Seminar Using Songs to Improve VocabularyProduction of Low English Proficiency Students By Tam Suet Yet (GS 26565)
Chapter 1 Introduction:- Background of study Malaysians have been urged to be conversant in English in order to secure prospective jobs in the private sector. However, there is a wide gap between the policies which many know are about encouraging English learning as well as usage and the real teaching and learning along with the support provided (Koo & Hazita, 2010). In the process of completing the syllabus and having a washback effect teaching practices in the limited time of formal instruction at school, students especially those whose exposure to English is only limited to school lessons do not get the appropriate chance and support in developing their English language.- Vocational Schools Students in vocational schools are usually substandard as they are viewed to be weaker in academic because of the minimum requirement needed to enter. Based on an application requirement booklet for 2010 intake, only students taking Computer Programming has the minimum requirement to get a B for English. The other vocational subjects need the minimum level of D or below depending on which subjects from the PMR result that students would like to submit as a prerequisite for entering their elective choices (Kementerian
Statement of problem 1. Students are not able to answer questions and communicate in English with their English teachers. Students generally understand simple English instructions and explanations used by their English teachers but will not use the language to communicate or respond. 2. Students do not have enough English vocabulary to send across their message and meaning if they were to respond in the target language. Moreover, the response (if any) in English are usually of simple or limited to one to two word answers. 3. Students are highly thought to be not confident in speaking the language. It is found that the students find it awkward to verbalize the English words. Aim of Study1. Is there an improvement in students’ capability to communicate in English before and after treatment?2. Will the different genres exposed to the students affect students’ interests in English vocabulary production?3. Will the different themes of songs used affect students’ English vocabulary production
Significance of Study i. Education system ii. Teachers iii. Students• Definition of Terms i. Songs –Songs are usually related to another keyword which is music. While music is the art or combining instruments and voices to produce a score, songs are specifically the scores with the lyrics for singing purposes (Hawkins, Weston & Swanell, 1992). In this case study, the songs are narrowed down to the nine popular songs chosen for the low proficient students to develop their productive vocabulary. ii. Theme – In this study, the theme here are the topics found in the Form Four English Textbook. The three topics chosen are:- a) Chapter 1: Portrait of a Young Person b) Chapter 4: Dare To Dream c) Chapter 7: A Culture If Peace iii. Oral Production – Oral production is considered to be the speaking ability for students in communicating to send their message across. In this case study, the speaking ability is more towards the usage of English words or phrases during their discussion on task in class. iv. Low Proficiency Students – There are standard and goals to be achieved by students which are linked to their aptitude in being proficient with the language (Stern, 1992). In that sense, students who are of lower proficiency are students who have not met the standard and goals which in this case study is given the scope as being competent in their language skills; be it reading, writing, speaking and listening which set by the Ministry of Education in the aims and objectives of teaching English as a Second Language to students in Malaysia. v. Vocabulary Production – Counting of each vocabulary that suits to the
Chapter 2 Concepts i. Communication and Speaking Clark (1996) attributes communication as a form of language usage which is operated simultaneously with actions which is coordinated with that of a response from the addressee(s) to convey a meaning. In another words, communication happens when there is a purpose and language is used to transmit that purpose. ii. Receptive VS Productive Vocabulary The size of vocabulary knowledge is when the student understand the primary meaning of the words that he/she has (Nakanishi & Shimamoto, 2003; Nation & Waring, 2007), whereas the depth would be the degree of the student in knowing the various other meanings of a word besides its primary meaning (Nakanishi & Shimamoto, 2003). Generally, it is important to have a large size of vocabulary in order for us to communicate with someone as there will be a misunderstanding in expressing meanings; especially when some words are missing from the communication or used wrongly. iii. Frequency Words The frequency of words in the English language is generally divided into two main categories which are high frequency words and low frequency words. High frequency words are the basic essential words of the language iv. Song and Music Concepts a. Pop b. Rock c. R & B v. Brain studies on songs and language learning This has been proposed by Wallace (1994) where the repetition of phrases or chunks of words in the lyrics as students sang along can help to assist them in recalling for the
Theories- Krashen’s Five Hypothesis Krashen Input Hypothesis - a comprehensible input is important for second language acquisition. Affective Filter Hypothesis - affective filter system influences the student’s readiness on whether they want or need to learn a particular aspect.- Social Constructivism Theory - in learning a new knowledge, an individual will have to have a basis or foundation in order to make sense of the new information being shared with other individuals setting in. this consistent new information will then be assimilated into their understanding; further developing their capacity of knowledge- Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky) - He proposed that the difference of what the child already knows from the potential understanding can be minimize as students collaborate with more competent peers or with the teacher.- Output Hypothesis - language learning will take place if a student writes or speaks- Review of past researches
Research Conceptual Framework Concepts ofTheories Speaking and Communicatio n Intervention/ Treatment of Songs Students’ Low Oral Vocabulary Increase of Oral Vocabular y
Chapter 3 Research design – Quasi Experimental Design Instrument- Vocabulary test- Demographic Survey to know students’ interest towards English songs, English and using English words to talk- Recording of speaking activities to keep track of oral production by the students- Transcription of the English words spoken- Observation checklist to observe students’ work Stage one: i. Vocabulary test to check on vocabulary knowledge ii. Pretest using MUET style for Speaking Test ( Valid and Reliable as a National Standardized Test Stage two: Treatment of 9 lesson plans; each lesson plan 1 song Stage three: i. Vocabulary test to check on any changes towards the vocabulary expansion ii.Post Test using the MUET style.
Sample participantsForm four class with weak results during the Mid Term examination• Data AnalysisUsing SPSS to find on mean and standard deviation for the demographic survey.Descriptive explanation of students’ behaviour during lessonPercentage on the amount of words spoken during pretest and posttest• Research timelineFrom Chapter 1 to Chapter 3 – One month to write drafts and handed in for checking with the supervisor concernedCollection of data – 1 ½ months to implement and collect dataAnalysis of data and Discussion – One month to write and handed in for checking with the supervisor concerned 3 ½ months = One semester of University accodring to UPM’s Academic Calendar
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