Advocacy and Lobbying- Continuing efforts towards advocacy and lobbying
with the government and the media.
► Support local initiatives
► Flexibility is critical
► Seek local knowledge and assessment
► Invest towards long-term social needs of affected communities
► Information and Communication Technologies (Internet, GIS, Remote
Sensing, Satellite communication etc.)
► Adopt conservation and development in an eco sensitive manner
► Increasing the coping capacities of the communities at large and making them
resilient to the impacts of disasters
► Every stakeholder involved needs to contribute his bit in order to ensure that
the increasing hazards, risks & associated vulnerabilities get addressed in a
planned and systematic manner