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    • HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLES – NEED OF THE HOUR .PRESENTED BY . . .o SUGANDHA CHAWLAo JAYA BALWANIo DHARIKA BALWANI COLLEGE - JHULELAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ,LONARA, NAGPUR .
    • • Fuel Cell• Hydrogen  Production  Storage  Design & Engineering• Vehicles  Automobiles  Buses  Bicycles  Rocket  Aircrafts• Criticism• Conclusion
    • WHAT IS A FUEL CELL ?• A Fuel cell is an electro chemicalcell that converts chemical energy ofa fuel into electrical energy.• Electricity is generated due to fueland oxidising agent.• The reactants flow into the cell andthe reaction products flow out of it,while the electrolyte remains withinit.• Fuel cells can operate continuously .• Fuel cells are different fromconventional electrochemical cells
    • HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLE• A hydrogen fuel cell uses hydrogen as its fuel and oxygen as its oxidant.• A hydrogen vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power.• The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical
    • SOURCES
    • STORAGE• Hydrogen has a very less volumetric energydensity at ambient conditions .• A Recent study by Dutch researcher RobinGremaud has shown that metal hydridehydrogen tanks are actually 40-60 lighter thanan equivalent energy battery pack on an electricvehicle permitting greater range for H2 cars.• Two storage options . 1. Direct hydrogen . 2. Onboard fuel processor.
    • INFRASTRUCTURE• The hydrogen infrastructureconsists mainly of industrialhydrogen pipeline transportand hydrogen-equipped fillingstations like those found on ahydrogen highway.• The California hydrogenhighway is an initiative to builda series of hydrogen refuelingstations along that state.
    • Design & Engineering• Fuel cells come in many varieties; however, they all work in the same general manner. They are made up of three segments which are sandwiched together: the anode, the electrolyte, and the cathode.• Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments.
    • DESIGN & ENGINEERING
    • WHY HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS ?• Aspects of engines as well as batteries.• Estimates that FC Vehicles can achieve equivalent of 80 miles/gallon gasoline.• PEMFCs idea for light- duty vehicles, buildings and much small apllications.• High efficiency, zero emission.
    • VEHICLES  Many companies are currently researching the feasibility of building hydrogen cars, and some automobile manufacturers have begun developing hydrogen cars  Pearl Hydrogen Power Sources of Shanghai, China, unveiled a hydrogen bicycle at the 9th China International Exhibition on Gas Technology, Equipment and Applications in 2007.  Companies such as Boeing, Lange Aviation, and the German Aerospace Center pursue hydrogen as fuel for manned and unmanned airplanesOTHER APLLICATIONS is in Buses, Submarines , Space travel , and combined
    • CRITICISM• Storage is complicated• Limited range• Expensive fuel• Still a fossil fuel?  Energy carrier, not energy source• *Infrastructure*• Politics• Fuel cell overheating
    • NUTSHELL• Hydrogen is the only type of energy that can provide wholesale substitute for foreign oil within a decade.• Clean, twice as efficient as internal combustion , and plentiful.• Though hydrogen is an energy carrier and not energy source , there are wide range of sources like wind, solar energy, nuclear energy, electrolysis of water and methane from which hydrogen is produced.